LIST OF CORRECTIONS AND OMISSIONS.

Format.


LINE 1.  This gives the IC identity.
  
LINE 2.  Lists the particular Palomar print used by the author for the IC 
identity.
 
LINE 3.  Gives the name of the observer credited with the objects discovery and 
the number as it appears in his lists.  Followed by his Nominal or Corrected 
Nominal positional data precessed to 1950 and 2000 epochs
 
LINE 4.  Consists in the first sentence of my personal findings regarding 
identity.  Followed by how the modern catalogues view the identity and any 
additional information which pertains to the errors or omissions.

The terms NOVA or NOVAE refers to its historical meaning (New discovery), also all 
coordinates listed, other than when specifically noted, have been precessed to 
epoch 1950 using NED's Coordinate and Extinction Calculator.

The term OMISSION refers to those instances in which a catalogue or other source 
lists a particular galaxy but fails to give it the appropriate IC identity.

It should be remembered that for those IC identities shown to be either stars or 
nonexistent, no listing, unless by error, would be expected in the majority of the 
modern galaxy catalogues, however, in the case of both the NGC 2000 and the MOL 
they list all of the original IC identities which does not necessarily mean that 
the authors of both these catalogues considered them all to exist.  Also it should 
be understood that the term "Nonstellar object" or "NSO" when given by the MOL can 
mean Unknown or Unverified.    

References to Carlson are for a particular paper concerning catalogue errors, 
(Carlson 1940.)  
The 3 letters APL refer to the ACCURATE POSITIONS LIST of Dr. Harold Corwin, also 
known as NGC/ICPOS (Version Dated January 16th 2004).

Finally I wish to state although such an identity survey will inevitably turn up 
errors in the works of others I hope that I never get to the point where I 
consider my own conclusions to be beyond challenge.  What I do hope to accomplish 
is to place before the reader one person's findings and conclusions based upon 
those findings.
  
Naturally as one who investigates certain types of errors I would like to think 
that I always arrive at the correct solutions, however, all such previous lists 
contain errors and it will be for others to examine my claims and where necessary, 
correct those which are deemed to be flawed.

It should always be remembered that although this type of survey points out what 
the author considers to be the erroneous data of certain historical and modern 
authorities, the majority of the IC identities  have the correct data and 
rightfully reflect the abilities and renown of those many outstanding nineteenth 
century astronomers whose names are associated with the IC identities.   



CORRECTIONS.

IC 1. 
POSS. 0-779. 
Bigourdan #103.  00hr 05m 52.734s + 27 26' 32.020" (1950).
00hr 08m 27.589s +27 43' 13.968" (2000). 
This is a double star :   Carlson, NGC 2000, APL, Steinicke and MOL all correctly 
describe it as such.  CGCG, PGC, UGC, MCG and RC3 have no listing for it as would 
be expected as these four catalogues are based upon only existing galaxies.  NED 
gives "!**." SIMBAD "Not present in the database.

IC 5.
POSS. O-1193.
Javelle #3.  00hr 15m 02.167s - 09 49' 16.131" (1950).
00hr 17m 35.109s - 09 32' 36.120" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The MCG lists 3 closely associated galaxies, -2-1-45 = Anon.  
00hr 14.7m -09 47'.0, -2-1-46 = Anon 00hr 14.8m -09 49'.0 and -2-1-47 = IC 5 at 
00hr 14.85m -09 50'.0, thus making IC 5 the most following and the most southern 
of the three, however, when Javelle's separation values are measured from his 
reference star DM-10 034 they show that IC 5 is the most following but that it is 
the middle one in declination and NED confirms this positioning. The MCG gives the 
correct order of RA, however, it would appear that their order of declination is a 
typo error and MCG -2-1-47 should have its declination changed to read - 09 48'.0
Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, MOL (NSO) and APL each give the correct identity and order 
of declination.  The NGC 2000 gives the declination as -09 49'.7 using the MCG as 
its reference.  The PGC (#1145), equates it with MCG -2-1-47 and incorrectly gives 
it a declination that makes it the most southern of the 3 galaxies.

IC 14.
POSS. O-823.
Bigourdan #104 :  00hr 19m 56.709s + 10 12 10.909" (1950).  
00hr 22m 31.593s +10 28' 49.072" (2000).
Not found :  Bigourdan made three observations and on the last two was unable to 
see any nebula.  His reference star is equal to AC #202062 and when his offsets 
(+0 tmin 11.60 tsec RA and -2.0 arcmin) are applied to this star they land on a 
blank space, the closest object being a very faint star with an extremely faint 
companion off it's following edge, which lie about 30 arcsec north of his nominal 
position. 
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type),  NED has "!**." SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database." Steinicke (Not found), APL = ** and MOL (NSO).
NOTE :  Corwin has identified as IC 14 a faint double star which 
lies at almost the same declination following the galaxy NGC 95.  Now Bigourdan's 
reference star for his observations of both NGC 95 and IC 14 (made on the same 
night) is equal to AC #202062 and Bigourdan's separation in declination from this 
star for NGC 95 is - 1 arcmin 20.4 arcsec and results in an excellent declination 
for NGC 95, therefore if this double star is what Bigourdan is claiming as being 
his Object #104 why would he then make its declination separation from this same 
reference star be -2 arcmin, or some 39.6 arcsec further south, especially as NGC 
95 would have been easily visible to him at the time he was estimating the 
position for his Object # 104 ?

IC 17.
POSS. O-591.
Javelle #10.  00hr 25m 55.563s + 02 22' 23.892" (1950).
00hr 28m 29.663s + 02 38' 59.384" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The UGC, PGC and MCG have incorrectly identified the Anon. ZWG 
383.021, 00hr 25.4m + 2 14'.0 as being IC 17.  However, the PGC (Corrections) note 
this error.  Correctly identified in the CGCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 
(GX) and MOL (NSO).

IC 20.
POSS. O-1203.
Javelle #13.  00hr 26m 07.784s - 13 17' 08.894" (1950).
00hr 28m 39.674s - 13 00' 33.483" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy : Javelle's reference star DM-13, 81 is given as 00hr 26m 08.033s 
- 13 24' 29.599s (1950), however it is equal to GSC 5268-897 which would have 
coordinates of 00hr 26m 13.846s - 13 24' 04.888" (1950), thus the small error in 
Javelle's coordinates  The NGC 2000 gives as its reference source the MCG and both 
of these have incorrectly assigned a RA to IC 20 that would result in making it 
have a Right Ascension preceding what they give for both IC 18 and IC 19.  The PGC 
commits this same error.  The correct order is to be found in the IC I, MOL, APL, 
SIMBAD, NED and Steinicke.

IC 24.
POSS. O-1244.
Bigourdan #105.  00hr 28m 38.124s + 30 33' 39.072" (1950).
00hr 31m 17.056s + 30 50' 12.858" (2000).
This is a double star :  Bigourdan described it as (A small cluster with perhaps 
some associated nebulosity), however, examination of the Palomar print shows only 
a double star whose components are aligned north preceding south following.  
Dreyer also listed it as "Small cluster, 30-40 arcsec, Nebs?" which probably 
accounts for both the NGC 2000 and MOL typing it as Open Cluster.  APL lists as = 
**, Steinicke (=*2).  NED has "!**." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 26.
POSS. O-1203.
Javelle #18.  00hr 29m 13.987s - 13 36' 47.653" (1950).
00hr 31m 45.613s - 13 20' 13.949" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy. Possibly equal to NGC 135 (Leavenworth #5. A.J. No.146 :   
Leavenworth gave coordinates for his NGC 135 of 00hr 28m 03s - 13 38'.1 which if 
it is equal to IC 26 would mean that Leavenworth's RA has an error of ~ 1 tmin 10 
tsec and he has other credited discoveries with errors of similar amount, 
therefore the prospect is good that IC 26 is indeed a duplicate observation of NGC 
135.
The NGC 2000, APL, PGC, NED and Steinicke all equate the two identities while the 
MOL (NSO) gives no equivalency SIMBAD dies not equate both identities, but gives 
them both comparable coordinates. 

IC 31.
POSS. O-823.
Javelle #508.  0Ohr 31m 48.767s + 11 59' 42.845" (1950).
00hr 34m 24.948s + 12 16' 14.881" (2000). (Part 1 Data).
00hr 31m 48.842s + 12 53' 40.242" (1950).
00hr 34m 24.824s + 13 10' 12.445" (2000). (Part 2 Data).
The only discrepancy involved here is purely of historical interest in that there 
is almost a 1 degree difference in the declination data found between Parts 1 and 
2 of Javelle's catalogue.  Fortunately Dreyer used only the coordinate values 
found in Part 1 which in this case are correct therefore the modern coordinates 
are the proper ones.  Correctly listed in the CGCG, UGC, MCG, RC3, NED, SIMBAD, APL, 
PGC, Steinicke, NGC 2000 and MOL.

IC 39.
POSS. O-1203.
Javelle #28.  00hr 36m 37.224s - 14 26' 44.436" (1950).
00hr 39m 08.170s - 14 10' 15.526" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 178 (Stone).   Stone's given coordinates for NGC 178  are 
00hr 35m 01s - 14 37'.2 which indicate a difference in RA from IC 39 of about 1 
tmin 35 tsec. and about 11 arcmin dec.  Stone describes NGC 178 as "F, S, mE PA 0 
degrees, bM." and this matches the appearance of IC 39 on the DSS print.  NGC 178 
was discovered and measured at the Leander-McCormick Observatory and many of their 
NGC discoveries have large positional errors, therefore it is most probable that 
the two identities are for the same object.
The MCG, NGC 2000, MOL, PGC, APL, Carlson, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke all correctly 
give the equivalency.

IC 41.
POSS. O-884.
Javelle #29.  00hr 37m 09.776s - 14 26' 54.960" (1950).
00hr 39m 40.682s - 14 10' 26.443" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This is a galaxy lying about 4 arcmin north of NGC 207.  The 
MCG incorrectly identifies its -3-2-35 as being IC 41, however, this is NGC 207.  
The PGC is wrong in equating IC 41 with NGC 207, they are separate galaxies.  The 
NGC 2000 has used the MCG as its reference authority and therefore is also 
incorrect.  As an additional error the RNGC has incorrectly placed (R)NGC 207 as 
having a declination of -15 26'.2 (1950) and types it as Class 7 (Non-existent) 
and this has resulted in the MOL also giving an incorrect declination value of -15 
26'.0 (Non-existent).
Steinicke, NED and the APL have the correct identity. SIMBAD has the correct object, 
but equates it with MCG-03-02-035, which is equal to NGC 207 not IC 41.

IC 44.
POSS. O-591.
Swift List X, #1.  00hr 39m 44.464s + 00 36' 10.028" (1950).
00hr 42m 18.368s + 00 52' 36.579" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 223 :  The CGCG, UGC, APL, Steinicke, MCG, NGC 2000 (Gx), NED 
SIMBAD and PGC correctly give the equivalency.  The MOL (NSO) gives each identity 
without any equivalency.

IC 45.
POSS O-1244.
Bigourdan #107.  00hr 39m 56.108s + 29 22' 51.953" (1950).
00hr 42m 36.643s + 29 39' 18.144" (2000).
This is a double star :  Examination of the Palomar print clearly shows two 
galaxies with almost the same right ascension and separated by ~ 3 arcmins in 
declination.  The southern galaxy is IC 43, however, the northern one is not IC 45 
as it is identified in a number of the modern publications.
Bigourdan employed as his reference star BD +29 111 to measure positions for both 
IC 43 and IC 45.  His separation values for IC 43 are -10s RA and + 2 arcmin 
37arcsec Declination and these confirm that the southern object is IC 43.  His 
separation values for his #107 (IC 45) are + 5s RA and + 3arcmin 26arcsec, thus it 
would lie ~ 15s following and 49sec of arc north of IC 43 at which position there 
is only a double star.
Bigourdan gives two observations for his #107.  The first on November 15th, 1889 
in which he states that he only supposes its existence and that his reference star 
lies at a position angle of 210 and a separation of 5 arcmins from it.  He also 
states that the sky was less than ideal and that later he could not see it.  
His second observation was on November 8th, 1899 when he now measures a position 
for B.107 and describes it as like a small cluster, adding that at the exact 
position he referred to in his 1889 observation he was now unable to see anything.
The UGC 00449, MCG +5-2-39, PGC #2537, SIMBAD and RC3 all have incorrectly 
identified the galaxy (ZWG. 500.073) immediately north of IC 43 as being IC 45, 
although the UGC does list it as IC 45?, but this galaxy lies 0.6s following and 
3arcmin 21arcsec north of IC 43, which does not in anyway reflect the separations as 
measured by Bigourdan.  The APL, NED and Steinicke list as (= two stars).  The CGCG 
correctly does not identify any IC 45.  The NGC 2000 lists (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).   

IC 47.
POSS. O-1203.
Javelle #31.  00hr 40m 24.582s - 14 00' 54.150" (1950).
00hr 42m 55.347s - 13 44' 28.105" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Carlson in her CORRECTIONS states "Not found, Helwan." and 
this has probably influenced both the NGC 2000 (?) and MOL (May not exist).  
Correctly identified in the APL, NED and by Steinicke.  Not listed in PGC.     
SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but lists it as LEDA 3093693.

IC 48.
POSS. O-1206.
Barnard.  00hr 41m 04.060s - 08 27' 42.116" (1950).
00hr 43m 36.011s - 08 11' 16.600" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy. Probably = IC 1577  :   The above coordinates are those 
furnished by Barnard in a paper published in the MNRAS LV, 8. page 452. and which 
details his suspicion that the object was subject to brightness variations.
Dreyer's IC I coordinates for this identity are 00hr 41m 03s - 08 09'.2 but in his 
Corrections NGC/IC page 377 Dreyer refers to this paper.
Dr. Corwin in his IC Bugs List give a solid argument that IC 1577 is equal to IC 
48 and he is probably correct. The PGC, NED and Steinicke also make the same 
equivalency.  The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) both have the incorrect 
declination value as given originally by Dreyer.  SIMBAD has the correct object IC 
48, however, it lists IC 1577 as "Not present in the database."
(See IC 1577).

IC 53.
POSS. O-1274.
Swift List X, No.3.  00hr 47m 52.253s + 10 20' 50.229" (1950).
00hr 50m 28.638s + 10 37' 09.758" (2000).
This is a confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the MCG only as +2-3-5.  Correctly listed 
in the CGCG, UGC (Notes), RC3, NGC 2000 (GX.), APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and 
MOL (NSO).

IC 54.
POSS. O-1206.
Spitaler.  00hr 48m 13.389s - 02 33' 49.845" (1950).
00hr 50m 46.531s - 02 17' 30.564" (2000).
This is a close double star :  The components are almost touching and are aligned 
north preceding south following.  
Listed in the MOL as (Open cluster).  The NGC 2000, APL and Steinicke correctly 
list it as a double star.  NED has "!**"  SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 60.
POSS. O-1204.Javelle #37.  00hr 53m 34.357s - 13 37' 41.713" (1950).
00hr 56m 04.306s - 13 21' 27.692" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the MCG only as -2-3-49, this is confirmed by 
Steinicke.  The PGC also identifies this galaxy only as MCG -2-3-49.  Correctly 
identified in the NGC 2000 (Gx), MOL (NSO), NED, SIMBAD and APL.

IC 62.
POSS. O-1274.
Javelle #515.  00hr 56m 06.725s + 11 32' 16.524" (1950).
00hr 58m 43.900s + 11 48' 27.712" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the MCG only as +2-3-21 (This noted in the PGC 
Corrections).  Correctly identified in the CGCG, UGC, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, APL, 
Steinicke, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO).

IC 64.
POSS.O-857.
Javelle #516.  00hr 56m 41.720s + 26 47' 24.247" (1950).
00hr 59m 23.981s + 27 03' 34.664" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in CGCG only as ZWG 480.030.  Correctly identified in 
UGC, MCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, PGC, NGC 2000 (Galaxy) and MOL (NSO).  Not 
listed in RC3.

IC 67.
POSS. O-1206.
Bigourdan #109.  00hr 57m 46.151s - 07 10' 37.692" (1950).
01hr 00m 17.795s - 06 54' 28.193" (2000).
Not found :  Bigourdan was not certain of its nebular character and indeed only 
suspected that it existed at all.  Listed in NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO).  The 
APL gives (Not found).  NED and Steinicke state "Not found." SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database."

IC 68.
POSS. O-1206.
Bigourdan #110.  00hr 57m 49.938s - 07 12' 23.773" (1950).
01hr 00m 21.570s - 06 56' 14.345" (2000).
Not found :  Here again Bigourdan reports that he only suspects its existence.  
NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), APL, NED and Steinicke correctly state "Not found."
SIMBAD "Object of unknown nature."

IC 71.
POSS. O-1206.
Bigourdan #111.  00hr 58m 46.641s - 07 03' 23.935" (1950).
01hr 01m 18.286s - 06 47' 15.569" (2000).
Not found  :  Here once more it would appear that Bigourdan was working at the 
level of limitation because he again states "Only suspected."
Bigourdan's reference star was BD -7 159 (8.0 mag.) and he places his #111 at a 
position north preceding this star where nothing exists.  The only possible 
candidate is a faint star which has an extremely faint star just off its preceding 
edge, however, this is not at Bigourdan's nominal position.  
The MCG has identified its -1-3-63, which lies close south preceding this star, as 
being IC 71 but this is an Anon. SIMBAD also incorrectly makes this IC 71.  
Meanwhile the PGC appears to have incorrectly identified this same Anon. as being IC 
71 = NGC 347, however, NGC 347 lies north of the reference star, exactly where its 
discoverer Marth placed it.  
Also Bigourdan correctly observed NGC 347 on the same night he made his 
observation for his #111 and correctly stated that NGC 347 lay at a PA of 3 
degrees and a separation of 4 arcmin from the reference star.  
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) have the correct coordinates while the APL 
gives (Probably a star) and Steinicke (Not found). NED has (Type !*), and states "ID 
as IC 0071 is not certain" SIMBAD equates with MCG-01-03-063.

IC 72.
POSS O-1206.
Bigourdan #112.  00hr 58' 58.104s - 07 02' 09.551" (1950).
01hr 01m 29.749s - 06 46' 01.401" (2000).
Nothing at nominal position :  The only possible candidate is a faint star which 
lies between the reference star BD -7 159 and the correct NGC 347,  however, this 
is about 50 arcsecs south of Bigourdan's stated position.
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give Bigourdan's coordinates.  The APL (=*?) 
and Steinicke (Not found). NED has "!*"  SIMBAD "Object of unknown nature."

IC 75.
POSS. O-1274.
Javelle #517.  01hr 04m 34.446s + 10 34' 06.792" (1950).
01hr 07m 11.777s + 10 50' 08.156" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the MCG only as +2-3-35.  Correctly identified in 
the CGCG, PGC, UGC, RC3, NGC 2000 (GX), APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and MOL (NSO).

IC 77 and IC 80.
Javelle #41. 01hr 06m 14.871s -15 41' 19.508" (1950).
01hr 08m 43.220s -15 25' 20.068" (2000).
Both existing galaxies at Javelle's positions:
The confusion concerning these two associated galaxies is found in the modern 
catalogues. Beginning with the MCG who equates its -03-04-08/09 with the identity IC 
77, this is actually IC 80. This same error is repeated by SIMBAD.  The PGC equates 
MCG -3-4-08/09 with both the identities (IC 77) and (IC 80).  NGC 2000, MOL, 
Steinicke, NED and APL have the correct identification for IC 77.
Now as for IC 80 the NGC 2000, MOL, APL, Steinicke and NED have the correct 
identity, while SIMBAD has slected another galaxy lying south following the correct 
IC 80, equal to LEDA 4070 at 01hr 08m 52.42s -15 25' 19.0" (2000) as being IC 80. 

IC 81.
POSS. O-1259.
Swift List VII, #2.  01hr 06m 38.535s - 01 56' 51.513" (1950).
01hr 09m 11.663s - 01 40' 52.632" (2000).
Historical description error : Swift's description "*8 close nf." should be 
corrected to read "*8 close sf."  This error pointed out by Howe (NGC/IC page 
377).  Correctly identified in the NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), CGCG, MCG, 
Steinicke, UGC, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and APL.

IC 85.
POSS. O-1259.
Bigourdan #113.  01hr 09m 12.930s - 00 44' 12.207" (1950).
01hr 11m 46.456s - 00 28' 16.533" (2000). (Comptes Rendus).
Not found :  This is a strange case as it would appear that Bigourdan gives two 
separate positions for this identity and at both there is no nebular object.
To begin, Bigourdan gives the above coordinates in the Comptes Rendus for March 
31st 1891, describing it as "Mag. 13.5, trace of nebulosity, near BD -1 156 and 
when these coordinates are examined on the DSS no nebular image is to 
be found.  His second publication for this object is in his OBSERVATIONS (1919), 
in which he gives no coordinates but states that in relation to the galaxy NGC 430 
there is a 13.5 Mv star which lies at a PA of 125 degrees and a distance of 2.7 
arcmin and that immediately preceding this star there appears to be exceedingly 
faint nebulosity, while the star itself also seems a little nebulous.
He measured a number of galaxies in the field on this same night, December 6th 
1888, describing the conditions of the sky as being a little hazy or foggy and the 
field of view a little bright.
Now he measures very good coordinates for NGC 430 of 01hr 10m 25.2s - 00 31' 14" 
(NED gives 01hr 10m 26.5s - 00 31' 05") and correctly describes two associated 
stars, the first of mag.13.5, PA 125 degrees, Dist. 2.7 arcmin and the second of 
mag. 13.4, PA 190 degrees, Dist.0'.9 arcmin and these are clearly visible on the 
DSS, therefore according to his 1919 observation for his #113 it should lie close 
south following NGC 430, however, there is no nebular object there.
Comparison of his positions as given in the Comptes Rendus and the 1919
Observations are in no manner compatible, however, regardless of which position 
one examines neither result in producing any nonstellar image.
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), APL (=*) NED "!*", SIMBAD 
and Steinicke (Not found).   

IC 86.
POSS. O-1194.
Javelle #48. 01hr 11m 21.615s - 16 30' 10.527" (1950).
01hr 13m 49.277s - 16 14' 18.175" (2000).  Based on Dreyer's incorrect precession 
rate.
Confirmed galaxy : The historical error here concerns the Right Ascension annual 
precession rate found in Dreyer's IC I catalogue in which he gives it as 3.19 tsec 
when the correct rate would be 2.96 tsec.  When the correct rate is applied to 
Javelle's data it proves the correct coordinates for IC 86 at 01hr 11m 00.411s - 
16 30' 18.668" (1950) or 01hr 13m 28.071s - 16 14' 25.461" (2000).   
NGC 2000 (Gx), MOL (Galaxy), APL and Steinicke have the correct coordinates.  No 
listing for this galaxy in the PGC.  NED has correct identity.  SIMBAD gives its IC 
86 coordinates that land on a blank space north following the correct galaxy and 
identifies the correct IC 86 as GSC 05851-01764.

IC 89.
POSS. O-1201.
Javelle #49.  01hr 13m 28.400s + 04 01' 47.967" (1950).
01hr 16m 03.706s + 04 17' 37.634" (2000).
Probably equal to NGC 446 (Marth #38) :  Marth's given coordinates for his #38 are 
01hr 12m 26s + 04 2'.8 and at this position no nebular image exists, however, the 
difference between Marth's position and that given by Javelle for his #49 is 
essentially only 1 tmin and Steven Gottlieb has suggested that the two identities 
are probably for the same galaxy, a proposal with which I am now in agreement.
Earlier I had thought that the Marth object was the candidate identified as NGC 
446 by the CGCG, UGC, PGC, SIMBAD and DSFG which lies about 1.1 tmins preceding and 
6.2 arcmins south of IC 89, but if this was Marth #38 it is very likely he would 
have also seen Javelle #49 which is a full magnitude brighter and therefore he would 
have discovered both galaxies, but as both Marth and Javelle report only a single 
object in the field it is more likely that they are both referring to the same 
object and that the Marth RA has a 1 tmin error.
The CGCG, UGC, PGC and DSFG by making both identities separate objects are in 
error.  The MCG correctly identifies IC 89 but does not give any equivalency while 
it also correctly identifies the south preceding galaxy only as M +1-4-6.  The RC3 
lists only the identity IC 89.  Carlson in her CORRECTIONS correctly notes the 
equivalency, crediting Reinmuth (Die Herschel-Nebel).  The MOL correctly equates 
IC 89 with NGC 446 as does the APL and NED.  Steinicke also gives equivalency.  
NOTE :  I wish to thank Steve Gottlieb who questioned my original conclusions 
regarding these identities and convinced me that they are both for the same 
object.   

IC 92. 
POSS. O-30. 
Bigourdan #115.  01hr 17m 00.473s + 32 30' 32.445" (1950).
01hr 19m 48.585s + 32 46' 16.662" (2000). 
This is equivalent to NGC 468  (h 98) :   Bigourdan in his observation of the 
field thought he had made an observation of NGC 468 but it turns out that he was 
actually confusing it for a double star about 0.1 tmin preceding the true NGC 468.  
Unfortunately he then proceeded to believe that the true NGC 468 was a nova which 
he listed as B.115. The MCG, MOL, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and PGC correctly note 
the equivalency.  
The NGC 2000 lists it as a galaxy with the query  (different from NGC 468?) while 
the CGCG gives only the identity IC 92.  The UGC has no listing.

IC 93.
POSS. O-1194.
Swift List IX, #2.  01hr 16m 31.237s - 17 19' 49.214" (1950).
01hr 18m 58.099s - 17 04' 03.736" (2000).
This is equal to IC 1671 (Swift List XI, #18)  :  The NGC 2000,and MOL (NSO) 
list both identities as separate objects.  The MCG, and RC 3 give only the identity 
IC 93. SIMBAD Gives the identity IC 93, but lists the identity IC 1671 as "Not 
present in the database." The APL, NED, Steinicke and PGC have correctly given the 
equivalency.
Note :  Both Dreyer and the NGC 2000 incorrectly give Swift's description as "* 8 
follows 14 s and 1' north ", but Swift correctly states "* 8 follows 46s, 1' 
north."

IC 94. 
POSS. O-30. 
Bigourdan #116.  01hr 17m 17.143s + 32 27' 22.112" (1950).
01hr 20m 05.275s + 32 43' 05.921" (2000). 
This is a single star which suggested possible associated nebulosity to Bigourdan 
:   The NGC 2000 does not give any Type while the MOL lists it as  (Nonstellar 
Object)  however, it should be remembered that both of these catalogues list all 
of the IC identities regardless of whether they exist as nonstellar objects or 
not.  The CGCG, MCG, UGC and RC3 have no listing.  The APL and Steinicke correctly 
list this as =  *. NED has"!*"  SIMBAD "Object of unknown nature."

IC 96 and IC 1672. 
POSS. 0-30. 
Safford #69.  01hr 17m 32.087s + 29 24' 29.820" (1950).
01hr 20m 18.625s + 29 40' 13.455" (2000). (IC 96).  
Javelle #857. 01hr 17m 50.747s + 29 26' 01.974" (1950).
01hr 20m 37.346s + 29 41' 45.005" (2000). (IC 1672).    
Unable to confirm :  IC 96 is possibly equal to IC 1672 discovered by Javelle (J. 
857)   If this evaluation is correct then by historical precedent the correct 
identity would be IC 96.  
There are definitely 2 galaxies in the immediate field which would suggest that 
one, the south preceding is IC 96 and the other is IC 1672.  Javelle's coordinates 
are very good and clearly establish that the north following object is the one he 
recorded as his #857 (IC 1672).  Meanwhile Safford's coordinates are not very good 
and could be for either of the two field galaxies.
As Safford observed the field some thirty years prior to Javelle and reported on 
only one object it may be reasonably assumed that he would have seen the brighter 
galaxy, in this case the north following of the pair, Javelle's #857, which is 
almost one magnitude brighter than the south preceding galaxy and the CGCG, UGC 
(Notes) and MCG have each identified the brighter as IC 1672, while making the 
other an Anon. (ZWG 502. 035 and MCG + 5-4-23).  Javelle in his observation also 
does not mention the south preceding galaxy, but this could be due to his 
considering it to be Safford's IC 96, which is what the APL has concluded as they 
do list the south preceding of the pair as being IC 96.
According to Safford's coordinates the separation values between the two objects 
would amount to 19s RA and 1.6 arcmins dec. while the correct separation values 
are about 5s RA and 5.2 arcmins dec. however, it must be pointed out that 
Safford's coordinates are usually not very precise.
Whether IC 96 and IC 1672 are separate galaxies or duplicate identities is 
difficult to resolve.  At this time I would favor the equivalency because of the 
magnitude factor.      
The RC3 and PGC give only IC 1672, while the NGC 2000, Steinicke and MOL list IC 
96 and IC 1672 as separate objects with different coordinates without mention of 
any equivalency.  The NED lists the identity IC 96 and the identity IC 1672 as 
separate galaxies. SIMBAD has IC 96 "Object of unknown nature," and IC 1672 "Galaxy 
in Pair of Galaxies."

IC 97.
POSS. O-635.
Bigourdan #117.  01hr 17m 22.234s + 14 36' 03.357" (1950).
01hr 20m 01.902s + 14 51' 47.290" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 475 (Marth) :  Marth discovered a Nova which he measured to 
be at 01hr 17m 24s + 14 36'.5, however, Peters who later examined the field stated 
that Marth's RA was too small by about 15 tsec and when Dreyer listed Marth's 
object as NGC 475 he gave it the coordinates given by Peters.  
Bigourdan in his NGC survey looked for NGC 475 at the corrected coordinates and 
found what is only a faint star but he thought that perhaps it did suggest 
extremely faint traces of nebulosity, thus having found what he believed was NGC 
475 he also reported the existence in the field of a nova, (IC 97) at the 
coordinates shown above.  Comparison of Marth and Bigourdan's coordinates show 
that they are the same object and that Marth's original coordinates are, contrary 
to Peters and Dreyer, the correct ones for NGC 475.
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL give both the same coordinates but without any 
reference to their identities being equal.  Steinicke has (= NGC 475).  PGC has no 
listing for IC 97 giving only the identity NGC 475.  NED gives correct equivalency.  
SIMBAD has IC 97 "Not present in the database," but does list NGC 475 without IC 
equivalency.  
NOTE :  Dr. Corwin in his APL and NGC/IC Bugs List is to my knowledge the first 
person to solve this problem.

IC 104.
POSS. O-1259.
Bigourdan #118.  01hr 22m 00.370s - 01 42' 59.359" (1950).
01hr 24m 33.457s - 01 27' 22.281" (2000).
This is a double star :  Bigourdan describes it as "Strongly stellar in 
appearance, looks like a 13.3 mag. star faintly nebulous."  Its appearance on the 
DSS is a double star whose two components are almost in contact and aligned north 
preceding south following.
Correctly listed as a double star in the NGC 2000, MOL, APL and Steinicke.  NED 
Gives "!**"  SIMBAD "Double or multiple star."

IC 106.
POSS. O-1259.
Bigourdan #119.  01hr 22m 08.695s - 01 50' 48.760" (1950)
01hr 24m 41.725s - 01 35' 11.846" (2000).
Equal to NGC 530 (Swift List VI, #9)  :  Swift's coordinates for his NGC 530 are 
01hr 22m 23s - 01 51' 09" and due to the 15 tsec difference Bigourdan probably 
thought that his #119 was an entirely separate object, however, it should be 
pointed out that although Bigourdan discovered his #119 on Nov. 16th 1887 his 
observation for NGC 530 is dated Oct. 26th 1897, or almost 10 years later at which 
time he measured a position for NGC 530 of 01hr 22m 06s - 01 51' 27" and this 
should have alerted him to the strong possibility that NGC 530 and IC 106 were the 
same object, yet he never indicates this in his OBSERVATIONS.  Furthermore, he 
employed exactly the same reference star for both identities, a 10th mag. star he 
called "Anon. (4)" and his separation values for both identities are almost 
identical.
The MCG incorrectly identifies its -0-4-122 as being NGC 530 = IC 1696 (which 
see), this error noted in the PGC  The RC3 gives only the identity NGC 530.  The 
equivalency IC 106/NGC 530 is correctly listed in the NGC 2000, MOL, CGCG, UGC, 
APL, PGC. NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke.

IC 107.
POSS. O-635.
Swift List X, #5.  01hr 22m 25.505s + 14 37' 06.672 (1950).
01hr 25m 05.545s + 14 52' 42.928" (2000).
This is equal to IC 1700 (Javelle #879) :  Examination of the Palomar print shows 
3 galaxies in close association to each other.  I shall call them in order of 
right ascension Objects A, B and C.
Close to Swift's coordinates we find that Object A is located (1hr 22m 33.3s + 14 
36' 40" Corwin's coordinates in the APL) and it is because of this that the modern 
catalogues, CGCG, UGC, MCG, NED, SIMBAD, PGC, RC3, NGC 2000 and MOL all make Object 
A = IC 107, however, Dr. Corwin in his APL and NGC/Bugs List states that this is in 
error and that IC 107 is equal to IC 1700 (Object C) and I am convinced that he is 
correct.  Steinicke also makes this equivalency.
Corwin confirms his selection by pointing out that Swift in his description of IC 
107 stated "Star close preceding" and that this is what one finds for Object C not 
Object A, additionally Corwin refers to the fact that the difference between 
Swift's RA and IC 1700 is about 20 tsecs, not an unusual error in  measurement 
with Swift, and I believe that there is also more evidence to back up this choice.
Swift made his observation almost 6 years prior to Javelle's "discovery" of IC 
1700 and if we accept that Object A is Swift's IC 107 (as the modern catalogues 
list it) then it would be certain that he would have also seen and discovered 
Javelle's IC 1700, Object C, as it is more than a magnitude brighter than Object 
A, therefore I believe that Swift never saw Object A and that the fact that his 
coordinates would suggest that he did is only a coincidence based upon there being 
a galaxy (A) located  close.  
As Swift saw only one object in the field it would most likely have been the 
brightest, (Object C). 
This plus Corwin's findings convinces me that IC 107 is equal to IC 1700 and that 
by historical precedence the correct identification of Object C is IC 107 as Swift 
was the first to see this galaxy.
The second by right ascension of the three is IC 1698 (Object B) and the CGCG, 
UGC, MCG, PGC, RC3, NGC 2000 and MOL correctly identify it as such. however, there 
is an additional problem when it comes to the other IC identity in the group, namely 
IC 1699.
IC 1699 was credited to Javelle (his #878).  He placed it at 1hr 22m 44s + 14 
41'.6 or at a separation from his reference star BD =14 215 (Mv 9.5) of 0 tmin 
22.98s following and 5 arcmin 49.6arcsec north, (This star is also GSC 620-340) 
and when these separations are measured on the Palomar print the position shows 
only a blank space lying about 0.3 tmin preceding and ~1 arcmin south of the 
galaxy U00999 or at an RA between Object B and C and about 6 arcmins. north, 
however, Dr. Corwin in both his APL selects Object A, the preceding of the three, 
as being Javelle's #878 = IC 1699.
Javelle's coordinates for his 3 objects , all measured from the same star, BD +14 
215, are 
#877 = IC 1698.  1hr 22m 43s + 14 35'.1
#878 = IC 1699.  1hr 22m 44s + 14 41'.6
#879 = IC 1700.  1hr 22m 46s + 14 36'.7
Dr. Corwin's coordinates for these same identities as given in the APL are
IC 1698. 1hr 22m 41.9s + 14 34' 36" (Corwin).
IC 1699. 1hr 22m 33.3s + 14 36' 40" (Corwin).
IC 1700. 1hr 22m 44.7s + 14 36' 13" (Dressel and Condon).
This then means that Dr. Corwin has selected Object A ( the same object 
incorrectly identified in the modern catalogues as IC 107) as being IC 1699 with 
which at this time I am in disagreement as I cannot determine from the historical 
data how this could possibly be what Javelle was referring to as his #878.  It 
does appear that Javelle did see Object A but that he also identified it as being 
Swift's IC 107 for in his description of IC 1698 he adds a Note stating "On a 
mesurι INDEX CAT.107."    
Therefore I would suggest that IC 1699 is Not found and that Object A is an Anon. 
as even if Javelle saw Object A he cannot receive credit for it as an IC identity.  
The only other modern sources to list the identity IC 1699 are Steinicke (Not 
found).  The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) both give coordinates consistent 
with Javelle's data.  The PGC shows IC 107 and IC 1700 as two separate galaxies.  
For the identity IC 1699 NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."  SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."
NOTE:  Dr. Corwin in his latest version of the APL (November 19th 2004), states "IC 
1699 is probably a second observation of IC 1698."

IC 110. 
POSS. O-30. 
Bigourdan #120.  01hr 22m 59.999s + 33 15' 40.997" (1950).
01hr 25m 49.611s + 33 31' 16.072" (2000). 
Not found :   No nebular image at the precise position given by Bigourdan's data.  
The only other possible candidate in the vicinity would appear to be below 17.0 Mp 
which suggests that it would be too faint for Bigourdan to have seen.  
CGCG, UGC, MCG and RC3 have no listing.  The NGC 2000 gives no Type, while the MOL  
gives  (Nonstellar Object).   Carlson questions whether it might be a duplicate 
observation of NGC 552.  "NGC 552 ?"  The APL gives "Nothing at nominal position " 
and also (=**).  Steinicke has (NF).  NED types it as "Other."   SIMBAD "Object of 
unknown nature."

IC 111. 
POSS. O-30. 
Bigourdan #121.  01hr 23m 10.361s + 33 14' 16.181" (1950).
01hr 25m 59.989s +33 29' 50.981" (2000). 
Not found :   The CGCG, UGC, MCG, PGC and RC3 as would be expected do not have any 
listing for this identity. The NGC 2000 gives (No Type) while the MOL lists as  
(Nonstellar Object).  The APL has "Nothing at nominal position" and "Group of six 
stars."  NED shows as "Other ." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  Steinicke has 
(Not found). 

IC 115.
POSS. O-1251.
Burnham.  01hr 24m 11.757s + 18 57' 22.522" (1950).
01hr 26m 53.943s + 19 12' 56.041" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the MCG only as + 3-4-39, this being pointed out in 
the PGC (Corrections).  Correctly identified in the CGCG, NED, SIMBAD, PGC, RC3, 
APL, Steinicke, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO).      

IC 117.
POSS. O-1259.
Javelle #58.  01hr 24m 48.084s - 02 07' 25.186" (1950).
01hr 27m 20.974s - 01 51' 52.489" (2000).
Not found :  At the nominal position no nebular image is present, however, the 
closest object would be a star and the APL, MOL and NGC 2000 each identify IC 117 
as being a star, while Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED have (Not found)..  There is a 
rather curious situation concerning the NGC 2000 as it also identifies the galaxy 
NGC 558 as being equal to IC 117 and this makes for some interesting speculation.
The immediate field contains a number of galaxies including NGC 558, NGC 560 and 
IC 564 and in Part 1 of Javelle's Catalogue he states as a footnote to his 
observation for his #58 = IC 117, that he saw these 3 NGC galaxies.
Now Javelle would most likely have had his positional data for NGC 560 from Dreyer 
who gives it excellent coordinates of 01hr 24m 52s - 02 10'.6, thus Javelle's 
IC 117 would have separation values of - 0 tmin 5.4 tsec and - 03.3 arcmin, but 
supposing the declination offset was + 03.3 arcmin then IC 117 would lie at 01hr 
24m 46.6s -02 13'.9 and we now find that the galaxy NGC 558 has coordinates of 
01hr 24m 42.9s - 02 13' 53", (APL), which certainly is an excellent positional 
match.
It must be cautioned that all of this is totally based upon playing with 
positional data and that one of the strongest arguments to be made against this 
equivalency is that none of it fits when we apply Javelle's offsets from his 
reference star the 8.6 Mv. DM -2 220, also there is the fact that Javelle claims 
that he saw NGC 558 at the time he was observing the field and therefore it is 
hardly likely that he would have confused it with his #58.

IC 124.
POSS. O-1259.
Javelle #62.  01hr 26m 36.256s - 02 11' 36.828" (1950).
01hr 29m 09.098s - 01 56' 07.058" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings found are the NGC 2000, MOL, 
Steinicke and APL and all of these make it equal to a star.  NED has "!*." SIMBAD "= 
star."

IC 126.
POSS. O-1259.
Javelle #64.  01hr 27m 15.304s - 02 14' 27.686" (1950).
01hr 29m 48.119s - 01 58' 58.980" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The only error involved has nothing to do with the identity 
but an error in the description as it appears in the NGC 2000 in which they give 
"557 f." this should be corrected to read "577 f."

IC 128.
POSS. O-439.
Javelle #65.  01hr 28m 55.718s - 12 52' 54.696" (1950).
01hr 31m 23.663s - 12 37' 28.716" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The MCG incorrectly equates its -2-4-62 with IC 128, it should 
be MCG -2-4-63.  This error pointed out in the PGC (Corrections).  Correctly 
listed in all the other modern catalogues.

IC 134.
POSS. O-30.
Bigourdan #125.  01hr 30m 35.975s + 30 37' 52.559" (1950).
01hr 33m 25.267s + 30 53' 15.361" (2000).
This is a single star superimposed upon the spiral structure of NGC 598 :
This is one of Bigourdan's Missing objects (Not found in his 1919 work but 
included in his Comptes Rendus publications).   Only modern listings are NGC 2000 
(= star), APL = *, Steinicke (=*) and MOL (Single star).  NED gives "!*" SIMBAD (= 
star).

IC 146.
POSS. O-349.
Javelle #70.  01hr 36m 15.662s - 18 05' 05.498" (1950).01hr 38m 40.469s - 17 49' 52.194" (2000).
Equivalent with NGC 648 (Leavenworth) :  It is quite understandable why Javelle 
might have considered his # 70 to be a new object as Leavenworth's RA for NGC 648 
has an error of about 1 tmin 40 tsec.
The MOL gives both identities without any indication of equivalency.  The MCG  
gives only the identity NGC 648.  The NGC 2000, PGC, APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke 
each correctly make IC 146 = NGC 648.

IC 148.
POSS. O-15.
Swift List X, No.6.  01hr 39m 42.196s + 13 23' 44.189" (1950).
01hr 42m 22.802s + 13 38' 50.811" (2000).
Not found.  Possible candidate? :  At Swift's given coordinates no nebular object 
exists, however, when the Palomar print is examined there is a 13.9 Mp galaxy at 
about 20 arcmins north of Swift's declination and it does north-precede NGC 660, 
something Swift stated in his description.
The Accurate Positions List (APL), NED and SIMBAD identify this galaxy as being IC 
148 giving positions measured by Skiff, Dressel and Condon and equating it with 
U01195, however, it should be pointed out that neither Dressel and Condon, PGC or 
the UGC give this object an IC identity, nor does the CGCG (ZWG 437.010) or MCG ( 
+2-5-11), identify it as IC 148.  The only other modern sources to list the identity 
IC 148 are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) and both give coordinates consistent 
with Swift.  Steinicke has (Not found).   
In support of the APL's selected candidate there is the Swift description, also an 
error of 20 arcmins in declination would not be unexpected in Swift's positional 
data.

IC 149.
POSS. O-349.
Javelle #533.  01hr 39m 58.479s - 16 33' 03.939" (1950).
01hr 42m 23.803s - 16 17' 57.484" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the PGC and MCG only as -3-5-15.  NED has correct 
identity.   SIMBAD list it as "Not present in the database," while listing the 
galaxy as MCG-3-5-015.  NGC 2000 (Gx), MOL (NSO), APL and Steinicke have correct 
identity.

IC 151.
POSS. O-15.
Swift List X, No.7.  01hr 41m 17.039s + 12 57' 10.717" (1950).
01hr 43m 57.509s + 13 12' 14.379" (2000).
Not found at nominal position: Listed in NGC 2000 (No Type), APL (Nominal position 
only), Steinicke (Not found) and MOL (NSO).  NED "Other." SIMBAD "Object of unknown 
nature."
IC 153.
POSS. O-15.
Swift List X, No.9.  01hr 41m 56.729s + 12 22' 39.244" (1950).
01hr 44m 36.931s + 12 37' 41.658" (2000).
Unable to confirm :  At the coordinates as given by Swift no object exists, 
however, at about 16 arcmins south there is the galaxy ZWG 437.018, Mp 15.2.  
Whether this is Swift's No.9 I am unable to say, although the difference in 
declination in itself is not excessive when dealing with Swift's positional data.   
Other modern listings for the identity IC 153 are the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO), both giving Swift's coordinates.  Steinicke (Not found).  NED "Other." SIMBAD 
"Object of unknown nature." APL (IC 153 is lost).

IC 157
POSS. O-15.
Swift List X, No.10.  01hr 43m 01.958s + 12 37' 24.817" (1950).
01hr 45m 42.356s + 12 52' 25.145" (2000).
Unable to confirm :  Certainly once again no nebular image is to be found at 
Swift's coordinates, however, Swift gave a position for IC 152 of 1hr 41m 27s + 12 
47'.3 and the CGCG identifies IC 152 at 1hr 41.3m + 12 49'.0  Now when the 
separation values (1m 34s RA, 09.8 arcsec dec.) between Swift's positions for IC 
152 and IC 157 are applied to the CGCG's coordinates for IC 152 there is quite 
close to this position a galaxy image.  Again whether this could possibly be what 
Swift was referring to I cannot say with conviction, therefore I shall leave it as 
Unconfirmed.
Modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO), both reflecting Swift's 
coordinates.  Steinicke (Not found).  NED "Other." SIMBAD "Object of unknown 
nature." APL (Lost).

IC 161 and IC 162.
POSS. O-15.
Swift List IX, No.3 and List X, Nos. 11 & 12.
This is an interesting problem and the credit for its solution is due to DR. 
Harold Corwin who points out the errors in both his APL and NGC/Bugs List.
Swift first observed the field on October 3rd 1889 and saw only one object, his 
No.3, which he placed at 1hr 46m 15.677s +10 16' 29.428 (1950) and describing it 
as "eeF; S; cE; bet.2 distant st. in meridian."
The second time he examined the field, January 7th 1891 he measured coordinates 
for an object, No.12, at 1hr 46m 07s + 10 16'.9 "eeF; pS; R."  He also on January 
8th 1891, recorded the existence of a second object, his No.11, at 1hr 46m 05.564s 
+ 10 06' 41.816" (1950). "eeeF; S; R."
When the Palomar print is consulted there is a galaxy (A), the south preceding of 
two, which fits Swift's description as given for his object No.3, however, Swift's 
RA is too large by about 11 tseconds, meanwhile Swift's data for his No.12 observation 
is also consistent with Palomar galaxy (A), having a more accurate RA 
and it is Dr. Corwin's position, which I fully support, that Swift's Nos. 3 and 12 
are for Object (A).
Corwin additionally points out that Object (A) is the brighter of the two galaxies 
and that in the 1889 observation Swift only saw one galaxy which would most likely 
be the brighter one (Object A), yet Dreyer in his IC I has made the combined 
observations for Swift's No.3 and No.12 equal to the north following Palomar 
galaxy, Object (B) identifying it as IC 162
Now as for Swift's object No.11.  From his description it would appear that he was 
referring to Palomar object (B) but that there is a 8 tsec RA error and a 10 
arcmin error in the declination value he gives and that it should be corrected to 
read 1hr 46m 12s + 10 16'.8.
Thus Object (A) is IC 161 and Object (B) is IC 162, however, because of the 
misleading Dreyer data the CGCG (ZWG 437.033), UGC (U01266), MCG (+ 2-5-38) and 
PGC (6643) have all incorrectly identified Object (A) as being IC 162 while making 
Object (B) an Anon. = ZWG 437.034, U01267, PGC #6644 and MCG +2-5-39.
The NGC 2000 incorrectly gives IC 161 the declination value of + 10 07.1 but 
correctly makes Object (B) = IC 162.  The MOL gives the correct identities and 
coordinates while the RC3 correctly selects Object (B) as being IC 162.  Steinicke, 
SIMBAD and NED have the correct identities.
NOTE :  Dr. Corwin (APL) also shows that Dressel and Condon plus Kojoian, Elliott 
& Tovmassian (Astron J. 86, 811, 1981.-Markarian 798-1095.) have incorrectly 
identified Object (A) as being IC 162. 

IC 165.
POSS. O-896.
Swift List 9, No. 6.  01hr 47m 22.722s + 27 22' 45.064" (1950).
01hr 50m 12.375s + 27 37' 36.625" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 684 (H 612-2) :  All the modern authorities correctly equate 
these two identities. 

IC 172.
POSS.O-362.
Javelle #541.  01hr 52m 20.079s + 00 34' 02.148" (1950).
01hr 54m 54.204s + 00 48' 44.006" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The NGC 2000 types this as "Nebula" while the MOL makes it 
"Bright Nebula."
Correctly identified in the CGCG, NED, SIMBAD, MCG, Steinicke, PGC and APL.

IC 173.
POSS. O-852.
Javelle #542.  01hr 53m 21.805s + 01 02' 30.994" (1950).
01hr 55m 56.199s + 01 17' 10.695" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Described in the MOL as a  "Faint Nebula."  Correctly listed 
as a galaxy in the CGCG,UGC, MCG, RC3, NGC 2000, Steinicke, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and 
APL.

IC 175.
POSS. O-852.
Javelle #543.  01hr 53m 43.765s + 01 05' 14.021" (1950).
01hr 56m 18.186s + 01 19' 52.958" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Typed in both the NGC 2000 and MOL as a "Faint nebula."  
Correctly listed as a galaxy in CGCG, Steinicke, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and APL.

IC 177.
POSS. O-852.
Javelle #75.  01hr 54m 26.699s - 00 20' 05.864" (1950).
01hr 57m 00.320s - 00 05' 28.413" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Javelle's coordinates are not very accurate due to the 
inaccurate position he gives for his reference star DM -0,296 (equal to GSC 4686-
002) which he gives as 01hr 48m 59.50s 00 45' 00.0 1860 Epoch, when it should be 
01hr 48m 53.5s 00 41' 35.0" (1860).  
The APL gives IC 177 01hr 54m 27.1 - 00 20'.0 (1950) and these reflect much 
greater precision.  
The MCG has incorrectly identified MCG 0-6-03 as being IC 177, this is an "Anon."  
Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) base their coordinates upon Dreyer which 
in turn reflects Javelle's data.  The CGCG, RC3, APL, PGC, SIMBAD, NED and Steinicke 
have the correct identity and coordinates.
IC 181. 
POSS. O-896. 
Javelle #545.  01hr 57m 14.232s + 23 24' 58.696" (1950).
02hr 00m 02.387s + 23 39' 29.770" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy at the coordinates given by Javelle :   It is most likely equal 
to the CGCG galaxy ZWG 482.040.   Mentioned, but not identified in the Notes 
section of the UGC for NGC 776 as a comp. 1hr 57.2m + 23 25'.0 at a distance of 
2.8 arcmin, PA 150, Mp 15.7  The Notes confuse the position angles (63 degrees and 
150 degrees) for the identities IC 180 and IC 181.  The MCG due to its very general 
coordinate values (10th of a minute in both RA and Dec), can be confusing, as when 
its position for its +4-5-30 = IC 181 is entered into the DSS it lands directly on 
the middle one of the three field galaxies, namely NGC 776, however, the relative 
order of Declination it gives for the 3 listed objects are correct therefore its 
numbers 28, 29 and 30 are the correct NGC and IC identities. It is listed in both 
the NGC 2000 and MOL.  Identified by 
PGC as = ZWG 482.039 = MCG +04-05-030, but ZWG 482.039 is IC 180 not 
IC 181  NED equates it with ZWG 482.040. APL has correct identity, as does Steinicke 
and SIMBAD.

IC 187. 
POSS. O-896. 
Swift List IX, No.7.  01hr 59m 01.593s + 26 13' 52.504" (1950).
02hr 01m 51.950s + 26 28' 19.638" (2000). 
This is almost certainly the CGCG ZWG 482.048, also listed as only U 01507 in the 
UGC and only as +4-5-37 in the MCG  Listed in both the NGC 2000 and MOL.  RC3, 
Steinicke, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, and APL give correct identity.

IC 188. 
POSS. O-896. 
Swift List IX, No.8.  01hr 59m 07.081s + 26 47' 16.280" (1950).
02hr 01m 57.857s + 27 01' 43.197" (2000). 
Unable to find. Possibly a faint star :    This identification is actually based 
upon a observation by Lewis Swift's son Edward, who made this observation on the 
same night he discovered IC 187 and he described it as "eeef, vS; R; 2 stars point 
to it.  Found searching for Swift's Comet."
The APL has two entries for what they identify as being IC 188, the first 
referenced to Dressel and Condon at 1hr 58m 56.0s + 26 18' 15" (and which it 
should be pointed out that they do not identify this as being IC 188) and the 
second by Dr. Corwin at 1hr 58m 54s + 26 18'.2 offset from SAO 075099 and at these 
coordinates there is the image of a galaxy, listed in the CGCG as ZWG 482.049, the 
UGC as U 01510, PGC 7706 and MCG + 4-5-38, however, with the exception of the APL 
none of these other sources identify this object as being IC 188.  The NED has 
identified as IC 187 the galaxy UGC 01507 which is one of the two associated 
galaxies south preceding APL's second candidate.  SIMBAD "Object of unknown nature."
Swift's declination separations for IC 187 (for which he measured a very good 
declination) and IC 188 are about 33.4 arcmin, whereas the APL's would be less 
than 4 arcmins, a considerable difference.  Now one can credibly argue that such a 
discrepancy in coordinates is not in itself impossible in Swift's given data, 
however, I have a problem in that on the same night in which IC 187 was found and 
measured the discoverer would have so badly measured a declination for IC 188 if 
it was only about 15s of RA following and 3.5 arcmin  north of IC 187 as the APL's 
selection requires.
The only reason I can see that would support the APL candidate being IC 188 is 
that north preceding it there are 2 stars pointing towards it, however, at Swift's 
nominal position, where no nebular image exists, I can find on the Palomar print 2 
field stars fitting that requirement, something I dare say is applicable to almost 
any position on the prints.  Now if Swift had indicated that the 2 stars were 
north preceding his object then this would be more supportive of the APL 
candidate, but he never stated this.
Additionally I searched through all of Swift's lists and in those cases in which 
he claims more than one discovery in the same field of view (remembering that the 
field of view he employed was unusually large) he always described them in his 
lists as NP or SP of 2, or NF or SF of 2, many at much larger separations than the 
APL's separations, yet in the case of IC 187 and IC 188 he does not state this. 
Finally, consider Swift's reference to the brightness factor.  His description 
eeeF, stresses that what he was referring to was more than excessively faint, yet 
the APL's IC 188 candidate is according to the CGCG and UGC of Mp 14.4 and its Mv 
is probably brighter.
Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) identify IC 188, however, both of these 
catalogues list all the IC identities and it should be pointed out that they list 
it at coordinates consistent with the Swift data.  Steinicke has (Not found).    

IC 189.
POSS. O- 896. 
Javelle #550.  01hr 59m 04.652s + 23 18' 35.955" (1950).
02hr 01m 52.936s + 23 33' 03.014" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   It was found at Javelle's coordinates.  Listed in the MCG 
only as +4-5-39.  CGCG, DSFG (NOTES to NGC776), NGC 2000 and MOL correctly list 
it.  No listing in UGC. Correctly listed in the APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke.

IC 191.
POSS. O-1202.
Swift List IX, No.9.  01hr 59m 42.184s + 18 07' 38.622' (1950).
02hr 02m 27.040s + 18 22' 04.386" (2000).
It is equal to NGC 794 (H 207-3) :  This equivalency was suspected by Dreyer and 
so entered in his description in the IC I.  The RC3 and MGC give only the identity 
NGC 794.  The CGCG, UGC, Steinicke, APL, NGC 2000, MOL, Carlson, NED, SIMBAD and PGC 
each have the correct equivalency.

IC 199.
(See IC 1778).

IC 203.
POSS. O-1282.
Javelle #558.  02hr 04m 51.050s + 08 53' 06.011" (1950).
02hr 07m 30.333s + 09 07' 20.394" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The UGC mentions this galaxy in its NOTES for U01610 = IC 202, 
however, it does not identify it as an IC object.  Only modern listings are APL, 
Steinicke, NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has correct identity   SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database," but lists it as 212915.

IC 206.
POSS. O-1281.
Javelle #77.  02hr 07m 01.636s -07 12' 14.964" (1950).
02hr 09m 30.963s - 06 58' 05.376" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This is the first of two Javelle discoveries in the same 
field, the other being IC 207, however it is not at the coordinates as given in 
his catalogue. Javelle states that his reference star is DM-7 364 (Mv 9.8) 
at 02hr 05m 53.5s -07 17'.7 (1950) and when his separation values (-00m 52.7s and 
-01'.9) are applied to this star no nebular image is found.  The correct star (AC 
#2114784) is also of 9th magnitude and has a 2000 position of about 02hr 10m 
23.602s - 07 00' 01.85".  
When his separation values are applied to this star they show the correct IC 206 
to be located at 02hr 07m 01.636s - 07 12' 14.954" (1950) or 02hr 09m 30.963s - 06 
58' 05.376" (2000).
The MCG identifies IC 206 as an "Anon" -1-6-53.  The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO) both incorrectly give it the incorrect coordinates based upon Dreyer.  The 
APL, NED, PGC, SIMBAD and Steinicke have the correct identification.

IC 207.
POSS. O-1281.
Javelle #78.  02hr 07m 10.583s - 07 09' 31.658" (1950).
02hr 09m 39.934s - 06 55' 22.416" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This is the companion to IC 206 and Javelle again gives the 
incorrect reference star DM.-7 364.  
When his separation values (-00m 43.8s and - 04'.6) are applied to the correct 
star (AC #2114784) they land exactly on the companion to IC 206 which further 
proves that Javelle's stated reference star is incorrect.  The corrected nominal 
coordinates for IC 207 are 02hr 07m 10.583s - 07 09' 31.658" (1950) or 02hr 09m 
39.934s - 06 55' 22.416" (2000).
Identified in the MCG as "Anon" -1-6-54.  Again the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
have the incorrect coordinates. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but list 
it as An Infra-Red source (IRAS 02071-0709). The APL, NED PGC and Steinicke are 
correct. 
Note: (See Corwin's Corrections to IC Puzzles).

IC 211.
POSS.O-1282.
Javelle #559.  02hr 08m 31.151s + 03 36' 59.821" (1950).
02hr 11m 07.233s + 03 51' 05.783" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Correctly identified in the CGCG, UGC, MCG, SIMBAD, APL, PGC, 
Steinicke, RC3, NED and NGC 2000 (GX).  
The error is the RA given by the MOL (NSO) which is  2hr 07m 33s.

IC 216.
POSS. O-852.
Javelle #81.  02hr 13m 23.437s - 02 14' 43.876" (1950).
02hr 15m 55.797s - 02 00' 49.435" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the CGCG and PGC only as ZWG 387.061. Correctly 
identified in the NGC 2000 (Gx), MOL (NSO), APL and Steinicke. SIMBAD and NED have 
correct object.
 


IC 217.
POSS. O-1183.
Javelle #563.  02hr 13m 45.888s - 12 09' 26.524" (1950).
02hr 16m 11.705s - 11 55' 32.883" (2000).
Equal to IC 1787 (Swift XI #37) :  There can be no doubt that Swift made a 
duplicate observation of IC 217.  Comparison of his description matches exactly 
the appearance of IC 217.
The MCG gives the single identity IC 217 while both the NGC 2000 and MOL give both 
identities as having separate coordinates.  The PGC, APL, Simbad, NED and Steinicke 
have the correct equivalency.  SIMBAD lists the identity IC 217 but without any 
equivalency.  

IC 219.
POSS. O-1281.
Javelle #82. and Stone #67. (discovered by Muller).  
02hr 16m 09.587s - 07 07' 59.994s (1950).
02hr 18m 38.682s - 06 54' 12.280 (2000). Javelle.
02hr 16m 09.812s - 07 08' 00.236" (1950).
02hr 18m 38.905s - 06 54' 12.517" (2000). Stone.
Confirmed galaxy :  The only errors here are the incorrect annual RA precession 
rate as given by Dreyer ( + 3.97 tsec), this should be corrected to + 2.97, and 
Stone's RA which is about 44 tsec too large.
All of the modern authorities have the correct coordinates.

IC 228.
POSS. O-440.
Javelle #85.  02hr 24m 17.810s - 14 44' 21.199" (1950).
02hr 26m 41.202s - 14 30' 53.948" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 944. (Leavenworth) :  In this particular case Leavenworth had 
given his NGC 944 a RA of 02hr 25m 43s or about 1 tmin 25 tsec larger than Javelle 
gave for his #85, thus the confusion.
The MOL lists both identities as separate entries. The equivalency is correctly 
given in the MCG, NGC 2000, PGC, NED, APL and Steinicke.  SIMBAD curiously, gives 
the galaxy the identity NGC 944 and omits the IC identity, which historically had 
the correct coordinates.   

IC 229.
POSS. O-1287.
Thome.  02hr 25m 06.856s - 24 02' 36.134" (1950).
02hr 27m 22.920s - 23 49' 10.654" (2000).
Not found :  There is no nebular image at the nominal position.  The closest 
galaxy (ESO 479-G007) lies about 7 arcmin south, however, it is about 15.6 Mp and 
therefore would have been beyond the capability of Thome's small telescope.
Listed in NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  Both the APL and Steinicke have (Not 
found) as does SIMBAD. NED types as "Other."

IC 233.
POSS O-1233.
Javelle #568.  02hr 29m 04.374s + 02 35'22.438" (1950).
02hr 31m 40.036s + 02 48' 36.825" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy:  There is absolutely no doubt that it is the brighter of two field 
associated galaxies that is Javelle's object and has the faint star he describes as 
1 arcmin south. The CGCG's coordinates are hardly precise, however, their magnitude 
(14.9) indicates the correct object. Not listed in the UGC or MCG.
NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO) have the correct identity, as do Steinicke, PGC, NED and 
the APL.   SIMBAD incorrectly make IC 233 the fainter, south following galaxy.   


IC 240. 
POSS. O- 449. 
Bigourdan #136.  02hr 35m 48.085s + 41 30 34.434" (1950).
02hr 38m 59.464s +41 43' 29.515" (2000). 
Equal to a line of 4 faint stars :   The solution to this problem is solely due to 
Dr. Corwin who in researching the identity discovered that in an appendix 
(Appendix #9) given by Bigourdan he corrected his original position of his #136 in 
relation to his reference star, which is equal to AC 2000.2 #1427128, by changing 
the PA from 30 degrees to 210 degrees, which in turn reverses the directions of 
his measured offsets so that they both should read as + and not -, which then 
places his #136 at 2hr 35m 48.085s +41 30" 34.434" (1950), where there is only a 
line of 4 faint stars  
The CGCG, PGC, SIMBAD and UGC are wrong in equating it with NGC 999.  Bigourdan 
measured both identities during the same observation, describing IC 240 as 
excessively faint and only suspected to be nebulous.  He used the same reference 
star for each measurement placing IC 240 ~ 4 tsec of RA preceding and 1 tmin 58 tsec 
south of NGC 999. which although he later corrected indicates that he was not 
confusing his #136 for NGC 999.  
The NGC 2000 gives no Type while the MOL lists it as  (Nonstellar Object).   It is 
not listed in the MCG.  The APL correctly states "(HCo) = line of 3-4 sts. Offset 
from NGC 999."  Steinicke has (* group).  NED types as "Other." 

IC 242.
POSS. O-1292.
Javelle #88.  02hr 35m 55.612s - 07 08' 56.730" (1950).
02hr 38m 24.119s - 06 56' 00.806" (2000).
This is a double star :  The MCG has misidentified its -1-7-26 as being IC 242 as 
has SIMBAD, but this is actually IC 243.  When Javelle's separation values are 
measured from his reference star, the 9.4 Mp DM -7 464, they confirm that IC 242 is 
a double star.  The NGC 2000 types IC 242 as (Gx), but they are using the MCG as 
their source and the DSFG also makes the same mistake.  The MOL gives (NSO).  
Correctly typed as a double star in the APL, NED and by Steinicke.  The PGC 
incorrectly equates IC 242 with IC 243

IC 246.
POSS. O-1283.
Swift List VII, No.6.  02hr 37m 30.250s + 02 16' 19.832" (1950).
02hr 40m 05.761s + 02 29' 11.210" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Howe gave a correction in RA for this object (See NGC/IC. page 
377.) enlarging it by some 22 tsec.  The only other error involved is that Dreyer 
in his description states "eeF, vF, R, 2 eeF st. nr."  This should read "eeF, vS, 
R, 2 eeF st nr."

IC 249.
POSS. O-1292.
Javelle #92.  02hr 38m 33.586s - 07 08' 56.314" (1950).
02hr 41m 02.120s - 06 56' 07.740" (2000).
Equal to NGC 961 (O.Stone II,#338) = NGC 1051 (Stephan List XI, #5).
To begin, Javelle stated that his object was "distinct from NGC 1051" yet his 
coordinates differ from Stephan's by only 02 tsec and 13 arcsec, furthermore his 
description for IC 249 "Pretty bright, small, 20 tsec in size and of uniform 
surface brightness" can only be for IC 1051.
As for the other equivalency with NGC 961 this was established by Corwin (APL) and 
results from the very poor RA position as given by Stone which would place NGC 961 
at a RA of 02hr 28.7m.
The MOL gives all three identities separate coordinates. The MCG, NGC 2000, PGC, 
and NED each give the equivalency with NGC 1051 while the RC3 and DSFG 
give only a single identity (NGC 1051).  The APL, SIMBAD, NED and Steinicke are the 
only sources to make the double equivalency.
Note :  (See Corwin. APL).

IC 254.
POSS. O-440.
Javelle #97.  02hr 39m 42.670s - 15 19' 09.460" (1950).
02hr 42m 04.668s - 15 06' 23.953" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy ;  This is not equal to NGC 1065 as listed in the MCG, NGC 2000 
and PGC.  IC 254 is a separate galaxy located close south preceding NGC 1065, 
exactly where Javelle's offsets from his reference star DM -15 477 (Mv 7.5) places 
it and it can be distinguished by having a faint star attached to its north 
preceding edge.  Also Javelle states in a footnote to his description that it is 
different from NGC 1065 which he also measured at the same time.  The MOL (NSO), 
Steinicke, NED and APL correctly list it as a separate identity. Simbad incorrectly 
equates it with NGC 1065.

IC 256.
POSS O-845. 
Swift List VIII.#2.  02hr 46m 25.198s + 46 46' 24,250" (1950).
02hr 49m 46.700s + 46 58' 48.806" (2000). 
Confirmed Galaxy :  Incorrectly identified in MCG as +8-6-11 which is actually IC 
257.  This error detected by the PGC (Corrections).  Not listed in CGCG, UGC or 
RC3.  Correctly listed in the APL, Steinicke, NED NGC 2000 (GX.) and MOL (NSO).    
SIMBAD equates it with IC 257.

IC 258 & IC 259.
POSS. 0-449.
Burnham.  02hr 46m 33.200s + 40 51' 13.242" (1950).
02hr 49m 45.778s + 41 03' 37.742" (2000). (IC 258). 
02hr 46m 56.334s + 40 51' 17.258" (1950).
02hr 50m 08.986" + 41 03' 40.625" (2000). (IC 259).
Confirmed galaxies :  The error here consists in the order of Right Ascension and 
Declination as given to these two identities by the majority of sources both 
historical and modern.
Burnham describes his discovery as "Both in the field with a 9.5-m star, DM +40 
608, and I have measured directly from this star.  The following nebula of the two 
is double.  The nuclei are small and fairly well defined.  The other is only a 
little brighter in the center, and considerably diffused.  I have called the 
magnitudes of the nuclei of the double nebula each 14." (Publications of the Lick 
Observatory. Vol 2 ).
From his star he measured the PA and Separation to his Nebula #1 as 288.8 and 
110.27 tsec and that to his Nebula #2 as 285.5 and 169.26 tsec. and from this he 
derived his coordinates as given above.
When the Palomar print is consulted the following discrepancies are apparent. 
Firstly, it is the preceding, not the following object which is the double system.  
Secondly, the following of the two lies a few arcsecs south, not north of the 
preceding one.
Because of these errors in Burnham's relative positions Dreyer was misled and 
therefore the order of identification should be reversed so that the north 
preceding galaxy is IC 259 and the south following one IC 258.  The CGCG, UGC, 
DSFG, NGC 2000, RC3, PGC, SIMBAD and MOL each have the identities incorrectly 
reversed.  Not listed in the MCG.  Steinicke and NED have the correct identities.
NOTE :  Dr. H. Corwin was the first to discover this error (See his APL).  Also 
thanks to an immediate response by Steve Gottlieb to my request for a copy of 
Burnham's original paper and his input provided in the letter which accompanied 
it, I was able to verify Corwin's conclusion making IC 259 the preceding of the 
two.  

IC 261.
POSS. O-911.
Javelle #88.  02hr 46m 41.784s - 14 40' 42.690" (1950).
02hr 49m 03.896s - 14 28' 17.279" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy.  Probably equal to NGC 1120 (Leavenworth). Here again as in the 
case of IC 1840 we have Leavenworth giving NGC 1120 coordinates of 02hr 47m 50s - 
14 40'.0, a difference of 01 tmin 08 tsec in RA and at his position no object 
exists.
The PGC, APL , NGC 2000, NED and Steinicke have all equated IC 261 with NGC 1120 
while the RC3 and SIMBAD give the single identification NGC 1120.  The MCG lists 
these identifications as being -3-8-28 = IC 261 and -3-8-30 as NGC 1120?

IC 263.
POSS. O-1453.
Javelle #99.  02hr 47m 06.328s - 00 16' 35.699" (1950).
02hr 49m 39.928s - 00 04' 11.767" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  At Javelle's given nominal position no nebular image is 
present.  Javelle gives as his reference star the 9.5 Mv DM -00 438 whose 1860 
coordinates he lists as 02hr 43m 08.4s - 00 39'.1 and measured offsets 
of + 00m 16.58s RA and + 02'.52".6  What he actually was using as his reference 
star was DM -00 436 equal to GSC 4699-221. Only modern listings found were NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO), both at the historical coordinates. APL, NED and 
Steinicke (= CGCG 389.027).
The star that Javelle identifies as being his reference star is also GSC 4700-109, 
Mp 11.71.  Now at 00 tmin 52.49 tsec preceding and 3' 30" north of this star is 
the 10.46 Mp star GSC 4699-221 and by applying Javelle's offsets exactly as he 
gives them they land right on a 14.7 Mp galaxy identified in the CGCG as Zwicky 
389.027 at 02hr 47m 04.31s -00 16' 53.5"and this I now believe is Javelle's #99 = 
IC 263.  This is also PGC # 10716 which is identified in the PGC only as CGCG 389-
27.   
I reported my findings to Dr. Corwin and after examining my argument he is in 
agreement that this is the correct IC 263, furthermore, Corwin found that by 
reversing the direction of RA  for Javelle's #100 = IC 264 to preceed the 
reference star GSC 4699-221 instead of following it, it also landed upon a galaxy 
(NPMIG -00.0109) at 02hr 46m 14.014s - 00 18' 59.46", therefore, the two 
identities, IC 263 and IC 264 have been established and the Corrected Nominal 
coordinates are as given above following the discoverer's name.
The PGC identifies IC 264 only as MK 1401.  Steinicke has correct identity.  NGC 
2000 give (No Type) at the historical coordinates.  The MOL has (NSO) at the 
historical coordinates.  Simbad incorrectly lists the identity IC 263 as "Not 
present in database," however, the correct IC 263 is, being listed as Leda 10716. 
SIMBAD also has for IC 264 "Not present in the database," but list the same galaxy 
as mrk 1401. 

IC 264.
POSS. O-1453.
Javelle #100.  02hr 46m 13.913s - 00 18' 58.625" (1950).
02hr 48m 47.483s - 00 06' 32.136" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy : (See IC 263).

IC 265.
POSS. O- 449. 
Swift List VIII, #6.  02hr 51m 33.926s + 41 27' 30.027" (1950).
02hr 54m 48.293s + 41 39' 39.520" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy:   Listed in MCG only as +7-7-6  Correctly identified in CGCG, 
NGC 2000, MOL, Steinicke, APL, DSFG (Notes to NGC1129), NED, SIMBAD and PGC.  Not 
listed in UGC.

IC 266. 
POSS. O-449. 
Swift List VIII, #7.  02hr 51m 47.992s + 42 03' 29.228" (1950).
02hr 55m 03.270s + 42 15' 37.997" (2000)  
Confirmed galaxy :   Listed in MCG only as +7-7-10.  CGCG, Steinicke, APL, PGC, 
NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 and MOL give correct identity.  Not listed in UGC.

IC 267.
POSS. O-16.
Swift List VII, #7.  02hr 51m 41.372s + 12 37' 12.536" (1950).
02hr 54m 25.452s + 12 49' 22.566" (2000).  
Bigourdan #138.  2hr 51m 07.075s + 12 40' 33.537" (1950). (Historical position)
02hr 53m 51.175s +12 52'45.273" (2000). (Historical position).
Even though Swift observed this galaxy about  year prior to Bigourdan Dreyer gave 
both credit od discovery, probably because he was unsure as to whether it was indeed 
the same object.  Swift's coordinates are not very good but still within the normal 
range of his expected error and his description makes it clear that he has the 
correct object.  Meanwhile, Bigourdan measured its position from a star he calls 
(Anon 2, giving this star a position determined from its estimated offset from the 
galaxy NGC 1134 (whose coordinates he had measured very accurately). Due to his 
estimated coordinates for this star his offsets for his #138 come up about 1 arcmin 
48 arcsec north of the actual galaxy, but there is no doubt that he is describing 
the correct object.
Bigourdan's (Anon 2) is equal to the star AC2000.2 #1463359 at 2hr 53m 44.655s +12 
40' 44.05" (2000) and when his offsets (+0 tmin 5.345 tsec RA and + 10 arcmin 13.950 
arcsec Dec.) are applied they land right on the galaxy in question at 02hr 53m 
50.326s +12 50' 57.388" (2000).
NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO) have coordinates based upon the Dreyer historical data.  
ALL of the modern catalogues have the correct coordinates.  

IC 274. 
POSS. O-1618. 
Swift List VIII,#8.  02hr 56m 45.655s + 44 00' 53.586" (1950).
03hr 00m 04.886s + 44 12' 47.194" (2000). 
I am unable to confirm the validity of this identity :   The only galaxy in the 
immediate vicinity to Swift's given coordinates lies about 30s of RA following, 
however it is extremely faint and does not appear to be a valid candidate although 
Swift did describe IC 274 as  "Extremely faint, exceedingly difficult. The most 
difficult object yet seen here."  
The only modern catalogues to list this identity are the APL, which gives 5 
possible listings and positions, each with question marks.  Steinicke (Not found), 
the NGC 2000 (No Type), NED types as "Other." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 
and the MOL (Nonstellar Object).

IC 280. 
POSS. O-1618. 
Swift List VIII,#10.  03hr 00m 03.058s + 42 09' 35.490" (1950).
03hr 03m 20.042s + 42 21' 18.972" (2000). 
Not found:   CGCG, UGC, PGC and MCG have no listing for this identity.  NGC 2000 
lists as an asterism.    MOL lists as "Group of stars."    Carlson states  "Group 
of stars on Mt. Wilson plate."  Corwin (APL) states "4 stars only."  Steinicke has 
(* Group). NED types as "Other."   SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
NOTE:  There is about 19 tsec preceding Swift's nominal RA a small group of faint 
stars which is the group referred to by the modern authorities.  This may well be 
what Swift saw, however, without additional evidence I shall still go with Not 
found.

IC 281. 
POSS. O-1618. 
Swift List VIII,#11.  03hr 01m 15.326s + 42 09' 31.054" (1950).
03hr 04m 32.532s + 42 21' 10.769" (2000).  
This is equal to NGC 1177 (Rosse):   CGCG, NED, SIMBAD, Steinicke, UGC  (Notes), NGC 
2000, MOL, APL, Carlson and the PGC all correctly equate the two identities.  The 
MCG lists the single identity NGC 1177.

IC 282. 
POSS. O-1618. 
Swift List VIII,#12.  03hr 01m 54.589s + 41 39' 40.607" (1950).
03hr 05m 11.160s + 41 51' 18.285" (2000). 
Equal to NGC 1198 (Stephan XI, #7) :  There is a 1.0 tmin error in Swift's RA and 
the correction makes his corrected RA to read 03hr 02m 54s which is in agreement 
with that for NGC 1198.  Both the NGC 2000 and the MOL give coordinates based upon 
Swift's incorrect RA.   Steinicke, APL and NED make IC 282 (= NGC 1198). Simbad has 
"Not present in database," but gives the identity NGC 1198.
  
IC 286.
POSS. O-1452.
Bigourdan #139.  (Coordinates given below).
Not found at nominal positions :  This is a rather complex problem in that the 
historical data appears to be subject to various inconsistencies.
Firstly, Bigourdan gives the position of his Nova first in the COMPTES RENDUS at 
the March 31st 1891 meeting of the Academie des Sciences as 03hr 02m 19.360s - 06 
40' 44.835" (1950), however, when this position is examined on the DSS no nebular 
image is found.
Secondly, Bigourdan in his OBSERVATIONS (1919) gives the position as being 03hr 
02m 09.461s - 06 40' 25.430" (1950), offsetting from a 9th mag. star he called 
"Anonyme" which from his data would have a 1950 position of 03hr 01m 54.061s - 06 
39' 13.430", yet when these coordinates are applied to the DSS there is no 9th 
magnitude star, also at the coordinates he now gives his Nova no nebular image 
exists.
Additional listings are Steinicke (Not found), APL (not found?), NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and MOL (NSO). NED types as "Other."   SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 288. 
POSS. O-1618. 
Swift List VIII,#14.  03hr 04m 11.006s + 42 10' 26.175" (1950).
03hr 07m 28.772s + 42 21' 56.648" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Listed in MCG only as +7-7-27.  DSFG (Notes to IC 284), CGCG, 
APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and UGC have correct identity.  Both NGC 2000 and 
MOL list as an "Open Cluster."

IC 290. 
POSS. O-1618. 
Swift List VIII,#16.  03hr 06m 25.033s + 40 47' 41.704" (1950).
03hr 09m 41.099s + 40 59' 05.104" (2000). 
Equal to IC 1884  (Barnard) :  Swift has the earlier discovery date and therefore 
by historical precedent the correct identity is IC 290.  The CGCG, APL, Steinicke, 
NED, SIMBAD and PGC correctly list IC 290 = IC 1884. NGC 2000 list both as separate 
galaxies, while the MOL describes both as  (Nonstellar Objects) with slightly 
different coordinates.  The UGC lists its U02560 as IC 290 ? and gives the correct 
IC 290 the single identity IC 1884.  The MCG has no listing.  RC3 gives the single 
identity IC 290.

IC 292. 
POSS. O-1618. 
Swift List VIII,#17.  03hr 06m 59.765s + 40 34' 21.503" (1950).
03hr 10m 15.598s + 40 45' 43.054" (2000). 
Equal to IC 1887  (Barnard) :   Again as in the case of IC 290 Swift was the 
original discoverer and the correct identity is IC 292.  CGCG, UCG, APL, 
Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, RC2  (Notes) and PGC make IC 1887 = IC 292.  Both the NGC 
2000 and MOL list as separate galaxies.  The MCG gives the single identity IC 292.

IC 293. 
POSS. O-1618. 
Swift List VIII,#18.  03hr 07m 35.555s + 40 57' 07.264" (1950).
03hr 10m 52.058s + 41 08' 26.883" (2000). 
Equal to IC 1888  (Barnard) :   As with the previous two corrections Swift was the 
original discoverer and the correct identity is IC 293.  The only possibilities 
for Barnard's seemingly disregard for the earlier IC identities is that due to the 
relatively small differences between his coordinates and those given by Swift he 
considered his discoveries to be different objects or perhaps, as in the strange 
case discussed in my evaluation of IC 1441, Barnard had made his observations 
prior to Swift.   (See IC 1441).  CGCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and PGC 
correctly list IC 1888 = IC 293.  MCG gives the single identity IC 293.  UGC has no 
listing while both the NGC 2000 and MOL list both as separate galaxies.

IC 294, IC 295 and IC 296. 
POSS. O-1618. 
Swift List VIII,#19, #20 and #21.  03hr 07m 39.678s 
+ 40 26' 36.975" (1950).
03hr 10m 55.431s + 40 37' 56.392" (2000) (IC 294). 
03hr 07m 44.666s + 40 25' 36.658" (1950).
03hr 11m 00.408s + 40 36' 55.808" (2000). (IC 295). 
03hr 07m 48.700s + 40 26 18.403"  (1950).
03hr 11m 04.471s + 40 37' 37.336" (2000). (IC 296).
These three identities are based upon claims by Swift of three nebulae he 
supposedly discovered. The first two on September 11th 1888 and the third on 
September 14th 1888.
Each have essentially the same description and they are given coordinates which 
would place them within boundaries of 9 tsec RA and 1 arcmin Dec. and when the 
immediate area is examined on the DSS it shows only a single galaxy which is 
identified in Index Catalogue II as IC 1889 (Barnard).
If Swift was actually seeing a nebulous image on both the nights of September 11th 
and 14th then he could only have been seeing the same one (IC 1889), therefore, IC 
294, IC 295 and IC 296 would all be equivalent identities and additionally 
equivalent to Barnard's IC 1889.
Alternatively, if Swift was confusing associated field stars as being nonstellar 
images for two of the three objects he recorded then the one he measured closest 
to the single existing galaxy would be his # 21 = IC 296, which would result in IC 
296 being equal to IC 1889 and IC 294 and IC 295 being equal to stars.
CGCG gives only the single identity IC 296 while the MCG and RC3 identify it as IC 
294.
UGC gives the identity as IC 294 and in its NOTES for U02574 refers to the 
conflicting identities between the CGCG and MCG.
PGC and SIMBAD equate the identities IC 294 and IC 296 and SIMBAD has for IC 295 
"Not present in the database." while both the NGC 2000 and MOL list each of the 
identities as separate galaxies.  The APL equates the identity IC 294 with IC 1889 
and then queries whether the two identities IC 295 and IC 296 are equal to IC 294. 
NED equates the two identities IC 294 and IC 296.  Steinicke identifies the galaxy 
as IC 296 = IC 294 = IC 295 = IC 1889.
NOTE:  Swift's nominal position for his IC 294 lies close north of a closely 
associated group of 3 faint stars and this could be what he considered to be the 
"Irregularly round" he gives in his description for IC 294.

IC 297. 
POSS. O-1618. 
Swift List VIII, No.22.  03hr 09m 56.798s + 41 55' 10.344" (1950).
03hr 13m 15.198s + 42 06' 22.313" (2000). 
Not found :   The CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listings for IC 297.  NGC 2000 and MOL 
describe as "Double star" and "Two stars."  The APL gives 03hr 09m 58.5s + 41 55' 
37" HC.  Steinicke and SIMBAD have (Not found). NED has "!**."

IC 311. 
POSS. O-1618. 
Swift List VIII, No.27.  03hr 13m 23.745s + 39 49' 26.917" (1950).
03hr 16m 39.519s + 40 00' 27.681" (2000). 
The only discrepancy here concerns the original description as given by Swift and 
published by Dreyer in the IC I in which the "very faint star very close 
preceding" should be changed to read very close following.

IC 312. 
POSS. O-1618. 
Swift List VIII, No.29.  03hr 14m 49.160s + 41 33' 39.473" (1950).
03hr 18m 07.835s + 41 44' 35.469" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Listed in MCG only as +7-7-51.  CGCG, UGC, NGC 2000, MOL, 
APL, Steinicke, DSFG (Notes to NGC 1257), NED, SIMBAD and PGC have correct identity.

IC 314.
POSS. O-363.
Bigourdan #140.  03hr 16m 17.876s - 02 09' 15.208" (1950).
03hr 18m 49.781s - 01 58' 22.943" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 1289 (Swift List IV, #13) :  Bigourdan himself came to 
realize that his #140 was indeed equal to NGC 1289 as he clearly states this in an 
observation made in 1897, "NGC 1289 lies 11 tsec after the NGC position and that 
therefore it is equal to his #140."
The MOL gives both identities with separate coordinates while the DSFG gives only 
the single identity NGC 1289.  The MCG, PGC, CGCG, NED, SIMBAD, UGC, APL and 
Steinicke have all correctly given the equivalency.

IC 319.
POSS. O-1618.
Bigourdan #141.  03hr 20m 10.021s + 41 14' 21.273" (1950).
03hr 23m 29.072s + 41 24' 59.409" (2000).
This is a star :  For a long time I was of the opinion that this was the galaxy 
identified by the NGC 2000 (GX), and MOL (Galaxy. SBO) as IC 319, and which is 
visible on the Palomar print closely north preceding a 13 mag. star, however, 
Bigourdan gives some important and crucial information regarding associated stars, 
(13.2 star PA 185, Dist 1 arcmin, 13.3 star PA 210, Dist 2 arcmin and a double 
star components of 11 mag. which are at PA 0, Dist 1 arcmin at a position relative 
to the nebula of + 0m 20s and same dec.) and when these are measured on the 
Palomar print they point exactly to a faint star which lies north following the 
visible galaxy.   NED lists as "!*."   SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  The 
APL, NED and Steinicke are the only sources that I am aware of that correctly give 
(=*).

IC 323.
POSS. O-643.
Swift List VIII, #36.  03hr 26m 09.588s + 41 41' 24.217" (1950).
03hr 29m 30.439s + 41 51' 41.860" (2000).
Not found at nominal position.  Probably an asterism of 3 faint stars :  
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), APL = ***,  NED types as "Other." 
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."   Steinicke (= *3) and MOL (NSO).
NOTE:  After again looking at the nominal position it lands very close to a small 
asterism mainly consisting of three faint stars in the form of a closely formed 
triangle and this asterism does have a star of about 10.5 Mp just off its north 
preceding edge.  This would support Swift's description "eF, S, R, * v nr, p of 
2."  as following this asterism at almost the exact separations as given by Swift 
there is the galaxy NGC 1334 (D'Arrest).
Another interesting finding is that Swift must have considered that the following 
object was a "nova" as he identifies it in his Discovery List VIII, No.37 as "eF, 
pS, R, f of 2" at a position of 03hr 26m 39.721s + 41 39' 22.174" (1950), yet 
Dreyer makes no mention of Swift's claim in the NGC or IC Notes.

IC 324.
POSS. O-908.
Bigourdan #142.  03hr 24m 14.902s - 21 31' 41.866" (1950).
03hr 26m 28.137s - 21 21' 15.495" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 1331 (H 959-3).  Bigourdan does note that his #142 was 
measured at the Leander McCormick Observatory where it was identified as being NGC 
1331 and this is correct and was also published in the MNRAS 73,37. 1912 by Dreyer 
in a series of corrections.
All of the modern catalogues that list the identity IC 324 correctly equate it 
with NGC 1331.

IC 333.
POSS. O-1485.
Bigourdan #143.  03hr 31m 33.290s - 05 16' 33.325" (1950).
03hr 34m 02.156s - 05 06' 32.734" (2000).
Not found :  Bigourdan states that it was only suspected.  The closest object to 
the nominal position is a very, very faint star.
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 No Type), MOL (NSO), APL (Not found), SIMBAD "Not 
found." and Steinicke (Not found). NED types as "Other."
NOTE: The APL and NED give a 1950 declination of - 04 45.1' (Hcnf) Nominal Position.

IC 335.
(See IC 1963).

IC 337.
POSS. O-1485.
Swift List IX, #12.  03hr 34m 36.486s - 06 53' 12.971" (1950).
03hr 37m 03.766s - 06 43' 23.087" (2000).
Not found at nominal position :  The APL tentatively list this identity as IC 337? 
03hr 35m 06s - 06 41'.2, however, there is an alternative candidate which I feel 
better fits Swift's description "eeF, pL, R, trap. with 3 stars." and it is the 
MCG "Anon" -01-10-09 at 3hr 34.0m - 06 54'.0
Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL have coordinates based upon those of Swift.  
Steinicke list the MCG "Anon." as being IC 337.  The PGC #13308, gives the MCG 
identity -01-10-09 but does not equate it with any IC identity.  NED types as 
"Other."  SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 338.
POSS. O-932.
Javelle #588.  03hr 35m 01.078s + 02 57' 18.016" (1950).
03hr 37m 37.683s + 03 07' 06.166" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG incorrectly identifies its ZWG 391.019 as being IC 
338 at 3hr 35.0m +3 06' 0.  The correct identity should be ZWG 391.018 at 3hr 
35.0m + 2 58'.0  This error is noted in the PGC (Corrections).  Correctly 
identified in the APL, Steinicke, MCG, NGC 2000 (GX), RC3, NED, SIMBAD and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 339.
Stone #144.  03hr 35m 50.843s - 18 32' 37.210" (1950).
03hr 38m 06.465s - 18 22' 51.345" (2000).
Not found :  No nebular image at or close to the nominal position.
Listed in the NGC 2000, MOL, APL, Steinicke and Carlson as being 
a star.  NED has "!*."   SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 344.
POSS. O-1485.
Swift List IX, #13.  03hr 39m 04.730s - 04 50' 25.833" (1950).
03hr 41m 33.895s - 04 40' 51.925" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This is not a regular error in identity , however, it does 
have historical significance and is also a fascinating case.
Swift published a paper (Astr. & Astrophys No. 103),sometime after publication of 
his List IX in which he gives a lengthy and extremely interesting account of this 
identity stating that he discovered this object on December 23rd 1889 but that he 
was unable to recover it in subsequent observations.  He had described it as 
"Exceedingly, exceedingly faint, pretty large, round, first of three.  In line 
with NGC 1417-18. Cometary. Unable to re-find it. Seeing good.  Failed also at 
Harvard College Observatory."
He reports that in the MNRAS of December, 1891, Dr Dreyer says that he had 
observed it several times at Lord Rosse's Observatory and that on other occasions 
had been unable to see it.
Swift then goes on to say that on January 31st 1892 he tried again and at 132x he 
failed to see it, however, while employing a magnification of 195x he had two 
momentary glimpses of it and that it was not exactly in line with the other two 
NGC objects but rather it was a little north.
Meanwhile a search of John Herschel's Slough Observations (1833), reveals that he 
also saw this object describing it as the 1st of 3, however, he misidentified it 
as being his father's H 569-3 = NGC 1397 but this object lies almost 2 tmin 
preceding IC 344, as W. Herschel's given position correctly shows.
Examination of the field on the DSS clearly shows IC 344 north preceding NGC 1417 
very close to Swift's coordinates and John Herschel's measured coordinates for 
what he incorrectly identified as being H 569-3 (03hr 39m 00s - 04 49'.0), clearly 
establishes that he was the first person ever to see what later became IC 344 and 
therefore historically John Herschel should be the credited discoverer.

IC 346.
Stone #151.  03hr 39m 09.223s - 18 31' 50.160" (1950).
03hr 41m 24.670s - 18 22' 16.088" (2000).
Not Found:  This is a complex problem and the credit for first realizing that any 
problem existed belongs entirely to Wolfgang Steinicke who brought it to my 
attention through personal correspondence.
The Leander McCormick Observatory published a list (SOUTHERN NEBULAE), 
detailing observations made with its 26 inch telescope by Stone, 
Levenworth, Muller and Parrish.  This list contains observations 
of 5 separate "Novae" which were identified in the list as #144, 151, 
160, 168 and 171, the first two being credited to Stone, the other 
three to Muller, however, when Dreyer later assigned them IC identities 
he only listed 4 objects.  
Three of these,  IC 339 = List #144, IC 343 = #List 160, IC 345 = List #168 
present no problem as IC 339 is "Not Found" while both IC 343 and IC 345 
exist as galaxies at the positions measured by Muller.  
Now the problem concerns which of the two remaining original identities 
(#151 and #171) should be equated with the identity IC 346, as #151 is 
"Not Found" while #171 does exist as a galaxy.
In order to sort this conflict out it was necessary to take each of the 5 
McCormick identities and precess their given coordinates back to epoch 
1860 and then compare these positions to those as given by Dreyer in the 
IC I and when this is done it is obvious that Dreyer employed Stone's 
Object #151 and gave it the identity IC 346.  
As for Muller's # 171,  Dreyer has no coordinate values that in any way 
match those as measured by Muller and it is clear that he never considered, 
(or ignored), the data for #171, thus my conclusions are that IC 346 is 
"Not Found" and Muller's discovery, the galaxy # 171 is an "Anonymous Galaxy" 
at 03hr 41m 44.86s - 18 16' 14.6" (2000) and  cannot be considered as being 
IC 346 as historically it was never considered as such by Dreyer.
All of the modern sources that I have examined who list the identity IC 346 
make it to be Muller's Object # 171, thus disagreeing with the above 
conclusions, however, Wolfgang Steinicke, the discoverer of the problem and 
I are in favour of the above given solution which is in keeping with the 
historical data. Both NED and SIMBAD equate the Muller galaxy wirh the identity IC 
346. 

IC 359.
POSS O-1468.
Swift List X.#14.  04hr 10m 22.253s + 27 34' 22.191" (1950).
04hr 13m 27.162s + 27 41' 57.591" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG and UGC correctly identify and give better RA 
coordinates (4hr 9.4m).  The MOL gives Swift's original coordinates while the NGC 
2000 somehow confuses the identity IC 359 with a reflection nebula at 4hr 15.9m + 
28 4'.8.  The MCG gives only the identity +5-10-9.  The RC3, NED, SIMBAD, Steinicke 
and PGC identity is correct as is the APL.

IC 371. 
POSS. O-1524. 
Bigourdan #145.  04hr 27m 39.122s - 00 40' 04.642" (1950).
04hr 30m 12.191s - 00 33' 36.643" (2000). 
Unable to confirm. Probably a star at Bigourdan's nominal position:   
I was unable to find any image that I could establish as being nebular, rather it 
appears to be completely stellar.  NGC 2000 gives its listing No Type, while the 
MOL states (Nonstellar Object). The APL lists it as = *.  Steinicke also 
identifies it as (*).  The NED has "!*. " SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 
During my investigation of this identity I came across some interesting 
disagreements regarding coordinates.  
Bigourdan carried out his observation of what he thought was a nebula  (B.145) on 
the same night that he made an observation of what he also thought was  NGC 1586  
(D'Arrest), in fact he measured NGC 1586 to be - 17 .36 tsec and + 2 arcmin 26.7 
arcsec from his reference star BD -0 709 while from this same star he measured 
B.145  (IC 371) to be - 14.94 tsec and + 2 arcmin 45.4 arcsec thus making them to 
be very close companions. 
His coordinates for NGC 1586 compute to 4hr 27m 35s - 00 39' 56"(1950), D'Arrest 
had given 4hr 27m 39s - 00 37'.8 (1950), however the modern catalogues give NGC 
1586 4hr 28m.1 - 00 25'.0 (1950), so the question is was Bigourdan actually 
searching in the position he gives, in which case both his assumed NGC 1586 and IC 
371 are stars, or was he seeing two nebulae at the position given for NGC 1586 by 
the modern catalogues, as in this case there are two galaxies, NGC 1586 and an 
Anon. companion at about the PA and distance separation required by Bigourdan's 
measurements ?  It must be stated that based upon Bigourdan's data there is 
absolutely no indication that he was possibly searching anywhere else other than 
the positions he gives.
It would appear that the candidate for NGC 1586 as listed in the modern catalogue 
is D'Arrest's object as his description of the associated 3 stars matches 
completely, however, it should be pointed out that Bigourdan's description of what 
he considered to be NGC 1586 does not, indeed he refers to this difference with 
D'Arrest's description.

IC 372.
POSS. O-918.
Javelle #594.  04hr 27m 36.081s - 05 07' 02.174" (1950).
04hr 30m 04.348s - 05 00' 33.804" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The only error here is that in the NGC 2000 they type this 
identity as (?) quoting as their source Reinmuth.  Correctly identified by MOL 
(NSO), Steinicke, NED and APL. SIMBAD has no listing for this galaxy.

IC 376.
POSS. O-941.
Javelle #126.  04hr 28m 53.923s - 12 32' 21.649" (1950).
04hr 31m 13.972s - 12 25' 58.258" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This galaxy lies north preceding IC 377 which is the brightest 
in the field and is a face-on spiral.  The MCG (-02-12-031) combines this identity 
with IC 377 which is misleading as both identities are for entirely separate 
galaxies.  The PGC equates it with MCG -2-12-31.
SIMBAD makes the bright spiral equal to IC 376, however, Corwin in his APL gives IC 
376 coordinates of 04hr 28m 53.47s - 12 32' 24".9 and IC 377 coordinates of 04hr 28m 
56.28s - 12 33' 42".6 and these I believe correctly identify Javelle's two nebulae.
NED, NGC 2000 (Gx) and MOL (NSO) give the correct identities.  Steinicke has 
the correct identities.   

IC 377.
POSS. O-941.
Javelle #127.  04hr 28m 56.267s - 12 33' 42.940" (1950).
04hr 31m 16.290s - 12 27' 19.708" (2000).
(See IC 376).

IC 386.
POSS. O-941.
Javelle #601.  04hr 37m 35.115s - 09 33' 10.931" (1950).
04hr 39m 58.346s - 09 27' 23.029" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy. Probably equal to NGC 1632 (Muller).
Muller was one of the observers at the Leander McCormick Observatory and he with 
O.Stone and F.P. Leavenworth published in the ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL two sets of 
observations (Vol.VII. No.146 and VOL VII. No.152). with very imprecise 
coordinates.  His #399 in Vol. 152 is for NGC 1632 and he gives it a position of 
04hr 36.8m - 09 32'.6 which if it is equal to IC 386 would mean that Muller has a 
positional error of about 0.8 tmin in RA which is by no means excessive when it 
comes to the positions published from this source.
Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) list both identities as being separate 
objects. while the PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and the APL all equate it with NGC 
1632.

IC 392.
POSS. O-974.
Javelle #604.  04hr 43m 48.585s + 03 24' 54.845" (1950).
04hr 46m 26.141s + 03 30' 16.613" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the UGC only as U03158.  Correctly identified in 
the CGCG, PGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (Gx), RC3 and MOL (NSO).
IC 394.
POSS. O-1519.
Bigourdan #146.  04hr 46m 25.869s - 06 21' 58.161" (1950).
04hr 48m 52.553s - 06 16' 46.906" (2000).0
Nothing found at nominal position :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (?) and in the MOL 
as (May not exist).  The APL, Carlson and Steinicke have (Not found). NED "Other."       
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 395.
POSS. O-969.
Swift List IX, No.15.  04hr 46m 49.506s + 00 09' 43.167" (1950).
04hr 49m 23.461s + 00 14' 52.555" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy, but may be equal to NGC 1671 :  At Swift's coordinates for IC 
395 there is found the image of a galaxy, whereas at Swift's nominal position for 
NGC 1671 no nonstellar object exists.  
The APL equates it with NGC 1671 (Swift List V, No.63) stating that Dreyer's NGC 
1671 coordinates are off by 50 tsec RA too large and his declination off by about 
1 degree too far south. NED also make this same equivalency.
There is support for this equivalency in that Swift's description for NGC 1671 
states "pB * nr, sp." and there is such a star south preceding IC 395.
The CGCG, PGC, MCG, SIMBAD and UGC give only the identity IC 395 while the NGC 2000 
give no type to both identities but lists them at the Dreyer coordinates.  The MOL 
lists IC 395 as (NSO) and for NGC 1671 states "Non existent object "  The APL and 
Steinicke are the only sources to suggest the equivalency.

IC 397.
POSS O-668. 
Spitaler #5.  04hr 57m 38.508s + 40 21' 26.815" (1950).
05hr 01m 07.115s + 40 25' 48.809" (2000).  
This identity is equal to 3 faint stars :   No modern listings for it other than 
NGC 2000 (No Type), APL = line of 3 sts. and MOL (NSO).  Steinicke (* Group).   
NED types as "Other." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 399.
POSS. O-1519.
Spitaler Nova #35.  04hr 59m 15.576s - 04 21' 31.127" (1950).
05hr 01m 44.419s - 04 17' 13.749" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  It is not equal to NGC 1741, being a separate galaxy located 
south following the NGC object.
Spitaler made two separate measurements of both IC 399 and NGC 1741 on the same 
night and he gave NGC 1741 coordinates of 04hr 59m 09.144s - 04 19' 58.212", thus 
separation values of 0 tmin 6.426 tsec and 01' 32.788" of arc from IC 399 and at 
these separations one finds a galaxy which although stellar in appearance is 
definitely a galaxy being equal to Markarian 1090.
The MCG and NGC 2000 incorrectly equate IC 399 with NGC 1741.  The MOL gives both 
identities as separate objects and lists IC 399 as (EO).  Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and 
the PGC correctly equates it with MK 1090 and the APL correctly states (= KET2 = 
Mark 1090).

IC 400.
POSS. O-1323.
O.Stone.  05hr 01m 27.899 - 15 52' 37.973" (1950).
05hr 03m 43.247s - 15 48' 29.460" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This galaxy exists but not at the historical coordinates.  
Stone list his discovery in a paper titled SOUTHERN NEBULAE and gives it the 
identity #209 Nova.  He gives his reference star as C.C.O. 228,  04hr 57m 45.5s - 
15 49' 39".3 (1950) and separation values only for RA of + 03 tmin 42.14 tsec 
which would result in a 1950 position of 05hr 01m 27.6s - 15 49' 39.3 and at these 
exact coordinates no nebular image exists.
Stone also used the same reference star to measure a position for his listed # 208 
which is NGC 1730, however, the coordinates he gives for the star C.C.O.228 are 
different in that his 1950 declination is given as -15 52' 23".3 or 02' 44".0 
farther south, this star is also AC #2340489 at 05hr 00m 01.297s - 15 47' 55.09" 
(2000) and when his separation values  for his # 209 = IC 400 are applied to this 
correction it results in being about 02 tsec from a faint extended galaxy which 
has a companion very close south.
Why Stone omitted giving any separation value in declination I am unable to say 
for sure, however, perhaps that as both the declination of the reference star and 
this galaxy is less than 1 arcmin apart he may have reasoned that such a 
difference would not hinder anyone from finding it.  He also omitted any 
declination separation value for NGC 1730.
Dr. Corwin has IC 400 listed in his APL three times and states that he is 
uncertain as to its identity.  His major points of uncertainty are based upon the 
02 tsec difference in Stone's RA and the existing candidate, also that this galaxy 
is perhaps too faint for Stone to have visually seen with the Leader McCormick 26 
inch telescope, however, it must be remembered that Stone gives his object 
a visual magnitude of 16.0, which even allowing for estimation errors still 
implies that it appeared exceedingly faint.
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give the declination based upon the historical 
data which as published by Stone would have the reference star error.  APL 
(identity uncertain).  Steinicke has the correct object. SIMBAD has "Not present in 
database." NED has "Identity very uncertain." 
For an excellent alternative opinion see Dr. Corwin's SOLUTIONS TO IC PROBLEMS.
NOTE: The galaxy I give as the candidate for the identity IC 400 is listed in the 
GSC as 059-989, Mp 15.26 Type 3 (Nonstellar Object) at 05hr 01m 29.96s - 15 53' 
15.2" (1950), or 05hr 03m 45.322s - 15 49' 06.816" (2000).

IC 403.
POSS O-668.
Spitaler #6.   05hr 11m 47.613s + 39 55' 01.971" (1950).
05hr 15m 16.161s + 39 58' 23.762" (2000).
This is equal to 2 stars :   It was described by Spitaler as "Extremely faint, 
round nebula,of about 5 arcsecs diameter."  Only  modern listings are Steinicke (* 
2), NGC 2000 (No Type), APL = 2-3 stars and MOL (NSO).   NED has "Other." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 406.
POSS. O-668.
Spitaler #7.  05hr 14m 20.529s + 39 49' 54.918" (1950).
05hr 17m 49.030s + 39 53' 05.780" (2000).
This is a small group of 3 stars in line north preceding south following :
Only listings in the modern catalogues are NGC 2000 (Open Cluster).  MOL (Open 
Cluster) and APL = line of 4 sts and Steinicke (*group).  
NED has "Other." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 408.
POSS. O-1462.
Swift List VIII, #38.  05hr 15m 51.414s - 25 08' 27.451" (1950).
05hr 17m 54.359s - 25 05' 19.888" (2000).
Unable to confirm.  Quite possibly equal to IC 2121 :  At Swift's nominal position 
no nebular object exists.  Swift's description is "Very faint, pretty small, 
elongated, 5 arcmin north of a 8.5 mag. star."  
The NGC 2000 gives (No Type) and the MOL (NSO).  APL (=**).  The ESO has 486-?050 
= IC 408? Steinicke has it equated with IC 2121. SIMBAD equates the identity IC 408 
with IC 2121 and this has considerable merit as there is an 8th magnitude star lying 
south of this galaxy and this galaxy has a Mp of 13.78 which would make it bright 
enough for Swift to have seen at such a southern declination. NED has "**."

IC 412.
POSS. O-1270.
Javelle #608.  05hr 19m 18.834s + 03 26' 17.892" (1950).
05hr 21m 56.547s + 03 29' 09.295" (2000).
Equal to IC 2123 (Barnard) :  Correctly noted as equivalent in the CGCG, UGC, NED, 
PGC, SIMBAD, Steinicke and APL.  The NGC 2000 lists both identities as separate 
galaxies as does the MOL.  The MCG gives only the identity IC 412.
NOTE :  Both IC 412 and the following error IC 413 are credited by Dreyer to both 
Barnard and Javelle in the IC I while the two identities IC 2123 and IC 2124 were 
credited by Dreyer to Barnard in the later published IC II and comparison of 
Dreyer's coordinates as given in the two IC catalogues would seem to me to suggest 
that the four identities were for 2 objects, something Dreyer often queried with 
other such cases yet he did not do so here.  In investigating these identities I 
came across a statement published in a paper (OBSERVATIONS OF NEBULAE WITH THE 36-
INCH REFRACTOR OF THE LICK OBSERVATORY. Publications of the Lick Observatory. vol 
ii, p.177), by F. Burnham which reads  
"This double nebula was discovered in 1888 by Barnard with the 12 inch telescope."  
Now the discovery date given by Javelle for both IC 412 and IC 413 is January 12th 
1894, which means that Barnard would have been the original discoverer.  This of 
course is only important in that it establishes which of the two observers was the 
first to see these two galaxies and therefore for historical accuracy Barnard is 
the rightful one to be credited with discovery.

IC 413.
POSS. O-1270.
Javelle #609.  05hr 19m 21.510s + 03 26' 04.277" (1950).
05hr 21m 59.218s + 03 28' 55.488" (2000).
Equal to IC 2124 (Barnard):  Part of the double system with IC 412 = IC 2123.  
Correctly identified in the CGCG, UGC, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, Steinicke and APL.  Both 
the NGC 2000 and MOL list both identities as separate galaxies and the MCG and RC3 
give the single identity IC 413.
(See IC 412).

IC 421.
POSS. O-1477.
Pickering  05hr 29m 49.470s - 08 06' 46.274" (1950).
05hr 32m 13.749s - 08 04' 39.894" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Dreyer's declination is off by about 9.0 arcmin too far south 
and this has influenced the declination as given in the NGC 2000 and MOL.  The 
APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and RC3 have the correct 1950 declination (- 07 57' 
12"). Identified in the MCG only as -1-15-001.

IC 422.
POSS. O-1482.
Javelle #611.  05hr 30m 05.440s - 17 15' 28.614" (1950).
05hr 32m 18.586s - 17 13' 22.959" (2000).
This is a duplicate identity of IC 2131 (Swift List XI, #80) :
Swift gave it coordinates of 05hr 29m 52s - 17 17'.7, however, his discovery date 
is October 16th 1896 whereas Javelle observed it on February 18th 1893 and 
therefore is the correct discoverer.
Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give both identities without 
equivalency.  The equivalency is correctly given in the APL, NED MCG, SIMBAD, 
Steinicke and PGC.
   
IC 436.
POSS O-1290.
Spitaler #8.  05hr 50m 13.197s + 38 37' 11.771" (1950).
05hr 53m 40.287s + 38 37' 46.931" (2000).
Equal to 3 stars :  Spitaler's description reads "Very clear air, looks like a 
faint nebula."
Its appearance on the Palomar print is of three closely associated stars forming a 
triangle, with two of the components being considerably fainter than the primary. 
Only modern listings are APL 4-5 vF sts only; no neb., NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).  Steinicke (=*3), SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NED has identified as 
IC 436 (Type Galaxy) at 05hr 53m 40.1s 38 37' 29" (2000), however, I am unable to 
see any nonstellar object at this position on the DSS.

IC 452.
POSS. O-1343.
Bigourdan #147.  06hr 46m 25.311s - 16 50' 38.286" (1950).
06hr 48m 39.198s - 16 54' 04.761" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 2296 (Swift List VI, #28) :
To begin.  Swift gave coordinates for his nova (NGC 2296) of 06hr 47m 03.971s - 16 
51' 48.626" (1950) at which no nonstellar object exists.   On March 9th 1890 
Bigourdan, as part of his survey of NGC objects visible from Paris, searched for 
NGC 2296 in the area suggested by Swift and Dreyer's coordinates and suspected a 
nebular image at a position he measured as 06hr 46m 55.277s - 16 51' 05.123" 
(1950), or about 09 tsec preceding Swift's RA.  Bigourdan described this supposed 
object as "Object strongly stellar, which appears to be formed by 2 or 3 very 
close unequal stars, or by a 13.4 to 13.5 mag. star surrounded by a small 
nebulosity, the envelope being of 10 arcsec extent."  Offsetting from his 
reference star shows that what he listed as NGC 2296 is in fact a star.  ( It 
should be remembered that this comes from his 1919 OBSERVATIONS).
At the March 31st 1891 meeting of L'Acadamie Des Sciences there was presented and 
published in the COMPTES RENDUS a list of 50 new discoveries by Bigourdan which he 
numbers 103 through 152.
His #147 is given coordinates of 06hr 46m 23s - 16 50'.7 (1950) and described as 
"Star of 12.8 mag. which appears to have surrounding nebulosity of 25 to 30 arcsec 
extent."  This later received the identity IC 452.
His #148 is given coordinates of 06hr 46m 54s - 16 58'.7 (1950) and described as 
"Star 13.4 to 13.5 mag. which is accompanied by a little nebulosity; appears to be 
a small cluster of 2 or 3 very close and unequal stars."  This later received the 
identity IC 453.
In 1919 when Bigourdan published his completed work, OBSERVATIONS, we find that he 
refers only to the identity B.147 (IC 452) and there is no reference or data 
attributed by him for his B.148.
He measures what he identifies as his B147 to have a position of 06hr 46m 24.300s 
- 16 50' 34.767" (1950) and then adds a footnote stating "This object may be 
Swift's (NGC 2296) but in that case the RA of the NGC is too large by 30 tsec."
Something here is definitely wrong concerning his statement that the RA difference 
would be 30 tsec because Swift had given NGC 2296 a RA of 6hr 47m 03.971s (which 
is the same as given in the NGC),which would be different from Bigourdan's RA for 
his #147 by about 40 tsec, not 30 tsec. however, the RA difference between 
Bigourdan's #147 and what Bigourdan thought he had observed as being NGC 2296 is 
about 31 tsec, therefore his reference to the NGC RA should be interpreted as 
being for the positions as given by Bigourdan and not by either Swift or Dreyer.
Additionally, there is no reference in the 1919 publication to any B.148 = IC 453, 
however, if we compare the COMPTES RENDUS data for B.148 the description he gives 
reads almost word for word the same as appears in the 1919 OBSERVATIONS for his 
NGC 2296 and the RA's are also almost a match.  It must be stated that the 
declinations involved here are different by about 7 arcmin but two out of three of 
these facts bear a striking similarity and as there is no reference to any B.148 
in the 1919 OBSERVATIONS one must wonder if Bigourdan considered the possibility 
of equivalency between his NGC 2296 and his B.148 which prompted him to not 
include B.148 in his completed works.
There is absolutely no dispute that at the coordinates as given by Bigourdan for 
his B.147 = IC 452 there does exist a nebular object and as this object is about 
40 tsec from the RA as given by Swift, something not unusual for him, I am willing 
to accept that this is probably the object seen by Swift and given the identity 
NGC 2296, therefore, IC 452 is equivalent to NGC 2296 and IC 453 is a star, the 
same star that Bigourdan identified incorrectly as being NGC 2296.
The other fact about this object is that there is evidence that it is not a galaxy 
but rather a diffuse, galactic nebula.  Corwin in his IC PUZZLES points out that 
Clemens et al have published a paper in which they have measured the radial 
velocity of this object as being almost zero, which if correct would indicate that 
it cannot be an extragalactic object.
The MOL gives separate identities to NGC 2296 and IC 452  while for IC 453 it 
states "May not exist."  NED  gives the equivalency between IC 452 and NGC 2296 
but types it as a galaxy, however, they do add "Claimed to be a galactic object by 
Takata et al (1994, A & AJ, 104, 529). " SIMBAD equates the identities IC 452 and 
NGC 2296, making it a "Reflection Nebula."  The DSFG makes the correct equivalency 
but types NGC 2296 as a galaxy as does the PGC and NGC 2000, the NGC 2000 making 
IC 453 = *  The MCG, APL and Steinicke correctly make the equivalency between IC 
452 and NGC 2296 and in the case of the APL and Steinicke they type NGC 2296 as 
being a galactic nebula while making IC 453 a star.  NED equates IC 452 with IC 
2296, typing it as a galaxy, however in its NOTES it does refer to the object as 
possibly being galactic. SIMBAD for IC 453 has "Not present in the database."

IC 453.
(See IC 452).

IC 454.
POSS. O-428.
Swift List IX, N0.16.  06hr 48m 26.489s + 12 57' 56.343" (1950).
06hr 51m 15.209s + 12 54' 20.007" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Incorrect RA in MCG (+2-18-002) given as 6hr 43.8m  Region not 
covered in the CGCG.  The UGC, RC3, NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), Steinicke, PGC, 
NED, SIMBAD and APL have the correct identity.  

IC 457.
POSS. O-691. 
Rosse, Kobold.  07hr 05m 38.201s + 50 13' 59.257" (1950).
07hr 09m 28.646s + 50 09' 08.030" (2000). (Kobold).
Confirmed galaxy equal to NGC 2330. :  There is considerable confusion associated 
with this identity, both in the historical and modern data.  The identity IC 457 
was given by Dreyer for a nebula that exists close south preceding NGC 2332.  
Dreyer coordinates and description is based primarily upon Kobold's observation, 
however, Dreyer also was aware that Rosse in his 3rd of 3 field sketches had 
indicated that an object existed there, thus we have in the IC I Dreyer crediting 
both Rosse and Kobold with the discovery.
Meanwhile in Rosse's Sketch #1 he had also indicated that there was a nebula which 
Dreyer seems to have interpreted as  being positioned close north of NGC 2332 as 
Dreyer gives it a declination 2.4 arcmin north of NGC 2332 and gave it the 
identity NGC 2330.  Bigourdan therefore searched and thought he had found a 
nonstellar object at this position which thus appeared to confirm the Dreyer 
identity and position and Dreyer credited it to Rosse ? and Bigourdan, however, 
examination of the POSS and DSS shows that this object is actually a faint star.
Rosse's Sketch 3 when compared with the modern field photographs clearly depicts 
the relative positions for 9 nebulae and the comparison also confirms that Rosse 
never indicated that there was any nebulae close north of NGC 2332, instead he 
shows one close south which is Kobold's IC 457, therefore the identity NGC 2330 
belongs to this galaxy and thus IC 457 is equal to NGC 2330.  
The MCG list the south preceding of the two existing galaxies as NGC 2332, but 
this is actually NGC 2330/IC 457, and then they identify the north following of 
the pair as NGC 2330, but this is the correct NGC 2332. The NGC 2000, MOL and DSFG 
have each identified NGC 2330 as a galaxy at the Dreyer (Bigourdan) position north 
of NGC 2332, but this is a star.  The CGCG and UGC (notes to U03699) list the 
identity only as IC 457.  Carlson states "NGC 2330 = IC 458.?, Reinmuth'' which is 
incorrect.
The PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and APL correctly make IC 457 = NGC 2330, although 
the APL add a ? to the equivalency and NED has "Uncertain.".  The RC3 has no listing 
for either of the identities NGC 2330 or IC 457.
NOTE: The precise nominal positions given for IC 457, 458, 461, 462 and 465 are 
derived from Kobold's paper STRASSBURG ANNALEN, VOL.III, 1909.  He previously had 
published positions in AN #3184 which are only slightly different in positional 
data.

IC 458.
POSS. O-691.
Rosse, Swift List VIII.#44 and Kobold.  07hr 06m 44.049s + 50 12' 04.738" (1950).
07hr 10m 34.293s + 50 07' 08.929" (2000). (Kobold).
Confirmed galaxy :  Correctly identified in the modern catalogues with the 
exception of the MCG which incorrectly identifies its + 8-13-89 as IC 458 (this is 
actually IC 460).  The correct IC 458 is MCG + 8-13-85 and this error is pointed 
out by the PGC. APL has in its NOTES "IC 458 may be(or maybe not!) NGC 2330, which 
see." 

IC 461.
POSS. O-691. 
Rosse, Swift List VIII.#45 and Kobold.  07hr 06m 55.600s + 50 09' 39.825" (1950).
07hr 10m 45.715s + 50 04' 43.217" (2000). (Kobold). 
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the MCG only as +8-13-88.  The CGCG, APL, PGC, 
Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (Galaxy) and MOL (NSO) correctly identify IC 461.  
The DSFG because it confuses the identities of NGC 2330 and NGC 2332 gives in its 
data incorrect separation values (13 arcmins ESE of NGC 2332).  Not listed in RC3.

IC 462.
POSS. O-691.
Kobold.   07hr 07m 05.956s + 50 15' 50.810" (1950).
07hr 10m 56.333s + 50 10' 53.471" (2000).
Either a double star or a star + galaxy? :  At Kobold's nominal position there is 
the image of a faint star with what may be an even fainter galaxy off its north 
preceding edge. Based upon the fact that Kobold described NGC 2340 which follows 
about 14 tsec as faint I would assume that he would have had difficulty seeing 
this object.
Not listed in CGCG or UGC.  The MCG identifies its +8-13-92 as IC 462, however, 
this is IC 464.  The PGC also incorrectly makes this equivalency, as has SIMBAD.  
APL gives 3 separate listings.  The first two. make it a star. Only other listings 
are NGC 2000 (No Type), Steinicke (=*2) and MOL (NSO). NED has (Galactic star).
NOTE :  The image on the new Second Generation of the DSS clearly shows that the 
north preceding component is definitely a galaxy.

IC 465.
POSS. 0-61
Rosse, Kobold.  07hr 07 43.242s + 50 19' 55.207" (1950).
07hr 11m 33.737s + 50 14' 55.270" (2000).
One of the galaxies in the NGC 2332/NGC2340 group :  
There is considerable confusion and some mystery in both the historical and modern 
literature concerning the 4 NGC and 10 IC identities associated with this group.
Firstly, in addition to the 4 NGC identities (NGC 2330, 2332, 2334 and 2340), 
given by Dreyer, he had access at the time he was compiling the observational data 
for his NGC Catalogue (1888) to a sketch (No. III) by Lord Rosse made 
in 1851, which clearly and accurately shows a total of 9 nebulae, yet for some 
unknown reason Dreyer omitted in his NGC to include 7 of these objects.  Secondly, 
Bigourdan evidently made observations of the field as early as November 15th and 
16th 1885 during which observations he correctly makes observations of NGC 2332 
and NGC 2340 and additionally claims discovery of 8 other new nebulae, NGC 2330, 
nothing at nominal position 07hr 05 44.375s +50 18' 57.307 (1950) other than a 
very faint star and NGC 2334, equal to a faint star at 07hr 06m 01.929s +50 16' 
32.808 (1950).and an additional 6 nebulae which turn out to be IC 457, IC 458, 
IC459, IC 461, IC 464 and IC 465, each existing  galaxies, yet it is not until 
1919 that he publishes these IC galaxy discoveries, therefore, not only did 
Bigourdan miss having these 6 IC identities credited to him in the NGC Catalogue 
with NGC numbers, but he also reported them too late to be credited as co-
discoverer by Dreyer in the IC Catalogue I. Kobold examined the field in 1893 
(Astronomische Nachrichten #3184 and Strassburg Annalen, Vol. III, 1909) and gives 
coordinates (slightly offset to the north following of the precise positions), for 
a total of 11 nebulae of which he only identifies NGC 2332 and IC 2340.  
Later Dreyer gave the other 9 objects the following IC identities. IC 457, 458, 
459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464 and 465. (Index Catalogue I).  By the time Dreyer was 
ready to publish his IC Catalogue I he realized that 7 of Kobold's objects were 
also those depicted in Rosse's sketch No. III, therefore, he credited these 7 to 
both Rosse and Kobold and the remaining 2 , IC 460 and IC 462, to Kobold alone.
Now concerning the identity IC 465.  This galaxy definitely exists at 07hr 11m 
33.82s +50 14' 51".15 (2000) and is clearly shown on Rosse's sketch No. III, 
identified as (theta) north following NGC 2340.  It was also seen by Bigourdan and 
Kobold.  
Dr. Harold Corwin, NED and Wolfgang Steinicke both equate this identity with the
identity NGC 2334 (Corwin IC 465 = NGC 2334? APL), whereas I can see no 
justification for any equivalency, rather I identify IC 465 as an existing galaxy 
and the identity NGC 2334 as being a faint star.  Harold and I have discussed this 
problem by e-mail and have failed to come to any agreement (See Corwin's
data files). SIMBAD gives the identity IC 465 and for NGC 2334 has "Not present in 
the database."
Following are my arguments:  Dreyer gave the identity NGC 2334 to a supposed 
nonstellar object which he places in his NGC Catalogue at a 1950 position of 07hr 
06m 03.303s +50 17' 17.413" thus placing it to be fairly close north following the 
galaxy NGC 2332.  He credits it to  Lord Rosse ? and Bigourdan who placed it at 
07hr 06m 01.929s +50 16' 32.808" (1950). (corrected by offset from his reference 
star which is GSC 3400-1171).and at this position there is only a faint star lying 
between two 12th Mv stars, which is exactly as described by Bigourdan.
IC 465 lies north following the galaxy NGC 2340 at a position of 07hr 07m 43.242s 
+50 19' 55.207" (1950). (Kobold) and is credited by Dreyer to Lord Rosse and 
Kobold and therefore would be distant from NGC 2334 by 1 tmin 41.008tsec RA and 3 
arcmin 17.189 arcsec Dec. (based upon Bigourdan's coordinates).
In the Rosse observations there are 3 sketches.  Sketch No. I shows 2 nebulae, a 
faint double star (a) and an arrow which is supposed to indicate the direction of 
field movement (preceding to following).  The larger nebula is identified as GC 
1491 (equal to NGC 2332) and the smaller nebula (b), is placed close preceding one 
end of the larger nebula.  Sketch No. II also shows 2 nebulae, a star and a 
directional arrow.  The larger is identified as h 433 (equal to NGC 2340) with a 
smaller nebula at a much greater distance.
Rosse's descriptions pertaining to these two sketches are.  "(a) is, I think a 
double star and (b) a S neb. h 430 (NGC 2332),is E np sf.   h 433 (NGC 2340), is 
followed by a *10m at 1 arcmin distant, a second neb 6 arcmin sf [Diag. II] "  
The problem with these two sketches concerns just where the directions north and 
south lie, as based upon the descriptions the suggested north and south do not 
comply in regards to the relative positions of the smaller nebulae with what one 
finds in either Rosse's sketch No. III or with the field as seen on the POSS or 
DSS.  The object (b) would appear in sketch I to lie to the north of NGC 2332 and 
the smaller nebula in sketch II would be south following NGC 3240 and if I 
interpret correctly Harold's argument this is part of his basis for equating the 
identities NGC 2334 and IC 465., but then we come to Rosse's sketch No. III in 
which all of his depicted objects can be shown to be single existing galaxies and 
he places none of his objects close north following NGC 2332 where both Bigourdan 
and Dreyer have the object identified as being NGC 2334.
I believe that Bigourdan consulted Rosse's 3 sketches and as with Dreyer he 
concluded that based upon sketches Nos. I and II there might be a nebula close 
north of NGC 2332, therefore he searched that area and thought he had indeed 
located a nonstellar object in a position relative to that suggested by sketch No. 
I  This then became what Dreyer identified as NGC 2334, but it has no affiliation 
with the galaxy IC 465.  When Sketch I is aligned correctly it greatly suggests 
that object (b) should lie south preceding NGC 2332 and would be equal to IC 457 
which is in turn equal to NGC 2330 (SEE IC 457)., and that the smaller galaxy on 
sketch II is the single galaxy IC 465 which lies north following NGC 2340, not 
south following as stated in Rosse's description.
The NGC 2000 gives both identities as separate objects at Dreyer's coordinates 
while the MOL also gives the Dreyer coordinates making IC 465 (NSO) and NGC 2334 
(Non existing object).  Steinicke and the APL both equate the identities 
NGC 2334 and IC 465, the APL qualifying the equivalency with a question mark (?).  
PGC gives the single identity IC 465.
NOTE:  It is also my opinion that Dreyer was not fully convinced as to whether 
Bigourdan's nova (NGC 2334) was also one of Rosse's objects and that when he 
assigned the identity NGC 2334 it was entirely based upon the fact that 
according to Bigourdan there was a nebula relatively close to where Rosse's sketch 
No.I suggested, close north of NGC 2332 and that it was this doubt that prompted 
Dreyer to place the question mark following the name Lord Rosse as co-discoverer 
of NGC 2334.  Certainly by the time Dreyer had access to Kobold's observations 
(prior to publication of the IC Catalogue I), he should have been able to compare 
the relative positions given in the Kobold data with those shown in Rosse'e Third 
sketch, which in both cases invalidate the existence of any nonstellar objects at 
the required position for any NGC 2334, but evidently he never questioned this.

IC 467.
POSS. O-1256. 
Denning. 07hr 19m 10.708s + 80 01' 02.217" (1950).
07hr 27m 37.408s + 79 55' 05.415" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  The error would appear to be only in the coordinate data and 
due to the very high declination of this galaxy.   
The MOL gives 7hr 19m 10s + 80 01' 5" which is in good agreement with Denning, 
however, the CGCG, NGC 2000, UGC, PGC, DSFG, RC3 and MCG all give coordinates 
around 7hr 21.6m + 79 58'.0 and these reflect better positional 
accuracy.  The APL and Steinicke have the most precise coordinates at 7hr 21m 
54.4s + 79 58' 27". (1950).  Correctly identified in NED and SIMBAD.

IC 468.
POSS. 0-1619.
Bigourdan # 149. 07hr 15m 01.172s - 13 07' 44.178" (1950).
07hr 19m 20.103s - 13 13' 11.367" (2000).
Bigourdan made two separate observation, both times employing as his reference 
star (Anon) =  AC 2000.2 #2387706 and his separation values as applied to this 
star by his first observation would give the above coordinates, while for his 
second observation the result would differ only by -4.54 tsec RA and 9.5 arcsec 
farther north.
The former coordinates land very close to a faint double star, while the second 
coordinates land close to a faint star preceding the double star.  Thus at neither 
do we find any evidence of any nonstellar image, only faint stars.
Bigourdan points out in his description for his second observation that he doubts 
that it exists as any type of nebula.
NED has "Other."  NGC 2000 lists it as "Neb."  MOL has 
"May not exist."  APL gives it as ***, as does Steinicke. SIMBAD identifies it as an 
HII Region at coordinates that have nothing to do with Bigourdan's data.

IC 470.
POSS. O-670.
Swift List X. #17.  07hr 19m 53.292s + 46 10' 20.042" (1950).
07hr 23m 32.141s + 46 04' 30.176" (2000).
Not found :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), Steinicke (* 
2) and APL which gives (= **) as does NED.  SIMBAD "Object of unknown nature." 

IC 473.
POSS. O-1003.
Spitaler 9.  07hr 39m 41.171s + 09 22' 27.506"
07hr 42m 24.815s + 09 15' 19.692" (2000).
Equal to 3 stars :  It lies at 4 tsec following the star BD +9 1746 equal to AC 
#287004 as stated by Spitaler.  Correctly listed in the APL (=***). Listed in NGC 
2000 (No Type), Steinicke (=*3) and MOL (NSO).  NED "Other." SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database." 


IC 483.
POSS O-226.
Spitaler #10.  07hr 56m 50.166s + 26 03' 38.133" (1950).
07hr 59m 52.237s + 25 55' 23.173" (2000).
This is equal to 2 stars :  Only listings found are NGC 2000 (No Type), APL = **, 
Steinicke (* 2).  MOL (NSO). NED has "!**." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 487.
POSS. O-1298.
Swift List VII, #10.  07hr 56m 38.818s - 00 31' 28.015" (1950).
07hr 59m 11.943s - 00 39' 41.374" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 2494 (Marth #110) :  Marth's RA has an error of ~ 01 tmin but 
there can be little doubt that Swift's Nova is the same object first seen by 
Marth.
The MCG gives only the identity IC 487.  The equivalency is correctly noted in the 
NGC 2000, NED, MOL, APL, NED, SIMBAD, Steinicke, PGC, and Carlson.

IC 488.
POSS O-226.
Spitaler #13. See below for coordinates.
There are two possible images either of which might be Spitaler's object :
If the stated coordinates are updated, 07hr 57m 46.848s +26 02' 45.960" (1950), 
08hr 00m 48.834s + 25 54' 27.414" (2000), then what Spitaler was seeing is a faint 
double star whose components are aligned south preceding north following.  However, 
Spitaler shows in his description that there is a 13 mag. star preceding 
his nova and that the nova's separation from this star  is  16.84 tsec RA and 20.4 
arcsec north following, which then would give coordinates of 07hr 57m 48.718s + 26 
02' 14.282" (1950), 08hr 00m 50.689s + 25 53' 55.618" (2000), which lands on the 
brightest and preceding star of a compact trio very closely south following the 
faint double star.
Due to this seemingly conflicting data it is difficult to know exactly which of 
these two possibilities is correct. Therefore, like Dr. Corwin, I am leaving this 
identity open.  
Only listings found were NGC 2000 (No Type), Steinicke (* 2), APL (= 3 F sts and = 
** ?), NED "Other." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." and MOL (NSO).

IC 489.
POSS O-226.
Spitaler #14.  07hr 58m 35.987s + 26 08 14.347" (1950).
08hr 01m 38.028s + 25 59' 52.695" (2000).
Equal to a single star :  Only listings found were NGC 2000 (No Type), NED "!*." 
SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL  = * , MOL has (NSO).  Steinicke has (= 
*).     

IC 496.
POSS O-226
Javelle #152.  08hr 06m 42.650s + 26 01' 49.861" (1950).
08hr 09m 43.959s + 25 52' 57.843" (2000).
Javelle's Corrected Nominal Position lands right on the preceding of two galaxies 
that line up preceding and following, being less than 2 tsec apart, therefore its 
identity is secure.  
During his observation of his #152 he makes no direct mention of the following 
galaxy, other than a personal reference to the fact that #152 appears to be 
extended in an east-west direction.  Whether this impression results from 
glimpsing the following galaxy it is impossible to say, therefore without 
additional evidence one must at this time accept that his Object # 1025 = IC 2229, 
observed some 4 years after his discovery of IC 496, is a duplicate observation of 
IC 496.  In his description for IC 2229 he omits any mention of IC 496 which would 
appear to support the equivalency conclusion and his Corrected Nominal Position 
for IC 2229 lands about half-way between the two galaxies, therefore I am going 
with IC 496 being equal to IC 2229.
The CGCG and MCG incorrectly list the two identities as IC 495 = IC 2229.  The NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) list both IC 496 and IC 2229 as separate identities.  
The PCG lists IC 495 = IC 2229 in its main catalogue, however, it changes this to 
IC 496 = IC 2229 in its Corrections.  
The APL and NED equate the identities IC 496 and IC 2229 as does Steinicke.  Not 
listed in the UGC or RC3.  SIMBAD identifies the preceding image as being IC 496 and 
the following image as IC 2229, and based upon the red shift values they would 
appear to be separate galaxies.

IC 507.
POSS. O-1305.
Swift List VIII, #47.  08hr 22m 34.151s - 00 16' 52.281" (1950).
08hr 25m 07.537s - 00 26' 40.992" (2000).
This is a duplicate of NGC 2590. (Stephan IX, #15).  Dreyer in the IC I 
incorrectly reduced Swift's RA, giving it a position of 08hr 23m 04s  or 31 tsec 
greater than Swift's RA.  Also on page 377, NGC/IC Dreyer states "Not found. Howe 
3 nights."  Stephan had given his NGC 2590 coordinates of 08hr 22m 27.9s - 00 25' 
31" and Swift's description matches this galaxy.
The NGC 2000 types it as (?) at the incorrect Dreyer coordinates and the MOL also 
gives the Dreyer coordinates and states "May not exist."  Correctly equated with 
NGC 2590 in the PGC, APL and Steinicke.  The MCG and SIMBAD give the single identity 
NGC 2590.  NED has correct equivalency.
   
IC 518.
POSS. O-1305.
Bigourdan #151.  08hr 33m 32.565s + 00 52' 03.810" (1950).
08hr 36m 07.006s + 00 41' 36.925" (2000).
Not found :  This is a rather unusual problem in that there is conflicting 
historical data concerning this identity.
To begin with Dreyer lists this object with 1950 coordinates of 8hr 34m 28s + 00 
51'.7 which is about 1 tmin larger than the RA I have given above, so why this 
difference?
Dreyer obtained his positional data exactly as given by Bigourdan in the 
publication COMPTES RENDUS for the meeting of March 31st 1891 in which Bigourdan 
describes it as being a 13.5 mag. nebulous object appearing to be formed by a 
number of associated stars, however, when the COMPTES RENDUS position is examined 
on the Palomar print no object can be found and this is what Corwin in his APL 
found in his investigation.  Two of the other modern sources listing this 
identity, the NGC 2000 (open cluster) and MOL (open cluster) place it at the 
Dreyer position.
Next, examination of Bigourdan's 1919 OBSERVATIONS ETC; has two separate 
observations for his #151.  The first on March 15th 1890, the second on February 
16th 1896 and on both occasions he employs as his reference star BD +1 2137 
measuring separations of - 13.19 tsec. in RA and - 4 arcmin 33.6 arcsec which when 
applied to the coordinates for his reference star and then precessed to 1950 and 
2000 give the coordinate as I have listed above, at about 1 tmin less than 
Dreyers.
Now when this new position is checked upon the Palomar print it lands very close 
to the galaxy NGC 2618 and I was almost ready to claim that IC 518 and NGC 2618 
were equivalent identities, however, Bigourdan on the same two nights made two 
separate observations of NGC 2618 and there can be no doubt that he was observing 
the correct object as in addition to using a reference star, which he called 
(Anon 2), he gives separations and PA's for 3 associated stars and all of these 
stars are at the relative positions he gives.
Bigourdan also states in his 1919 publication "NGC 2618. This nebula is found 13 
secs in front of the NGC position."  
Actually according to the APL 1950 position for NGC 2618 Dreyer's RA is 7 tsec too 
large and then Bigourdan states in his description for his #151 = IC 518,  "This 
object is found at the position given by the NGC for NGC 2618."  
Again according to the APL it is actually 7 tsecs of RA too small.  So it would 
seem that Bigourdan's arrived at positions for both of these identities is 
somewhat off, but again what is Bigourdan's object #151?
As he gives positions for both identities I could then only work out the relative 
separations he makes between them and measure these differences from NGC 2618 on 
the Palomar print and the result is similar to Dr. Corwin's (except at a 1 tmin 
difference), in that there is no nonstellar object, the closest thing being a 13 
magnitude star.
Only other modern listings are Steinicke (Not found), NGC 2000 (Open cluster), NED 
"Other." SIMBAD "Not present in the database," and MOL (Open cluster).

IC 532.
POSS. O-1535
Bigourdan #152.  09hr 16m 42.200s - 16 32' 34.319" (1950).
09hr 19m 02.020s - 16 45' 16.507" (2000).
Not found :  The only historical observation of this I found was in Bigourdan's 
entry in the COMPTES RENDUS in which he describes it as being Bright, elongated 
towards a PA of 97 degrees.  Length 1.5 arcmin.  Brightens towards the center but 
not to a nucleus.
I was unable to find it listed in his 1919 OBSERVATIONS which might indicate that 
he had second thoughts about its existence.
Listed in the NGC 20000 (?) and MOL (May not exist).  Carlson has "Not found, 
Helwan." as do the APL and Steinicke. SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NED 
"Other."

IC 533.
POSS. O-922.
Javelle #633.  09hr 17m 52.452s - 03 46' 44.907" (1950).
09hr 20m 23.251s - 03 59' 30.435" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The MOL (NSO) gives a 1950 declination of -07 46' 45"  but 
this refers to an "Anon" = MCG-01 -24-10 and is not Javelle's object which exists 
at the coordinates he gives.  The APL gives the correct identification as does the 
NGC 2000 and Steinicke.  NED has correct identity.   SIMBAD has "Not present in the 
database," but lists the correct galaxy as

IC 538.
POSS. O-237.
Bigourdan #154.  09hr 24m 26.914s + 23 14' 20.675" (1950).
09hr 27m 18.439s + 23 01' 16.525" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 2885 (h. 599) :  J. Herschel (Slough Observations. 1833.) 
listed discovery of a nebula at 9hr 24m 53s (+ or -) + 23 13 55, describing it as 
"Exceedingly faint, very small, elongated in the parallel, RA very uncertain." and 
it was this object that Dreyer assigned the identity NGC 2885.
Later Bigourdan searched for NGC 2885 at the given coordinates but was unable to 
find anything, however, he did list discovery of a nebula (B.154) at 9hr 24m 
27.085s + 23 14' 17.026" (1950) and Dreyer gave this object the identity IC 538 
with a notation, "*13 in VF neb.(?=h599, whose RA was uncertain)." (NGC/IC. 
P.257.).
This galaxy is the brightest of a group of 5 and because of the relatively small 
amount of difference in RA between J. Herschel and Bigourdan (27s) and the 
uncertainty expressed by Herschel as to the accuracy of his measured RA I am 
convinced that NGC 2885 and IC 538 are the same object.  (See WSQJ. No.81. July 
1991. "Identification Errors in the NGC 2885 Galaxy Group." M.J.Thomson) also 
(Q.J.R. astr. Soc.(1992). No.33.  "A List of Some Corrections to Zwicky's 
Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies." M.J.Thomson.)  The CGCG 
incorrectly identifies this galaxy as being IC 2474  (See IC 2474).  This same 
error is repeated in the UGC and MOL.  The MCG gives only the identity IC 538 
while the PGC although pointing out the CGCG error, does not refer to the 
equivalency.  
The RNGC has completely confused the identity, making an Anon. ZWG 122.006 equal 
to RNGC 2885 as does the DSFG.  Not listed in the RC3.  The APL and NED correctly 
equate IC 538 and NGC 2885.  Steinicke also equates NGC 2885 and IC 538.  SIMBAD 
list both identities separately.

IC 541.
POSS. O-922.
Swift List IX, #21.  09hr 28m 00.971s - 04 01' 42.900" (1950).
09hr 30m 31.745s - 04 14' 56.330" (2000).
Not found :  No nebular image at nominal position.  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No 
Type) and MOL as (NSO).  The APL and Steinicke both list it as Not found.  NED 
gives "Other." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 543. 
POSS. O-1016. 
Bigourdan #155.  09hr 28m 46.413s - 14 33' 35.017" (1950).
09hr 31m 09.476s - 14 46' 50.516" (2000). 
Not found :   I was unable to find any reference to this object in Bigourdan's 
publication (1919).   At the separation values, 17s RA following and 2.7 arcmin 
south of NGC  2902  (obtained from Comptes Rendus data), no nebular image exists, 
however, at about these same values preceding and south of NGC 2902 there 
definitely is a galaxy.  
Whether this is a viable candidate or not I am unable to say but I doubt that IC 
543 can be equal to NGC 2902 as Bigourdan made two separate observations of this 
NGC galaxy. 
The MCG, NGC 2000, SIMBAD and PGC all make IC 543 = NGC 2902.   CGCG has no listing.  
MOL lists as a separate  (Nonstellar Object) with Dreyer's coordinates.  RC3 gives 
single identity NGC 2902.  The APL states "Not found." as does Steinicke.  NED has  
"Other."
NOTE :  I find it rather interesting that Bigourdan in his Comptes Rendus 
description for his B.159 = IC 640 states that it is elongated in a PA of 104 and 
is 80 arcsecs long by 35 arcsecs wide yet in his later published 1919 work he 
states that without doubt this is a false image.  His Comptes Rendus description 
for B.155 = IC 543 states that it is elongated in a PA of 100 and is 80 arcsecs 
long and 40 arcsecs wide.  

IC 547.
(See IC 2494).

IC 554.
POSS. O-990.
Swift List X, #(None).  09hr 38m 58.483s + 12 40' 15.263" (1950).
09hr 41m 40.742s + 12 26' 33.287" (2000).
Not found. Probably equal to IC 555 :  This is one of a few objects published in 
MNRAS Vol. LIII, p.273, thus it does not have a Swift object number.  At the 
coordinates as measured by Swift no nonstellar object exists, the closest object 
being a single star.  Corwin in his APL equates Swift's identity with IC 555 which 
was discovered by Javelle some 6 nights prior to Swift's observation and as the 
differences in coordinates are only 9 seconds RA and 8.4 arcmin Dec. it is almost 
certain that Corwin is correct.
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO), both listing the two 
identities as separate objects.  The APL gives = IC 555.  Steinicke has (IC 554 = 
IC 555).  PGC lists IC 555 but has no listing for IC 554.  SIMBAD confirms the 
identity IC 555 but without any equivalency with IC 554 which they lists as (Not 
found). NED gives the equivalency.

IC 555.
(See IC 554).

IC 556.
POSS. O-990.
Javelle #168.  09hr 40m 59.631s + 11 17' 27.032" (1950).
09hr 43m 40.832s + 11 03' 40.059" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy. Probably = NGC 2984 (H 34-3).  At the coordinates for NGC 2984 
as measured by both William and John Herschel (9hr 42m 15s + 11 21 20 W.H. and 9hr 
42m 16s + 11 15'.2 J.H.) no galaxy exists.  Also in the case of John Herschel he 
states that both his RA and DEC. are not precise, thus it is highly probable that 
what Javelle recorded is H 34-3 and that he was misled by the coordinates as given 
by Dreyer for NGC 2984 which were based upon the J.H. data.
The CGCG, UGC and MCG give only the identity IC 556 without listing any NGC 2984 
identity.  The MOL (NSO), lists both identities as separate objects.  The APL, 
Steinicke, NED, PGC, SIMBAD and NGC 2000 make IC 556 = NGC 2984.

IC 567.
POSS. O-990.
Bigourdan #156.  09hr 47m 51.607s + 13 01' 14.046" (1950).
09hr 50m 33.617s + 12 47' 10.446" (2000).
This is a single star :  Listed in the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  The APL 
correctly identifies it as being a star 1'.95 north following NGC 3024.
Steinicke originally equated this with the faint galaxy REIZ 77 and indeed REIZ in 
his ANNALS OF THE LUND OBSERVATORY. NO.9, 1941 does identify his #77 as being IC 
567 at 09hr 48m 00s + 13 03'.2, however, not only does this galaxy not fit 
Bigourdan's offsets from the galaxy NGC 3024, but its appearance on the DSS would 
strongly suggest that it was beyond the capabilities of the Paris 12.4 inch 
refractor.  Steinicke in his latest update now correctly list IC 567 as being a 
star. NED has "!*."  SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL "=*."
NOTE:  Bigourdan measured the coordinates by offsetting from the galaxy NGC 3024, 
however, although his offsets are correct his coordinates for NGC 3024 reflect a 
positional error due to his incorrect coordinates for his prime reference star, 
BD+31 2162, which he obtained from the BD catalogue and from which he then gave 
separation values to his secondary reference star, ANON(1) and (2).
Because of the error originating in the BD catalogue Bigourdan's nominal position 
is not very accurate, however, by confirming that his ANON (1) and (2) is equal to 
GSC 834-265 at 09hr 47m 43.00 + 12 54' 49.6" (1950) and then applying his offsets 
(+ 0 tmin 2.10 tsec RA and + 5 arcmin 12.4 arcsec Dec) the result is the correct 
position for NGC 3024 and then when his offsets (+ 0 tmin 6.30 tsec RA and + 1 
arcmin 17 arcsec Dec.) are in turn applied to his now corrected coordinates they 
land right on the star north following NGC 3024.

IC 573.
POSS. O-1536.
Javelle #171.  09hr 51m 07.563s - 12 14' 36.347" (1950).
09hr 53m 33.550s - 12 28' 47.411" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 3058 (Leavenworth) :  There can be little if any doubt that 
this is the object seen at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  Leavenworth 
described it as being "extremely faint, pretty large. Double or bi-nuclear."  He 
gave it very poor coordinates of 09hr 52m 55s - 12 13'.9 (something found with 
almost all of the Leander McCormick positions for their NGC discoveries as opposed 
to those measured for their IC discoveries which are generally very accurate) and 
this is what misled Javelle into thinking he had a Nova.
The MOL (NSO) gives separate identities and separate coordinates for both 
identities.  Correctly noted as equal to NGC 3058 in the NGC 2000, MCG, NED, SIMBAD, 
APL, PGC and Steinicke.

IC 579.
POSS. O-935.
Swift List VIII, #50.  09hr 54m 09.001s - 13 54' 43.889" (1950).
09hr 56m 34.008s - 14 09' 01.871" (2000).
Not found :  There is no suitable image at the nominal position or in the 
immediate field.  The APL has a suggested identification (?) at 09hr 54m 14.1s - 
13 32' 12" which the PGC, NED, SIMBAD, RC3 and Steinicke also identify as being IC 
579.  The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) list it at Swift's given position.   

IC 580.
POSS. O-74.
Javelle #175.  09hr 55m 15.993s + 10 40' 17.907" (1950).
09hr 57m 56.115s + 10 25' 57.298" (2000).
This is equivalent to NGC 3069 (Rosse).
In Rosse's observation of NGC 3070 made on March 15th, 1877. he states "pB, pS, R, 
mbM, among 3 st.  5' nnp is an object which I have little doubt is a vF, vS neb, 
perhaps lE [= 5513]. Clouds."  
Now the reference [=5513] is for the Dreyer Supplemental Identity to John 
Herschel's GC catalogue and is equal to NGC 3069.  
Javelle's #175 is quite obviously this same object as can easily be determined 
from his coordinates and separations from his reference star DM +11 2133.  How 
Javelle overlooked the Dreyer data for NGC 3069 is something I am unable to 
explain as in his description for IC 580 he makes no reference to NGC 3070.
CGCG and UGC (Notes to NGC 3070) identify this object only as IC 580.  The MOL 
(NSO) gives both identities with separate coordinates.  The RC3 gives the correct 
identity NGC 3069 but does not mention the equivalency.  The MCG states "IC 580 = 
NGC 3069?"  The APL, NGC 2000, Steinicke, SIMBAD, NED and PGC correctly give the 
equivalency.     
NOTE :  See RASQJ (1992) #33, p.61. "A List of Some Corrections to Zwicky's 
Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies."  M.J.Thomson.

IC 587.
POSS. O-470
Javelle #661.  10hr 00m 32,156s - 02 09' 28.299" (1950).
10hr 03m 04.578s - 02 24' 00.414" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  At the historical coordinates no nebular image exists, 
however, by reversing the direction of separation as given by Javelle for both RA 
and declination from his reference star, DM-1 2336 it results in finding a galaxy 
fitting Javelle's description at 10hr 00m 32.156s - 02 09' 28,299" (1950).  
Both Carlson and MOL have typed IC 567 as being equal to the star BD -1 2334 which 
lies 01m 26.6s preceding and 04.7 arcmin south of Javelle's reference star DM -1 
2336 and this identity is clearly based upon the separation values as given by 
Javelle (01m 28.2 s following and 02.0 arcmin south), which lands less than 05.0 
arcmin from the 9.3 star BD -1 2334, however, as stated, when Javelle's separation 
signs are reversed they do land upon a galaxy compatible with Javelle's 
description.
The MCG identifies this galaxy only as - 0-26-12 and the CGCG only as ZWG 470.028.  
Correct identity given by NGC 2000, APL, NED, SIMBAD, PGC, RC3 and Steinicke.

IC 591.
POSS. O-74.
Javelle #177.  10hr 04m 47.388s + 12 31' 06.416" (1950).
10hr 07m 28.130s + 12 16' 25.184" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the UGC only as U05458.  Correctly identified in 
the CGCG, PGC, MCG, RC3, DSFG, NGC 2000 (GX.) and MOL (NSO).  The APL equates it 
with Todd's #22, which never was assigned any NGC identity by Dreyer.  I examined 
Todd's data and could not derive any information that would confirm this 
equivalency.  Correctly identified by Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED.

IC 602.
POSS. O-1359.
Javelle #673.  10hr 15m 42.430s + 07 18' 14.723" (1950).
10hr 18m 19.825s + 07 03' 11.788" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy, but may be equal to NGC 3186 (Marth #195)   
There is no doubt that IC 602 is at the coordinates as given by Javelle, making up 
a double system with IC 601, however, Steve Gottlieb has put forth an excellent 
argument that suggests that IC 602 is equal to NGC 3186.
Steve while examining the field visually found what he first thought was NGC 3186 
but later realized that he had been observing what all the modern  sources other 
than the RNGC and MOL  have identified as being IC 602.  In the course of his 
investigation he found that IC 602 lies almost exactly 1 tmin. following the 
coordinates given by Marth for his #195 = NGC 3186 and that Marth's declination 
was in agreement with that given by Javelle for IC 602 and that the RNGC (MOL) 
candidate for NGC 3186 was much fainter than IC 602 and requires not only a 
correction of about 19 tsec. in RA but would also need a change of about 5 arcmin. 
in declination which he considered to be unlikely, as do I.
If Steve is right, and I feel that he has a very strong case, then IC 602 is 
indeed equal to NGC 3186, which invalidates the RNGC and MOL data for NGC 3186 and 
would require that the single identity IC 602 as given in the CGCG, UGC, MCG, NED, 
PGC, SIMBAD, RC3, Steinicke, APL and NGC 2000 have the equivalency of NGC 3186 added 
to their data.

IC 604.
POSS. O-962
Swift List IX, No.22..  10hr 20m 30.149s + 57 16' 53.291" (1950).
10hr 23m 46.736s + 57 01' 41.031" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 3220 (H 911-3).  Listed in the CGCG, UGC, DFSG, PGC, SIMBAD and 
MCG only as NGC 3220.  Both the NGC 2000 and MOL list both identities as separate 
objects.  The APL, NED and Steinicke correctly give (= NGC 3220).   

IC 606.
POSS. O-238.
Javelle #676.  10hr 20m 55.155s + 11 12' 52.021" (1950).
10hr 23m 34.314s + 10 57' 39.404" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 3217 (Todd #29) :  Even though Todd's measured coordinates 
for NGC 3217 are 10hr 18.8m + 11 08.4, which are greatly in error, comparison of 
the configuration of the field stars he gives in his sketch make it almost a 
certainty that what he saw was the same object as Javelle.
The CGCG, MCG, NGC 2000, PGC, SIMBAD and RC3 give only the identity IC 606.  The MOL 
(NSO), while making NGC 3217 Nonexistent.  The APL, NED and Steinicke are the only 
sources to equate the two identities. 
 
IC 610.
(See IC 611).

IC 611. 
POSS. O-1380. 
Swift List VIII, #54.  10hr 23m 41.890s + 20 30' 09.464" (1950).
10hr 26m 25.627s + 20 14' 51.807" (2000). 
This is equal to IC 610  (Swift List VIII,# 53) :    Due to IC 610 being 
discovered two nights prior to IC 611 the historically correct identity is IC 610.  
CGCG and MCG give only the identity IC 611.  UGC, NGC 2000, APL, MOL, NED, 
Steinicke, SIMBAD and PGC correctly note the equivalency.

IC 617.
POSS. O-1537.
Javelle #179.  10hr 30m 16.060s - 12 22' 45.675" (1950).
10hr 32m 44.210s - 12 38' 14.469" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 3280 (Common) which is equal to NGC 3295 (Leavenworth) :
Here we have another excellent example of how poorly reported coordinates can 
mislead later observers and create confusion in the catalogues.
Common was the first to see this object giving it coordinates of 10hr 29m 56s - 12 
14'.1  Six years later Leavenworth working at the Leander McCormick Observatory 
came across this same object, claiming it as a discovery which he published as 
being at 10hr 32.9m - 12 23'.5  Finally 6 years after the Leavenworth observation 
Javelle found at the above coordinates a nebula which because of its difference in 
position he rightfully believed to be a Nova.
I have during my study seen this same type of error repeated again and again where 
later observers, especially Javelle and Bigourdan, were misled due to the 
inaccuracy of earlier observers.
The MCG gives the single identity NGC 3280.  The NGC 2000 (Gx) equates NGC 3280 
with NGC 3295 but makes no equivalency with IC 617.  The APL gives (= NGC 3280w = 
NGC 3295w) while Steinicke gives (= NGC 3280A = NGC 3295A).  NED has "Equal to NGC 
3208B = NGC 3295. SIMBAD has IC 617 "Not present in the database, NGC 3280 "Existing 
galaxy," and NGC 3295 (No Data).
The MOL gives no equivalency, listing IC 617 and NGC 3280 as separate objects and 
for NGC 3295 stating "Non-existent object."  The PGC gives the identity NGC 3280 
but makes no equivalency for it with either NGC 3295 or IC 617 and has no listing 
for IC 617.  

IC 618.
POSS. O-1537.
Javelle #180.  10hr 30m 17.128s - 12 27' 32.510" (1950).
10hr 32m 45.241s - 12 43' 01.333" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 3296 (Leavenworth).  Again Leavenworth provided a very 
inaccurate position (10hr 32.9m - 12 27'.4) which again misled Javelle into 
believing he was discovering a new object.
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO list both identities as separate objects.  The 
equivalency is correctly given in the APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke.

IC 619.
POSS. O-238.
Swift List VIII, #55.  10hr 30m 51.477 + 12 48' 12.337" (1950).
10hr 33m 30.839s + 12 32' 42.581" (2000).
Possible candidate ? :  At Swift's nominal position no object exists which fits 
his description "eeF, S, R, a pL triangle of 3 F st. nr.f, one a vF D."   However, 
at 10hr 31m 10.49s + 13 08' 13.4 (1950) there is a galaxy, ZWG 65.056 Mp 14.8 which 
does have such a triangle of stars following and one of the 3 stars is a double. The 
APL and NED select this galaxy as IC 619.
As anyone who has worked with Swift's positional data knows, his methods for 
obtaining his coordinates often resulted in large errors (even Dreyer refers to 
this in the NGC/IC p.242) and such an amount of error as in this case would 
certainly not be unique.
The only catalogues to list the identity IC 619 are the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO) both at Swift's given coordinates. SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
Steinicke equates IC 619 with ZWG 65.056. APL (Equal to UGC 05735) which is equal to 
ZWG 65.056. 
NOTE:  In my previous Version 6.0 I also stated that ZWG 65.050 was a possible 
candidate, however, after examining Dr. Corwin's argument (Puzzle Solution Files) 
I now find his candidate to be the more likely solution. 

IC 621.
POSS. O-1399.
Javelle #684.  10hr 30m 46.070s + 02 52' 28.479" (1950).
10hr 33m 21.009s + 02 36' 58.909" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  It is the brighter and southernmost of two galaxies in the 
same field.  Initially I questioned whether it might be the more northerly of the 
two as the nominal coordinates as measured from Javelle's reference star would 
place it about 1 arcmin closer to this galaxy than the brighter southern one and 
this is probably what influenced the CGCG to identify the northern of the pair as 
being IC 621, which is incorrect.  Also as the NGC 2000 has used the CGCG as its 
source for this identity it is also in error.  Meanwhile Dreyer, as would be 
expected, published its position according to the data submitted by Javelle and 
as the MOL employed the IC I data their candidate is also the wrong one.
The error derives from the fact that in Javelle's discovery data there is a 2 
arcmin 23 arcsec declination error published for his reference star DM +3 2388, 
his declination being that amount too far north.  Thus his offsetting was 
adversely affected by this amount which when corrected makes the southern of the 
two galaxies the correct IC 621.
Incorrectly identified in the CGCG and PGC.  The correct IC 621 is ZWG 37.074 not 
ZWG 37.075.  Correctly identified in the APL, NED and by Steinicke. SIMBAD 
incorrectly makes it the fainter and northern of the two field galaxies, it is the 
brighter, southern galaxy that is the correct IC 621.  
NOTE :  The solution and explanation for this problem is entirely due to Dr. 
Corwin from whom I requested assistance regarding my own failure to arrive at a 
viable answer to the dilemma.  My thanks to him for his prompt answer which 
immediately cleared up any previous doubt I may have had as to the correct 
identity.

IC 622.POSS. O-238.
Swift List IX, #23.  10hr 31m 55.645s + 11 27' 28.171" (1950).
10hr 34m 34.334s + 11 11' 56.688" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy. Possibly equal to NGC 3279 (Todd #30) :  
The APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and PGC equate both identities and this is probably 
correct.  Todd's coordinates are again very poor as he gives NGC 3279 10hr 30.3m + 
11 28'.0, whereas this time Swift's coordinates are not too bad. 
The CGCG,UGC and MCG all give the single identity IC 622.  The NGC 2000 (GX) lists 
both identities without mention of any equivalency as  does the MOL (NSO).
NOTE:  Swift describes his object as having a 9th mag. star south, however, the 
closest 9th magnitude star lies directly north.

IC 625.
POSS. O-1523.
Muller.  10hr 34m 48.704s - 23 38' 48.338" (1950).
10hr 37m 11.888s - 23 55' 21.407" (2000).
Not found at the nominal position :  Muller was one of the observers at the 
Leander McCormick Observatory. He gives his reference object as L.M. 425 and this 
happens to be the galaxy NGC 3335, which Muller had discovered sometime earlier.  As 
with many of the NGC objects discovered at the Leander-McCormick Observatory the 
published coordinates were far from precise, 10hr 40m 15.488s -23 54' 24.407" 
(2000), however, there is no doubt as to the existence of NGC 3335, which is found 
at 10hr 39m 34.17s -23 55' 21.4" (2000).  Muller gives a measured offset in RA from 
NGC 3335 of -3 tmin 3.6 tsec, which would result in placing IC 625 at 10hr 37m 
11.888s - 23 54' 24.407" (2000), at which position no nonsteller object exists. It 
was Dr. Corwin who correctly concluded that Muller's published offset in RA "-3 tmin 
3.6 tsec" has the wrong sign and should be + not -.  This then would result in 
corrected coordinates of 10hr 42m 37.78s -23 56' 07.4" (2000) and at this position 
there is a galaxy ESO 501-G080, which completely matches the requirements as given 
in Muller's description.  
Steinicke and NED have the correct identity.  The NGC 2000 (No Type) has it listed 
at 10hr 34.1m -23 39'.5 (1950) and the  MOL (NSO) at 10hr 34m 07s - 23 39'. 41" both 
of based upon the Dreyer coordinates.  The PGC (#31695) identifies the APL and 
Steinicke candidate only as an "Anon," as does the MCG (-04-26 001).  The ESO (501-
G069) gives it equal to IC 625 ?  and lists its 501-G80 as Anon. SIMBAD completely 
incorrectly makes it equal to ESO 501-069  

IC 628.
POSS. O-1399.
Javelle #182.  10hr 34m 59.191s + 05 51' 48.064" (1950).
10hr 37m 35.327s + 05 36' 11.744" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Correctly identified in the CGCG, Steinicke, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, 
UGC, MCG, RC3, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO), however, the MOL also incorrectly 
identifies it as having coordinates of 10hr 41m 07s + 16 09'.0.

IC 629.
POSS. O-1523.
Bigourdan #158.  10hr 34m 41.641s - 27 17' 54.483" (1950).
10hr 37m 02.923s - 27 33' 30.433" (2000).(Based on Comptes Rendus).
This is equal to NGC 3312 (h 3282).  I was unable to find any reference to B 158 
in Bigourdan's 1919 OBSERVATIONS which suggests that by the time he prepared the 
data for that publication he had concluded that he had mistaken NGC 3312 for a 
nova in his COMPTES RENDUS entry.  Additional support for this is that in the 1919 
work he does give a measured position for NGC 3312 of 10hr 34m 41.822s - 27 18' 
14.596" (1950), which almost exactly matches his coordinates as given for IC 629.
The MCG gives only the identity NGC 3312.  The equivalency is correctly noted in 
the NGC 2000, MOL, APL, Carlson, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke.

IC 640. 
POSS. O-731. 
Bigourdan #159.  10hr 44m 01.885s + 35 01' 53.055" (1950).
10hr 46m 50.527s + 34 46' 03.256" (2000). 
Nonexistent :   Bigourdan clearly states in his observation that he suspected that 
what he saw was a false telescopic image.  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 
2000 (No Type). MOL lists as  (Nonstellar Object).  Steinicke correctly has (Not 
found).  NED has "Other." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  APL has "Fausse 
image."

IC 641. 
POSS. O-731. 
Bigourdan #160.  10hr 45m 00.954s + 34 56' 13.121" (1950).
10hr 47m 49.355s + 34 40' 21.957" (2000). 
Nothing at nominal position :   As with IC 640 Bigourdan suspected this was a 
false image.  CGCG, PGC, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 gives no Type.  
MOL  (Nonstellar Object).  Steinicke (Not found).  NED has "Other." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."  APL has "Fausse image."

IC 644.
POSS O- 673. 
Swift List IX.#24.  10hr 48m 37.453s + 55 39' 58.160" (1950).
10hr 51m 40.380s + 55 24' 02.099" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 3398 (H 792-3) :  The MCG incorrectly identifies its +9-18-41 
as being IC 644 while correctly identifying its +9-18-38 as being NGC 3398.  
The CGCG identifies ZWG 267.018 as being IC 644 but then incorrectly identifies 
ZWG 267.022 as being NGC 3398.  The PGC Corrections state "ZWG 267.018 = NGC 3398 
not IC 644" however, this is somewhat misleading as the IC identity is a duplicate 
of the NGC identity.  The PGC does correctly point out that ZWG 267. 022 is not 
NGC 3398.  Although the UGC gives U 05954 the identity IC 644 it states in its 
NOTES section  "U05954 ident.is IC 644 by several authors which is probably 
incorrect, NGC 3398?"  NGC 2000 lists IC 644 as (Galaxy) without mention of any 
equivalency and the MOL lists both identities as separate objects, as does SIMBAD.  
DSFG places IC 644 at 4 arcmins south of NGC 3398.  
The RC3 lists IC 644 = PGC 32564, 10hr 48m 28'.8s + 55 39' 20" and NGC 3398 = PGC 
32568, 10hr 48m 31.9s + 55 43' 51".  The APL and Steinicke equate IC 644 and NGC 
3398.  NED correctly equates both identities
Meanwhile the following five historical measurements for NGC 3398 are : 
Wm. Herschel..........10hr 48m 22s + 55 41' 05" 
Auwers................10hr 48m 30s + 55 41' 00 
Bigourdan.............10hr 48m 30s + 55 39' 28" 
Reinmuth..............10hr 48.5m   + 55 41'.3 
Dreyer................10hr 48m 31s + 55 41'.6 (NGC 3398) and 10hr 48m 38s + 55 
40'.4  (IC 644).

IC 652.
POSS. O-1022.
Javelle #187.  10hr 48m 26.951s - 12 10' 59.540" (1950).
10hr 50m 56.279s - 12 26' 55.348" (2000).
Not found at nominal position but equal to NGC 3421:    
Javelle identifies as his reference star the 9.6 Mv star DM - 11 2960 (= GSC 5505-
88) and measured separation values of + 0 tmin 29.58s (following) and + 04  arcmin 
11.9arcsec (south),   
When these coordinates are examined on the DSS no nebular image is found, however, 
I believe that the reference star actually employed is GSC 5502-563 at 10hr 50m 
26.36s - 12 22' 40.3" (2000) and when Javelle's offsets are applied they land on 
the galaxy also identified as being NGC 3421.   
The APL, Steinicke and PGC have equated IC 652 with NGC 3421, as have NED and 
SIMBAD. 
Common published a list of some 32 New Nebulae (COPERNICUS Vol.1, page 50) and NGC 
3421 is his No. 8  He states that "the positions given are only approximate, taken 
directly from the setting circles" and this has produced some large errors.  
Common's coordinates for his NGC 3421 would be 10hr 48m 25s - 11 57'.2 or about 14 
arcmin too far north in declination and I am completely in agreement that the APL 
and PGC have the correct NGC identity.  

IC 655.
POSS. O-1397.
Javelle #189.  10hr 51m 48.489s - 00 05' 55.924" (1950).
10hr 54m 22.150s -00 21' 55.993" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The NGC 2000 types this identity as being a nebula while the 
MOL states "Faint nebula."  CGCG, APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke correctly type 
it as being a galaxy.

IC 656.
POSS. O-463.
Bigourdan #161. 10hr 52m 27.291s + 17 52' 39.293" (1950).
10hr 55m 07.132s + 17 36' 38.442" (2000).  
Confirmed galaxy :  This is one of a group of galaxies of which considerable 
identity confusion exists in both the historical and modern literature.
To begin with the following identities and 1950 coordinates as given by Dreyer 
are,
NGC 3454.  10hr 51m 49s + 17 36'.3 credited to JH. (#790 = GC2253).
NGC 3455.  10hr 51m 51s + 17 33'.3 credited to WH. ( H82-2 = JH. #791 = GC2254).
NGC 3457.  10hr 52m 10s + 17 52'.5 credited to JH. (#793 = GC 2256).
NGC 3460.  10hr 52m 33s + 17 52'.9 credited to Rosse and Swift (List 1, #9).
NGC 3461.  10hr 52m 45s + 17 55'.4 credited to Rosse.
IC 656.    10hr 52m 28s + 17 52'.4 credited to Bigourdan (#161).
The first two by order of RA present no problem, all authorities being in 
agreement as to their identities.  
Now beginning with NGC 3457.  It is obvious that Dreyer was relying upon its 
discoverer JH for the NGC coordinates and they are reasonably good, however, JH's 
description "Stellar.  2 or 3 stars with nebulous burr observed by Mr.Baily." is a 
bit puzzling as NGC 3457 does not resemble this, but based upon the coordinates 
and separation values between it and NGC 3455 the identity of NGC 3457 has been 
firmly established by all the authorities. (See addenda).
Next we must examine the identity NGC 3460.  This is credited to Rosse and Swift, 
although both the coordinates and description were derived by Dreyer from Swift's 
data.
At the position as given by Swift (very close to that for IC 656) there is 
absolutely no object which fits his description "pB, R, no star near." except NGC 
3457 and it is almost a certainty that what Swift saw and described is indeed NGC 
3457 and I believe that it was the reference in JH's Slough description for NGC 
3457 concerning the 2 or 3 associated stars that Swift thought that based upon his 
measured RA position (which I also believe is too large by about 23 seconds of 
time) he had discovered a nova, however, his description leaves little doubt that 
NGC 3460 is equivalent to NGC 3457.  Meanwhile there is the mystery of why Dreyer 
would include Rosse as co-discoverer of NGC 3460.
Rosse made three observations of NGC 3457 and its immediate field, March 27th 
1854, March 22nd 1878 and April 4th 1878.  The only possible one that could be 
construed as being for an object other than NGC 3457 and NGC 3461 is the March 
22nd 1878 in which he states in reference to NGC 3457 "Setting for this I found an 
eS CL, with a * 12m. in Pos. 175.1, Dist. 305 arcsec.
Examination of the Palomar print based upon this information turns up no image 
that can be considered as nonstellar, or a small cluster.  Furthermore it is in no 
manner in compliance with the coordinate values or description as given to NGC 
3460 by Dreyer, thus I am at a loss to explain why Dreyer would consider it as 
comparable to Swift's "nova."
Next is the identity NGC 3461.  This object is described in both of Rosse's 
observations for March 27th 1854 and April 4th 1878 as a small nebula north of a 
bright one, [NGC 3457], distance about 5 or 6 arcmins. (1854) and again in 
reference to NGC 3457 as Very faint, diffuse nebula in PA 17, Dist. 326 arcsec. 
(April 1878).
Here again I examined the relative position as given by Rosse and there is the 
image of a stellar-like nebula which after examining with a number of oculars I am 
prepared to state is nonstellar, therefore I believe that NGC 3461 is a confirmed 
galaxy at the place described by Rosse, however, this is not where Dreyer 
positions it as according to his coordinates NGC 3461 would lie further east, or 
following the RA of IC 656 at a position that would have a PA much larger than 
that given by Rosse.  At Dreyer's coordinates for NGC 3461 no nonstellar image 
exists.  As if this was not enough confusion the RNGC has selected as its RNGC 
3461 what is actually IC 656, a selection that has absolutely no basis in 
historical data.
Finally we come to the identity IC 656.  When Bigourdan's major publication of his 
observations is examined there is no direct reference to his Nova #161, (however, 
it does appear in his earlier publication in the COMPTES RENDUS at the coordinates 
as given above, 10hr 52m 28s + 17 52'.4), instead in addition to his detailed 
measurements and descriptions for NGC 3454, 3455 and 3457, (he failed to find NGC 
3461, no doubt misled by Dreyer's coordinates), he includes three separate 
observations for what he identifies as NGC 3460, placing it at 10hr 52m 26s + 17 
52' 42" or 19s of RA following and 25 arcsecs south of the position he gives for 
NGC 3457.  
As a Note to his first observation of what he identified as being NGC 3460 he 
states that "this object was at first taken to be a new nova" and there is no 
doubt that because Bigourdan has second thoughts, thinking that it might possibly 
be NGC 3460, (based upon Swift's incorrect position for what is actually NGC 3457) 
that the identity B.161 was deleted from his major publication, however, this 
object does exist, making up a rough and very closely associated trapezium 
consisting of 3 faint stars and a very faint, small galaxy, the galaxy being the 
south following component.
There is absolutely no doubt that this combination is B.161 as can be confirmed by 
measuring Bigourdan's separation values from his reference star in addition to the 
differences in his coordinate values for NGC 3454, 3455 and 3457 and thus IC 656 
is a confirmed galaxy and an entirely separate object from any of the field NGC 
galaxies.
What is amazing to me about IC 656 is that when one examines its image on the 
Palomar print it seems almost unbelievable that Bigourdan could have distinguished 
its nebular character with a 12.2 inch telescope yet his coordinates and 
description cannot be disputed.  Certainly it appears that none of the other 
visual discoverers who examined the same field, nearly all of whom were employing 
telescopes of much larger aperture, noticed this object.
The only modern sources to list the identity IC 656 are Steinicke (compact +3 
stars), NGC 2000 and MOL and both type it as "Open cluster" which is no doubt 
influenced by Dreyer's IC description and the APL which equates it with NGC 3457 ? 
and also gives "= 3 sts + vF gal."  The NED has correct IC identity. SIMBAD has no 
listing for this galaxy.
Addenda :   Now for some thoughts based entirely upon speculation.
There is one aspect of the historical data which is somewhat disconcerting and it 
concerns JH's description for his #793 = NGC 3457. (Slough Observations 1833).  
After consideration, the description "Stellar.  2 or 3 stars with a nebulous burr 
observed by Mr. Baily." appears to me to consist of two contradictory sentences 
which could be for two different objects.  Firstly we have "Stellar." which 
suggests a star-like image and this certainly is applicable to h 793 =  NGC 3457,
(Steve Gottlieb observing with a telescope of similar aperture to that used by JH 
describes NGC 3457 as "Small, Round, Compact."), then secondly, there is the 
sentence "2 or 3 stars with a nebulous burr observed by Mr. Baily, which in no 
manner resembles NGC 3457 but is an exact description for IC 656, so is it 
possible that JH and Baily were describing two separate objects about 19s of RA 
apart ?
I think that JH's #793 is definitely NGC 3457 and the only reason Swift claimed 
his nova = NGC 3460 is because of his less than accurately measured RA for his 
"nova" which would have, according to Swift, followed NGC 3457 by ~ 22s, also 
Swift went out of his way to describe his nova as "no star near" which to me 
strongly suggests that he wished to point out the difference between what he was 
claiming and what JH's Slough description for h 793 stated.

IC 659.
POSS. O-991.
Javelle #704.  10hr 55m 32.147s - 05 59' 29.719" (1950).
10hr 58m 03.931s - 06 15' 24.392" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The MCG does not have any identity for IC 659, however, both 
the RC3 and Steinicke have equated MCG -01-28-010 with IC 659 giving it 
coordinates compatible with Javelle's position.  Examination of the MCG finds that 
they place their -01-28-010 at a declination of -05 48'.0 which would mean that 
the MCG declination is in error by about 11.6 arcmin.  Correctly identified in the 
NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), PGC, NED, SIMBAD and APL.

IC 673.
POSS. O-1400.
Javelle #194.  11hr 06m 51.545s + 00 10' 25.299" (1950).
11hr 09m 25.296s - 00 05' 51.634" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Incorrectly identified by a typo error in the CGCG as IC 678 = 
ZWG 011.009., this noted in PCG (Corrections).  Identified in the UGC only as 
U06200 this also noted in PCG.  NGC 2000 (No Type), Mol (NSO). APL, Steinicke, 
PGC, RC3, NED, SIMBAD and MCG have correct identity. 
NOTE : See RASQJ June 1992. (Some Corrections To Zwicky's CGCG.) page 61.

IC 675.
POSS. O-1392.
Javelle #713.  11hr 08m 06.647s + 03 56' 25.102" (1950).
11hr 10m 41.363s + 03 40' 06.974" (2000).
Not found :  This is a curious problem in that there is absolutely no fitting 
image close to Javelle's nominal position yet he describes it as being "Pretty 
bright, pretty large, elongated in the direction of the meridian (north and 
south), possibly bi-nuclear."  He also states that he also saw and measured NGC 
3580, but this galaxy lies about 2.5 tmins following the coordinates he gives and 
it does not fit Javelle's description for his #713 as its Mp is close to 15.0. 
Corwin has suggested a possible solution might be a pair of 14th mag. stars 
located 5 arcmin south following Javelle's position which may under poor seeing 
have appeared nebulous, however, again these 2 stars hardly fit the description 
"Pretty bright." Also there is no 8th mag. star at any of the possible Javelle 
offset combinations which would fit as a reference star.
Only modern listings found are APL ? = **, Steinicke (= *2), NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and MOL (NSO). NED "!**."  SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 682. 
POSS. O-1353. 
Swift List VIII,#56.  11hr 18m 35.001s + 20 29' 36.407" (1950).
11hr 21m 13.069s + 20 13' 09.283" (2000).
Not found at nominal position:  It is my feeling at this time that what Swift was 
seeing was the galaxy NGC 3649, which NED positions at 11hr 19m 36.786s + 20 28' 
58.59" (1950).  This is almost exactly 1 tmin different than Swift's RA, while the 
declinations are an excellent match.  
Additionally, Swift states that there is a very faint star close north preceding, 
while NGC 3649 has such a star only it is just off the south following edge, a not 
uncommon error when it comes to directional offsets.    
Only modern listings are Steinicke (Not found), NED equates IC 682 with NGC 3649. 
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) both these latter authorities 
giving the historical coordinates. APL gives (= NGC 3649).  SIMBAD has "Not present 
in the database."

IC 683.
POSS. O-1392.
Bigourdan #162.  11hr 18m 57.405s + 03 00' 34.867" (1950).
11hr 21m 31.726s + 02 44' 07.427" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  There is quite an amount of confusion regarding this identity 
both in the historical and the modern sources.  Bigourdan measured this galaxy 
from his reference star and stated that it lay almost in the middle of a line 
joining this reference star, Anon4 equal to AC #112617, and NGC 3644 and this is 
the case when one examines the Palomar print, however, when it came time for 
Bigourdan to actually measure the position of what he identifies as being NGC 3644 
he gives it a 1950 position of 11hr 18m 57.917s + 03 01' 03.225" which is the same 
galaxy image as IC 683   Additionally, after having correctly stated that IC 683 
lay about midway between his given reference star and NGC 3644 he now proceeded to 
identify the correct NGC 3644 as a nova = B163 = IC 684.
In the modern sources we find that the CGCG has identified its ZWG 039.134 as 
being IC 683, this is incorrect as this galaxy is not either a NGC or IC object 
and lies close south preceding the true IC 683. The correct identity for IC 683 is 
ZWG 039.138.  These same two identities are also in error in the Notes given in 
the UGC for its U06373 = NGC 3644 and the DSS (SIMBAD) also identifies incorrectly 
the south preceding of the close pair as being IC 683.
Both the APL and NED have the correct identity, while the RC3, NGC 2000 (GX) and 
MOL ((Galaxy) also appear to have the correct identity.  Not listed in the MCG.  
Steinicke has the correct position and equates IC 683 with ZWG 039.138.  The PGC 
incorrectly equates IC 683 with CGCG's ZWG 039 134 and then identifies the correct 
IC 683 as IC 683E = ZWG 039 138.
NOTE: Bigourdan's declination offset from his reference star is given as + 1 
arcmin 7.6 arcsec, however, it seems that this is a typographical error as it is 
exactly 1 arcmin too far south.  Oddly enough, his Comptes Rendus declination is 
almost exactly 1 arcmin too far north.

IC 684.
POSS.O-1392.
Bigourdan #163.  11hr 18m 58.744s + 03 05' 04.286" (1950).
11hr 21m 33.079s + 02 48' 36.829" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 3644 (Marth 222).
Even though Bigourdan correctly refers to this galaxy as being NGC 3644 in his 
description for IC 683 (See IC 683), he then according to the data as given in his 
"Observations etc." listed it as a Nova = B162 = IC 684.  There is no doubt that 
he is measuring the position of NGC 3644 as his reference star for this 
observation is just south preceding NGC 3644 and it is a different one from the 
reference star he employed to measure the position for his IC 683.   
The equivalency is correctly given in the CGCG, Steinicke, UGC, RC3, NED, SIMBAD, 
NGC 2000, PGC, Carlson, APL and MOL.  The MCG gives only the identity NGC 3644.

IC 685.
POSS. O-51.
Swift List VII,#16.  11hr 19m 24.199s + 18 04' 45.605" (1950).
11hr 22m 01.641s + 17 48' 17.853" (2000).
Possible identification :  At a position close to that as given by Swift there is 
the image of a very faint galaxy which has a star very close north following as 
described in Swift's description "eeF, pS, R, * nr. nf. New General Catalogue 
3605, 7, 8 in field."  
I had accepted this object as being Swift's #16, however, there remained a problem 
concerning the rest of Swift's description in which he refers to the 3 NGC 
galaxies as being in the same field.
The 1950 positions for these 3 galaxies are as follows. 
NGC 3605.  11hr 14m 08.6s + 18 17' 24"
NGC 3607.  11hr 14m 16.7s + 18 19' 29"
NGC 3608.  11hr 14m 21.0s + 18 25' 18"
Thus there is about a 5 tmin difference between where IC 685 would be according to 
Swift and where the 3 NGC galaxies are located, which suggests that if correct, 
then Swift would never have been able to have remotely seen the identified NGC 
galaxies in the same field of view.
When I reviewed my previous conclusion in preparing this version I for the 
first time decided to look at the area in which the 3 NGC galaxies exist and sure 
enough found an excellent candidate that fits exceedingly well with Swift's 
description.  This galaxy lies at 11hr 14m 13.10s + 18 04' 18.9s (1950) or 11hr 
16m 51.02s + 17 47' 55.6" (2000).  It is considerably brighter, (Mp. 14.51), than 
the original candidate and has a brighter star close north following, furthermore, 
it is well within Swift's field of view (32 arcmin), containing the 3 NGC 
galaxies.  It is now my belief that this is Swift's Object # 16 List No.7 and that 
there is a typographical error of about 5 tmin in the RA as published by Swift and 
carried on by the modern cataloguers.
This galaxy is identified as being an Anonymous Galaxy in the CGCG. ZWG 96-020, 
UGC 06296, MCG +03-29-021, PGC 34419 and in the MOL.  Meanwhile both the MOL and 
NGC 2000 have listed the faint galaxy close to the historical position as being IC 
685, as have NED, the APL and Steinicke.
NOTE:  The faint galaxy that lies close to Swift's position is identified in NED 
as MAPS-NGPO-433-0628716 = PGC 034871.  11hr 19m 29.08s + 18 01' 39.2" (1950) or 
11hr 22m 06.50s + 17 45' 11.7" (2000). and given a Mp of 17.56  
The identity IC 685 is listed as "Not present in the database" by SIMBAD.

IC 688.
POSS. O-1029.
O. Stone.  11hr 21m 08.422s - 09 31' 16.262" 1950).
11hr 23m 40.303s - 09 47' 45.416" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Steinicke has correct identity. The APL has a single entry 
credited to Steinicke as being a much fainter galaxy at 11hr 21m 52.2s - 09 31' 
07" (1950), however, this must be from an much more earlier Steinicke file.  Only 
other listings are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) both at the correct 
coordinates  SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but lists the galaxy as IRAS 
11211-0931. NED has correct identity.


IC 689.
POSS. O-1029.
O.Stone.  11hr 21m 07.521s - 13 33' 22.951" (1950).
11hr 23m 38.598s - 13 49' 52.120" (2000).
Equal to NGC 3661. (H 530-3) :  MCG gives only the identity NGC 3661.  NGC 2000, 
MOL, APL, Steinicke, PGC and Carlson all correctly equate IC 689 with NGC 3661.  
NED and SIMBAD correctly gives the equivalency.
Note:  Stone identifies his reference star as DM -13 3360 which is the south 
preceding star of three 10th magnitude stars very close south of NGC 3661, 
however, the star he actually employed as his reference star is DM -13 3361 which 
is the middle star of the three and is equal to AC #2476169 at 11hr 23m 35.986s - 
13 51' 55.85" (2000).  As he used the positional data for DM -13 3360 his 
historical coordinates for his IC 689 are off by about 3.282 tsec RA and 1 arcmin 
23.227 arcsec Dec. 

IC 690.
POSS. O-1018.
Javelle #718.  11hr 21m 48.335s - 08 04' 03.411" (1950).
11hr 24m 20.528s - 08 20' 33.033" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The only error here concerns the declination given in Part 2 
of Javelle's catalogue for his reference star DM -7 3229 for which he incorrectly 
gives its 1860 declination as -6 29'.9 when it should be -7 29'.9
All the modern authorities have the correct position which is 11hr 21m 48.866s -08 
04' 01.198" (1950).
    
IC 703.
POSS. O-1562.
Swift List VIII, #58.  11hr 29m 17.146s - 11 19' 14.824" (1950).
11hr 31m 49.149s - 11 35' 49.189" (2000).
Not found :  There are no suitable nebular images in the field.  Listed in the NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  Steinicke lists it as (Not found).  The APL 
has 5 listings each identified as IC 703 ? = NGC 3704, as does NED.  For some 
unknown to me reason SIMBAD identifies a galaxy (VCC 1737) at 12hr 37m 53.8s +14 17' 
31" (2000) as being IC 703.

IC 704.
POSS. O-1562.
Swift List VIII, #59.  11hr 29m 22.162s - 11 16' 14.886" (1950).
11hr 31m 54.177s - 11 32' 49.297" (2000).
Not found :  Again as with IC 703 there are no suitable nebular images visible in 
the field.  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), Steinicke (Not 
found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  APL suggests that it might be equal 
to NGC 3707 and NED makes this same assumption.
 

IC 713. 
POSS. O-1406. 
Bigourdan #164.  11hr 32m 08.643s + 17 07' 19.920" (1950).
11hr 34m 44.755s + 16 50' 44.174" (2000). 
Not found :  The only image close to Bigourdan's position is that of a very faint 
star which I doubt would have been visible to Bigourdan.   NGC 2000 (No Type).  
MOL. (Nonstellar Object), Steinicke (NF).  NED "!*."  SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database." APL has IC 713 ? 11hr 32m 08.05s + 17 07' 23.7 = *.

IC 714.
POSS. O-1562.
Leavenworth  11hr 33m 58.075s - 09 34' 20.502" (1950).
11hr 36m 30.580s - 09 50' 57.283" (2000).
This is equivalent to NGC 3763. (Common) :  Common placed his NGC 3763 at 11hr 34m 
09s - 09 35'.2 and Dreyer gives it 11hr 34m 09s - 09 34'.8.
In 1895 and 1898 Bigourdan made some excellent observations of what he identifies 
as being NGC 3763 and added that it has a RA 14 tsec before Dreyer's position.
The MOL lists both identities as separate objects.  The MCG and NGC 2000 each list 
IC 714 as = NGC 3763 ?  The PGC, NED, APL and Steinicke each make it equivalent with 
NGC 3763. SIMBAD correctly equates with NGC 3763.

IC 717.
POSS. O-1562.
Muller.  11hr 36m 18.299s - 10 18' 26.999" (1950).
11hr 38 50.835s - 10 35' 04.837" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 3779. (Common) :  Muller was one of the observers at the 
Leander McCormick Observatory and although generally speaking the coordinates as 
given for their IC discoveries are much better than those provided for their NGC 
discoveries it would appear that in this case Muller was not very precise.
At Muller's given position no nebular image exists, however, at about 30 tsec 
preceeding and about 03 arcmin north there is the image of a galaxy whose major 
axis is extended at ~ 90 degrees as described by Muller.
Common's position for NGC 3779 is only 07 tsec and 01.5 arcmin off this galaxy 
therefore the equivalency is confirmed.
NGC 2000 gives (?) while the MOL states (May not exist).  The MCG gives the single 
identity NGC 3779. The APL, PGC, SIMBAD, NED and Steinicke correctly give the 
equivalency.

IC 720.
POSS. O-468.
Spitaler #43.  11hr 39m 47.876s + 09 03' 00.152" (1950).
11hr 42m 22.463s + 08 46' 21.229" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG gives only the identity ZWG 068.035. (See QJRAS #33, 
1992.page 62. A List of Some Corrections To Zwicky's Catalogue of Galaxies and 
Clusters of Galaxies).
Correctly identified in the MCG, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, RC3, NGC 2000 (GX) and 
MOL (NSO).  The APL has the correct object, however, probably due to a typographical 
error they incorrectly equate it with ZWG 068-075.

IC 722.
POSS. O-468.
Spitaler #44.  11hr 40m 09.115s + 09 14' 52.903" (1950).
1hr 42m 43.728s + 08 58' 13.754" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Spitaler's given coordinates are incorrect due to his 
misidentification of his reference star which he states is BB.VI +9 2531 when it 
should be BB.VI +9 2534 equal to AC #316928 at 11hr 41m 28.738s + 09 00' 53.52" 
(2000). When the correct offsets are applied to this star they land on the galaxy 
IC 722.  The UGC mentions but does not identify it in its Notes for U06695 = IC 
724. Correctly identified in the MCG, CGCG, PGC, Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD and 
RC3.  
Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give the incorrect Spitaler coordinates 
as given by Dreyer.
NOTE:  The solution to this problem is due entirely to Dr. Corwin and is admirably 
described in his Solutions Files.

IC 724.
POSS. O-468.
Spitaler #45.  11hr 40m 59.865s + 09 13 15.012" (1950).
11hr 43m 34.436s + 08 56' 35.571" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Again Spitaler's coordinates are incorrect as he confuses the 
identities of the same stars as described in the case of IC 722.   The NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO) have incorrectly based their coordinates upon Dreyer.  
Correctly identified and positioned in the CGCG, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, MCG, 
UGC, RC3 and APL.
(See Corwin).

IC 726.
POSS. O-109.
Spitaler #17.  11hr41m 07.633s + 33 40' 09.151" (1950).
11hr 43m 44.783s + 33 23' 30.308" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy:  As Dr Corwin has pointed out Spitaler incorrected listed the 
declination offset sign as - when it should be +, thus a declination error of 2 
arcmin 7.2 arcsec.  Spitaler's reference star is BD +34,2257, equal to GSC 141579 
and when the corrected offsets are applied they land on the correct IC galaxy.
Not listed in the CGCG or MCG.  The UGC lists the companion north preceding and in 
its notes refers to a companion south following which is the correct IC 726. The NGC 
2000 and MOL give the incorrect original declination. Not listed in the PGC or RC3.  
Correctly identified in APL, NED and Steinicke. Simbad has no listing for the 
identity IC 726, but identifies the galaxy as DOC NRGs 156.7   


IC 730.
POSS. 0-495.
Javelle #728.  11hr 43m 01.518s + 03 30' 35.384" (1950).
11hr 45m 35.533s + 03 13' 55.269" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 3849 (Todd):  Todd employed the U.S. Naval Observatory's 26 
inch telescope in a search for a Trans Neptunian Planet and during his search he 
claimed discovery of a number of nebulae to which Dreyer later assigned NGC 
identities.  Todd's given coordinates were something less than accurate, (his 
position for NGC 3849 was 11hr 42.0m +03 26'.0), therefore it is understandable 
that Javelle should consider his #728 as being a new discovery.  Fortunately, Todd 
did provide field sketches with his observational data and from these it is often 
possible to determine their existence and in this case his sketch matches well 
with the field surrounding IC 730.
The NGC 2000 has No Type at the NGC coordinates for NGC 3849 and gives the correct 
coordinates for IC 730 described as (Gx). The MOL also has NGC 3849 at the NGC 
coordinates and lists as (Non-Existent Object), while correctly identifying IC 730 
at its correct position.  The CGCG, PGC, SIMBAD and MCG give only the identity IC 
730.  Steinicke identifies IC 730 at the correct coordinates with the correct 
equivalency, as does NED and the APL.
 
IC 731.
POSS. O-1338. 
Swift List IX,#32.  11hr 43m 21.162s + 49 50' 31.104" (1950).
11hr 46m 00.952s + 49 33' 51.070" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Listed in MCG only as +8-21-96.   Not listed in UGC.  NGC 
2000 and MOL RA too large by ~ 0m.7.  CGCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and PGC have 
correct identity and RA.

IC 735.
POSS. O-468.
Javelle #202.  11hr 45m 37.335s + 13 29' 13.704" (1950).
11hr 48m 11.990s + 13 12' 32.905" (2000). (Javelle Part 2).
Confirmed galaxy :  Due to a misprint of 3 degrees in declination in Part 1 of 
Javelle's Catalogue, Dreyer's declination is in error by this amount.  Javelle in 
Part 2 of this same catalogue (page B.32) adds a footnote to his object #202 
stating that the NPD (1860) instead of reading 79 00'.6 should read 76 00'.6 thus 
giving the necessary correction which evidently Dreyer missed.  When this 
correction is combined with Javelle's separation values from his reference star DM 
+ 14 2439 = GSC 870-796, there is found a galaxy image fitting his description.  
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) incorrectly give the declination as + 10 
29'.7 and + 10 29' 25" while the CGCG, ZWG 68.069, UGC 06775, PGC 36849 and MCG 
+2-30-38 identify the correct IC 735 as being an "Anon."  Steinicke and APL have 
correct identity.  NED has correct identity. SIMBAD has "Not present in the 
database," but lists the same galaxy as UGC 6775.

IC 736 and IC 737.
POSS. O-468.
Javelle #203.  11hr 45m 44.828s + 12 59' 38.085 (1950).
11hr 48m 19.440s + 12 42' 57.261" (2000). (IC 736) and Javelle #204. 11hr 45m
52.979s + 13 00' 17.238" (1950).
11hr 48m 27.582s +12 43' 36.381" (2000). (IC 737).
Both confirmed galaxies :  The confusion concerning these 2 galaxies concerns the 
incorrect identities given by most of the modern catalogues.  
Both of these objects are part of a small galaxy group listed by Hickson as Group 
59 in which he identifies alphabetically 5 galaxies (a, b, c, d and e).  He 
identifies his 59a as being IC 736 and his 59d as being IC 737, however, these IC 
identities are based upon erroneous identities as given in the CGCG, NGC 2000, 
MCG, RC3 and SIMBAD.
The entire credit for having first questioned and then solving the incorrect 
identities belongs to Steve Gottlieb who observed the group with his 17.5 inch 
telescope and was immediately struck with the fact that the two brightest in the 
field are Hickson 59a and 59b, (Hickson also makes them the two brightest) while 
he was unable to see 59d at all.
Javelle employed as a reference star DM +13 2454 which is equal to GSC 870-824 and 
has coordinates of 11hr 47m 15.46s +12 39' 52".5 (2000) and when Javelle's offsets 
for both IC 736 (+1tmin 4.02 tsec RA, + 3 arcmin 3.4 arcsec dec) and IC 737 (+1 
tmin 12.18 tsec RA, + 3 arcmin 42.6 arcsec dec.), they without question conform to 
Hickson's 59b and 59a respectively.
Additionally, as Javelle only noted 2 nebulae in the field it is most likely that 
they would have been the two brightest,  
Also, Hickson's listed coordinates and schematic field sketches show that his 59b 
is slightly south and preceding his 59a which agrees entirely with Javelle's 
observational data, thus as Gottlieb has correctly concluded, 59b is = IC 736 and 
59a is = IC 737, however, most of the modern authorities have incorrectly selected 
Hickson 59a as being IC 736 and Hickson 59d as being IC 737.
The CGCG identifies its ZWG 68.070 as IC 736 and its ZWG 68.072 as IC 737, this 
should be changed to reflect that the "Anon" ZWG 68.068 is the correct IC 736 
while ZWG 68.070 is the correct IC 737.
The MCG makes exactly the same errors of identity as the CGCG as do the NGC 2000, 
PGC, SIMBAD and the RC3,  
The MOL (typing both as being NSO) has the correct historical coordinates and 
therefore the correct identities.  Not listed in UGC or DSFG.  Steinicke has the 
correct identities. The APL has the correct identities as does NED.
NOTE:   This is another example (See IC 2759) of the great importance modern 
visual observations can often make towards correcting erroneous identifications.  
Prior to Gottlieb's visual observation every modern cataloguer and investigator, 
including myself, were unaware of any identity problems with IC 736 and IC 737 and 
it is once again only because Gottlieb not only is an investigator of such 
problems but additionally is an excellent telescopic visual observer that these 
incorrect identities are found and then corrected. 

IC 738.
POSS. O-1006.
Javelle #731.  11hr 46m 21.069s - 04 24' 12.562" (1950).
11hr 48m 54.525s - 04 40' 53.638" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This is not equal to NGC 3915 as identified by the PGC, but is 
instead an entirely separate object and identity (See IC 2963 for a full 
explanation).
The APL correctly lists it as a single identity as does the NGC 2000, Steinicke 
and MOL.  SIMBAD and NED have correct identity.

IC 739. 
POSS. O-103. 
Javelle #732.  11hr 48m 56.930s + 24 08' 26.309" (1950).
11hr 51m 31.950s + 23 51' 44.851" (2000). 
At the position given by both Javelle and Dreyer in the IC I, 11hr 47m 46s + 24 
06'.1, (1950), no nebular image exists, however, this is because Javelle mis
identified his reference star making it to be DM +24 2401 when it actually is DM 
+24 2403 equal to AC #722356 at 11hr 52m 52.987s + 23 46' 51.83" (2000).  
When the correct precession procedures are carried out using this star they give 
the above Corrected Nominal Position at which there is found Javelle's # 732.
The CGCG  and UGC list IC 739 at 11hr 48m.9 + 24 09'.0 while the MCG lists it at 
11hr 48m.8 + 24 07'.0 and their candidate fits exactly Javelle's description.     
NGC 2000 and MOL both give the incorrect RA.  Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD and PGC 
have correct identity and position.

IC 740. 
POSS. O-59. 
Swift List IX.#33.  11hr 48m 06.303s + 55 37' 59.383" (1950).
11hr 50m 44.517s + 55 21' 18.206" (2000). 
Equal to NGC 3913 (H 786-2).   CGCG, Steinicke, APL, UGC, MOL, NED, SIMBAD and PGC 
correctly make IC 740 = NGC 3913.   MCG, RC 3 and DSFG list only the identity NGC 
3913.  NGC 2000 gives type as  (Galaxy).

IC 741.
POSS. O-1006.
Javelle #733.  11hr 47m 58.169s - 04 33' 25.879" (1950).
11hr 50m 31.654s - 04 50' 07.314" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The MOL has the declination incorrectly given as -07 33' 25"  
The MCG, NGC 2000, MOL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, APL and Steinicke have the correct 
identity.

IC 743.
POSS. O-1562.
Javelle #205.  11hr 50m 50.662s - 12 59' 04.191" (1950).
11hr 53m 23.868s - 13 15' 46.231" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the MCG only as -2-30-37.  Correctly identified 
in the NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke.

IC 755.
POSS. O-1385.
Swift. List VIII, #61.  11hr 58m 34.632s + 14 24' 09.400" (1950).
12hr 01m 08.394s + 14 07' 26.954" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :
Dr. Corwin has equated IC 755 with NGC 4019 (h 1044)
Swift gives good coordinates for IC 755, (Modern position is 11hr 58m 36.6s +14 
23'.0 HCds) and describes it as "eeF, S, E, between the northern 2 stars forming a 
large triangle." and there is no doubt that what Swift describes definitely 
exists.
John Herschel places his #1044 at 11hr 56m 19.3s + 14 29' 15", describing it as 
"eF, has a 9th mag. star 5 arcmin south following.", however, there are no 
suitable nonstellar images in the vicinity of the position he gives.
The difference in positions between John Herschel's coordinates and those for IC 
755 are about 2 tmin 17 tsec RA and 6 arcmin and IC 755 does have a 9th mag. star 
at about the correct offset (5 arcmin south following), however, there is also a 
9th mag. star at about the same separation south and slightly following the 
position as given by John Herschel.
Dr. Corwin has defended his equivalency by stating that as no object exists at 
Herschel's coordinates then the closest candidate fitting his description would be 
IC 755, however, I am still concerned by the large positional discrepancy, 
especially as on the same SWEEP #419, Herschel gave positions for NGC 3996 and NGC 
4126, both being excellent in accuracy.
Neither NGC 2000, MOL, CGCG, UGC, MCG, PGC, Dressel and Condon or SIMBAD equate the 
identity IC 755 with any NGC identity, however, Steinicke does make the 
equivalency, as does NED.

IC 757.
POSS. O-1389. 
Bigourdan #166.  12hr 01m 28.440s + 52 52' 01.114" (1950).
12hr 04m 01.120s + 52 35' 18.903" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 4068 (H 781-2) :  Bigourdan employed as his reference star an 
"Anonymous" star which would have coordinates of 12hr 03m 44.490s + 52 36' 35.331 
(2000) based upon his data.  This star is equivalent to AC 2000.2 Catalogue star 
#1609671 at 12hr 03m 42.803 + 52 36' 33.01" (2000) and when precessed back to the 
discovery year (1886) the coordinates would be 11hr 57m 53.077s + 53 14' 38.403".
Bigourdan gives his offsets from this star as + 18.63 tsec RA and + 1 arcmin 14.4 
arcsec Dec. which when applied to the star lands on a blank space, however, if the 
signs for both RA and Dec. are reversed the position resulting would be 11hr 58m 
11.701s +53 13' 24.003 (1886) or 12hr 01m 28.440s + 52 52' 01.114 (1950) and this 
lands right on the edge of a superposed star close to the central region of the 
galaxy NGC 4068.
Bigourdan used the same reference star to also make an observation of what he 
identifies as being NGC 4068.  Here again his offset signs as given suggest the 
wrong direction and indeed his reversed offset for declination lands on a faint 
star directly south of NGC 4068 at 12hr 01m 33.607s + 52 49' 24.913" (1950).
There is evidence in his description for his # 166 that he is confusing north and 
south orientation as he describes a double star which lies 1 arcmin to the north 
of the reference star, however, this double star lies south of the reference star.  
Finally, in his data on NGC 4068 Bigourdan mentions the possibility that both his 
#166 and NGC 4068 might be the same object, requiring a change of 180 degrees in 
position angle.
Only modern catalogues listing the identity IC 757 are NGC 2000 and MOL both 
making it a double star and Steinicke, NED and APL (equal to NGC 4068).
The CGCG, UGC, MCG, PGC and SIMBAD each give the single identity NGC 4068.    while 
for IC 757 SIMBAD has "Not present in the database."   . 

IC 758. 
POSS.O- 674. 
Swift List VII,#18.  12hr 01m 29.395s + 62 46' 14.300" (1950).
12hr 04m 01.575s + 62 29' 32.196" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Listed in the CGCG only as ZWG 315. 009.  The UCG, MCG, 
Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD, PGC, NGC 2000, MOL and DSFG all correctly identify IC 
758.

IC 759.
POSS. O-135.
Bigourdan #167.  12hr 02m 35.684s + 20 32' 22.034"  (1950).
12hr 05m 09.019s + 20 15' 40.065" (2000).
Not found :  This is a very interesting problem with a number of confusing aspects 
which I must admit has caused me a great deal of doubt as to what is the correct 
solution.
To begin with I have been unable to find in Bigourdan's great work (OBSERVATIONS 
DE NEBULEUSES etc. etc. 1919.) any references to a B.167, which suggests to me 
that by the time he was preparing for publication he for some reason either 
queried the identity or decided that it did not exist as a nebular object.    (See 
appended note).
The description in the IC I reads "Pretty bright, Pretty large, Elongated 
preceding and following", however, at the position as given no nebular image 
exists.
The only modern references that list the identity IC 759 are the NGC 2000 and MOL 
who list all IC identities), Steinicke (Not found) and the APL (Nothing here) and 
a second entry listed as (IC 759 ?? 12hr 02m 41.92s + 20 35' 20".7 Too faint/small 
for Big's description).    NED has "Other." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
Due to these inconsistencies I have at this time decided to go back to the 
original publication data as given in the Comptes Rendus and based upon this have 
decided that I must stay with the Not found solution.
NOTE :  Steve Gottlieb has recently sent to me a copy of some information which 
came into his possession regarding an entry by Bigourdan in his " Vol 1, Appendix 
VIII." concerning IC 759, something I did not have in my original sources.
Bigourdan's reference star is AG BERLIN, 4434, Mv 8.5, the same star he later 
employed to measure good positions for his observation of NGC 4076.  Bigourdan's 
separation values from this star are + 0m 4.69s RA and + 2' 11".7 (the mean of two 
measurements) and again when these are applied to this reference star on the 
Palomar print no nebular object is found. This I now believe to be the source of 
Dreyer's data for IC 759.

IC 765.
POSS. O-89.
Bigourdan #168.   12 hr 07m 58.628s + 16 24' 56.406" (1950).
12hr 10m 31.594s +16 08' 14.614" (2000).(COMPTES RENDUS).  
12hr 08m 04.440s + 16 18' 36.224" (1950). 12hr 10m 37.405"
+16 01' 54.932" (2000). (OBSERVATIONS).
Probably a wide double star :  As one can see from the two sets of coordinates as 
shown above there is considerable disagreement between them, especially as regards 
Declination, yet both are from the same original source.  
At the COMPTES RENDUS coordinates there is only the image of a star (or wide 
double star) and it is this that Carlson (** Mt. Wilson), Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 
(Double star) and MOL (Double star) all identify as being IC 765. NED has " Other."  
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  The APL has 3 separate entries, the first 
stating nothing here and the other two suggesting that it might be a star.Now as 
regards to the coordinates as found in Bigourdan's later published 
OBSERVATIONS there appears to be considerable confusion.  To begin with Bigourdan 
measures coordinates for NGC 4152 of 12hr 08m 04s + 16 18' 40" which compare very 
favorably with those given in the APL 12hr 08m 04s + 16 18' 43" but when it comes 
to measuring coordinates for IC 765 he supposedly employed as his reference object 
the same NGC 4152, however, he now gives NGC 4152 coordinates of 12hr 08m 10s + 16 
12' 28" and measures the separation values for IC 765 to be -6.41 tsecs and +6' 8" 
of arc which would result in a position for IC 765 of 12hr 08m 03.6s + 16 18' 36" 
which are suspiciously equivalent to those he correctly measured for NGC 4152.
As his descriptions for NGC 4152 and IC 765 in no manner match it would seem that 
he was not confusing NGC 4152 for IC 765, which would have been the case if they 
had, therefore the probability would have to be that his positional data in his 
OBSERVATIONS pertaining to IC 765 are incorrect, especially as in his COMPTES 
RENDUS description for IC 765 he states that it lies in reference to NGC 4152 at a 
PA of 347 and a distance of 6 arcmins.

IC 772.
(See IC 3067)

IC 778.
POSS.O-1389 
Swift List VII.#19.  12hr 16m 56.210s + 56 16' 39.038" (1950).
12hr 19m 22.064s + 55 59' 59.946" (2000). 
Not found at nominal position :   Only listings given are Steinicke (Not found), 
APL (= NGC 4198), NED "Equal to NGC 4198 ." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 779. 
POSS. O-1398. 
Safford #19.  12hr 17m 18.422s + 30 09' 55.910" (1950).
12hr 19m 49.050s + 29 53' 16.759" (2000).  
Confirmed galaxy :    Identified in CGCG only as ZWG 158.066.  NGC 2000 correct 
identity but no Type.  MOL, UGC, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, DSFG (Notes to NGC 
4253) and MCG all have the correct identity.

IC 781.
POSS. O-1576.
Bigourdan #172.  12hr 17m 31.987s + 15 14' 33.823" (1950).
12hr 20m 04.264s + 14 57' 54.738" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Bigourdan gives his RA offset as - 8.93 tsec, however, it 
should be corrected to + 8.93 tsec.  Typed in the NGC 2000 as (Nebula) and in the 
MOL as (Bright Nebula).  Correctly identified in the CGCG, APL, PGC, Steinicke, 
NED, SIMBAD and MCG.

IC 788.
POSS. O-1576.
Javelle #748.  12hr 23m 35.293s + 16 27' 26.790" (1950).
12hr 26m 06.932s + 16 10' 50.248" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 4405. (H 88-2) :  Oddly enough Dreyer in the IC I states that 
it lies north of NGC 4405 and on the Palomar print there is the image of a very 
faint galaxy at this position, however, from Javelle's description "Pretty bright, 
irregularly round, 1 arcmin in diameter, brighter in the middle, appearance 
somewhat globular." and additionally by employing his separation values from his 
reference star, DM + 16 2370, the conclusion has to be that he is describing NGC 
4405.
The CGCG, UGC, MCG, PGC, Steinicke, Carlson, NGC 2000, NED, SIMBAD, APL and MOL all 
correctly equate the two identities.  Not listed in the RC3.  

IC 793. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Swift List VIII,#63.  12hr 25m 27.908s + 09 42' 21.856" (1950).
12hr 28m 00.348s + 09 25' 46.226" (2000). 
Equal to NGC 4445 :  Swift's RA is off by about 15 tsec.  He describes it as being 
"eE, 3 others in field," and this would apply to NGC 4445.  CGCG, UGC, PGC and MCG 
have no listing for IC 793.  NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson equate IC 793 with NGC 4445    
The APL has (= NGC 4445).  Steinicke has (= NGC 4445).  NED gives "Equal to NGC 
4445."  SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but also list the identity NGC 
4445. 

IC 799.
POSS. O-1066.
Swift List VIII, #64.  12hr 31m 20.625s - 07 05' 16.549" (1950).
12hr 33m 55.573s - 07 21' 48.991" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 4520 (H 757-2) :  Wm. Herschel gave his discovery coordinates 
of 12hr 31m 14.8s - 07 05' 15" and this is the only object in the immediate field 
that applies.  Furthermore, Swift's description "eF, * in contact on the p side." 
confirms that it is this same object.
The NGC 2000, MOL, PGC, APL, SIMBAD, Steinicke and NED all correctly make the 
equivalency.  The DSFG incorrectly makes it a galaxy 04.5 arcmin south-west of NGC 
4520.  The MCG does not list either identity.   
NOTE :  Dreyer (1912), incorrectly equates H 757-2 with NGC 5879, this should be 
H757-3.

IC 801. 
POSS. O-729. 
Swift List IX,#34.  12hr 31m 24.626s + 52 32' 31.581" (1950).
12hr 33m 46.064s + 52 15' 59.437" (2000). 
The only error here consists of the relative position of the associated star in 
the descriptions of Swift, IC I and NGC 2000.  The star lies close south preceding 
not close north.

IC 802.
POSS.O-1339. 
Bigourdan #174 :  12hr 34m 00.639s + 74 34' 35.187" (1950).
12hr 35m 57.885s +74 18' 04.689" (2000). 
This is a single star :  Suspected as such by its discoverer.  Only listed in APL 
(= *), NGC 2000 (nebula) and MOL (faint nebula).  Steinicke has (= *).  NED has 
"!*."  SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
Bigourdan observed the field on July 12th 1887 during which time he made an 
observation which he identified as being NGC 4572.  This can be established by the 
fact that his positional data between NGC 4572 and the bright galaxy NGC 4589 
(which he also observed on the same night) would compute to a difference of 1. 5 
tmin and 3' 9" of arc (the APL gives a difference of 1 tmin 40.2 tsec and 3' 15" 
of arc).
Bigourdan employed as his reference star a 9.3 Mv (Anon. = GSC 4400-437) giving 
the separation values to NGC 4572 as + 5 tsec and + 3' 54" of arc.  He also 
employed this same star from which to compute coordinates for his Nova = IC 802, 
measuring the offsets to be + 1.69 tsec and + 9' 36.2" which would certainly imply 
that he was not confusing IC 802 with NGC 4572, even though at such a high 
declination normal measurements can be difficult.  
The only object close to Bigourdan's coordinates and separations is a star and it 
should be pointed out that Bigourdan in his description for IC 802 he states that 
with rigorous inspection it is perhaps only a star.  Thus I am unable to 
understand why it would be considered as equal to NGC 4572.
NOTE :  Dr. Corwin also presents an excellent argument that what Bigourdan 
identified as being NGC 4572 is actually a star and not the correct NGC object.

IC 805. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Swift List VIII,#65.  12hr 38m 46.084s + 14 00' 43.158" (1950).
12hr 41m 16.972s + 13 44' 15.959" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4611 (Stephan List XII,#40) :   NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson 
identify IC 805 = NGC 4611.  CGCG, UGC and MCG give the single identity NGC 4611.  
APL gives (= NGC 4611. Deen) and Steinicke (= NGC 4611).  The PGC gives only the 
identity NGC 4611.  NED has "Equal to NGC 4611."  and SIMBAD has "Not present in the 
database," however, Simbad does list the equivalent identity NGC 4611.

IC 807.
POSS. O-1007.
Javelle #222.  12hr 39m 35.209s - 17 07' 48.809" (1950).
12hr 42m 12.646s - 17 24' 15.539" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The only error here concern historical data in which Dreyer 
(IC I) gives an incorrect annual rate of precession in declination, stating that 
it is + 18.8 arcsec when it should be +19.8 arcsec.
All of the modern sources that list this identity have the correct declination.

IC 808.
POSS. O-1576.
Bigourdan #175.  12hr 39m 25.705s + 20 12' 21.249" (1950)
12hr 41m 55.154s + 19 55' 54.566" (2000).
This is a double star :  I was unable to find anything in the immediate area that 
would suggest that this might be considered as a "cluster of stars" as suggested 
by Bigourdan.  Only modern listings are APL (= **), Steinicke (= * 2), NED "Other."  
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (Open Cluster) and MOL (Open 
Cluster).  Oddly enough, Wolf has an entry in his List VI, No.15 which he identifies 
as being IC 808, giving it coordinates of 12hr 39m 38s + 20 13' 57" and he describes 
it as "eF, vS, * south 1 arcmin."  As both Bigourdan and Wolf generally have 
excellent coordinate data I wonder if both are referring to the same object?

IC 809.
(See IC 3672).

IC 811.
POSS. O-1591.
Bigourdan #176.  12hr 42m 11.183s - 09 55' 28.233" (1950).
12hr 44m 47.166s - 10 11 52.880" (2000).
This is a duplicate observation of NGC 4663 (Tempel).
Bigourdan made an observation of NGC 4663 on May 8th 1896 and employed as his 
reference star the 8.6 magnitude AG Wein-077 and measured separation values of 
19.5 tsec following and 07.0 arcmin 2.3 arcsec south to establish coordinates of 
12hr 42m 11.141s - 09 55' 29.468". (1950)  On May 13th 1888, he had made an 
observation using the same star with separation values of 19.18 tsec following and 
07arcmin 01.15 arcsec south to arrive at coordinates of 12hr 42m 11.183s - 09 55' 
28.233" (1950) for what he somehow thought was a nova to which he assigned the 
identity B.176 (IC 811).
The two observations are obviously for the same object and I can only assume that 
because they were made 8 years apart, Bigourdan must have overlooked that he had 
erroneously misidentified it as a Nova in his earlier observation.
The MCG, NGC 2000, MOL, APL, Steinicke, PGC and Carlson all have correctly noted 
the equivalency.  NED and SIMBAD correctly give the equivalency.  

IC 813 & IC 3734.
POSS. O-1435.
Spitaler #20.  12hr 42m 43.828s + 23 18' 32.962" (1950).
12hr 45m 12.135s + 23 02' 08.977" (2000). (IC 813).
Wolf List VI, No.34.  12hr 42m 43.905s + 23 18' 32.432" (1950).
12hr 45m 12.213s + 23 02' 08.378" (2000). (IC 813) .
This is a problem that has resulted in different interpretations by the various 
authorities.  
To begin with there are definitely 2 galaxies making up a very closely 
associated pair the larger and brighter being Spitaler's IC 813 while "attached" 
to its north preceding edge there is a smaller system. Wolf identifies his No.34 
as being IC 813 and it is IC 813 that he measured for his coordinates. He 
describes his observation as "*14, np 0'.3, neb * 15 p 0'.5, in dif.Neb."   Dreyer 
description for IC 3734 is "*15 in dif neb; IC 813 follows 0'.5 . "
It would seem that Wolf saw both galaxies but the question concerning whether 
there should be two separate IC identities, or as some authorities claim that IC 
813 is equal to IC 3734, depends upon how one interprets the descriptions.
It is my position that Wolf in referring to the 15Mv. star in diffuse nebulosity 
is describing the associated galaxy off the north preceding edge of IC 813, he had 
already referred to the star that lies on the north preceding edge of IC 813 
"* 14, np 0.3 arcmin."  Certainly this is what Dreyer concluded and that is why he 
assigned the identity IC 3734 to this "attached" object and therefore I agree with 
Dreyer and disagree with the equivalency between the two identities, instead 
finding that the two identities refer to two different galaxies.
The UGC although in its Notes mentions the companion galaxy "Pair with comp. at 
0'.6, PA= 286, 0.30 x 0.2, contact." it does not identify it, instead it lists IC 
813 = IC 3734.  The PGC also equates both IC identities as does SIMBAD.  
The MCG and CGCG correctly list the two as IC 813 + IC 3734 while the NGC 2000 
(GX) and MOL (NSO) show them as individual galaxies, although it should be noted 
that in the case of the NGC 2000 they give IC 3734 a more southerly declination 
value than IC 813.  The RC3 gives only a single identity, IC 813. The APL gives 6 
separate entries but does not mention any equivalency.  Steinicke gives both 
identities as separate galaxies making IC 3734 the preceding of the pair. NED lists 
them as separate galaxies.

IC 815.
(See IC 3756 and IC 3760).

IC 816 & IC 817.
POSS. O-41.
Swift VII, #25.  12hr 44m 11.668s + 10 07' 31.095" (1950).
12hr 46m 43.102s + 09 51' 08.305" (2000). (IC 816). 
Swift VII, #26.  12hr 44m 26.650s + 10 08' 01.339" (1950).
12hr 46m 58.070s + 09 51' 38.764" (2000). (IC 817).
Both are confirmed galaxies :  The first error concerning these identities 
concerns Swift's description in which he incorrectly states that IC 816 is the 
north preceding of 2.  This also appears in the description data as given in 
Dreyer and the NGC 2000 description.  The correction should read the south 
preceding of 2.  Actually this misalignment is quite surprising as all of the 
above authorities in their declination data indicate that IC 816 is the more 
southern of the two objects.
The CGCG, UGC, MCG, PGC, RC3 and APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke all correctly 
identify IC 816.
Now concerning the identity IC 817.  Firstly, Swift, Dreyer and the NGC 2000 
incorrectly make this the south following of 2 when it should be the north 
following of 2.  Secondly, the CGCG, NED, SIMBAD and PGC have equated IC 817 with IC 
3764 and it is possible that this is a correct evaluation, however, it is also 
possible that there is a separate candidate for the identity, IC 3760. (See IC 
3760). The MCG gives the single identity IC 817.       

IC 819 & IC 820. 
POSS. O-64.
Spitaler Nos.51 & 52.  12hr 44m 44.053s + 31 00' 31.647" (1950).
12hr 47m 09.854s + 30 44' 09.391" (2000). (IC 819).
12hr 44m 45.629s + 30 59m 37.629s + 30 59' 37.629" (1950).
12hr 47m 11.430s + 30 43' 15.396" (2000).(IC 820).
The above are the original uncorrected historical coordinates based upon the 
Spitaler data.   
This double identity is equal to NGC 4676 (H 326-2) :  Spitaler misidentifies his 
reference star making it equivalent to AC #962552 whose position for the year 2000 
is 12hr 48m 22.562s + 30 45' 59.24"  The correct reference star would be AC 
#962463 at 12hr 47m 23.587s + 30 46' 03.25 (2000), or about 1 tmin difference 
in RA.  
When the offsets are applied to this star they give the Corrected 
Nominal Coordinates for IC 819 and IC 820 as
IC 819: 12hr 43m 44.910s + 31 00' 36.555" (1950).
        12hr 46m 10.879s + 30 44' 13.450" (2000).
IC 820: 12hr 43m 46.171s + 30 59' 44.574" (1950).
        12hr 46m 12.140s + 30 43' 21.488" (2000). 
NGC 2000 makes IC 819 connected with IC 820 = NGC 4676.  MOL makes NGC 4676 + IC 
819 separate galaxies but then equates IC 820 with NGC 4676.  UGC makes IC 819 = 
NGC 4676a and IC 820 = NGC 4676b.  MCG makes IC 819 + IC 820 = NGC 4676.  
Carlson gives  "IC 820 = NGC 4676 ?"  RC2 makes both IC identities = NGC 4676.  
The DSFG in its NOTES  makes IC 819 = NGC 4676A and IC 820 = NGC 4676B as does the 
PGC, NED, APL and Steinicke. SIMBAD makes IC 819 = NGC 4876 and IC 820 = NGC 4676B.
NOTE:  The historical coordinates are based upon Spitaler's given coordinates 
precessed from epoch 1892 and indicate a 1 tmin error in RA as the double system 
(NGC 4676) has a RA of 12hr 43m 44.7s + 31 00' 02" (1950). 

IC 823. 
POSS. O-64. 
Bigourdan #177.  12hr 45 24.169s + 27 28' 33.485" (1950).
12hr 47m 50.196s +27 12' 11.593" (2000). 
Not found :  At the corrected nominal position as given above no image is found.  
It lies close south following a faint star which lies south preceding NGC 4692.  
Bigourdan did not confuse his nova with NGC 4692, in fact he employed NGC 4692 as 
his reference object from which to measure separation values to his B.177.   CGCG, 
UGC, SIMBAD, MCG and PGC all incorrectly make IC 823 = NGC 4692.  NGC 2000 gives 
Type as  [?] and adds 2'.0 south of NGC 4692.   MOL states (May not exist).  RC2 
(Notes) make IC 823 = star as does Steinicke, NED and APL.  

IC 824.
POSS. O-1600.
Javelle #754.  12hr 47m 07.087s - 04 18' 23.096" (1950).
12hr 49m 41.925s - 04 34' 43.363" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The APL, PGC, NED and Steinicke have each equated this 
identity with NGC 4678 (Leavenworth), who observed with the 26 inch refractor of 
the Leander McCormick Observatory.  If this equivalency is correct then 
Leavenworth made an error of about 03 tmin in RA (a possibility, as the NGC 
discoveries made at this observatory are subject to large positional errors).
There is absolutely no doubt that what Javelle observed and described as "Pretty 
bright, pretty large. Elongated preceding and following, binuclear" exists at the 
coordinates he gives, however, I am not as certain that this is also Leavenworth's 
object as in addition to the large RA discrepancy there is a vast difference in 
the descriptions of both observations as Leavenworth describes NGC 4678 as 
"Exceedingly faint, extremely small. Round (nebula ?), * follows 2 seconds."
It must be admitted that IC 824 does have a faint star at about the described 
separation, however, that is the only agreement between the image of IC 824 and 
Leavenworth's description, but Javelle's description is very accurate, therefore 
without having any other definitive data that would verify this equivalency I am 
reluctant to accept such a solution at this time.
The NGC 2000 gives both identities at the historical coordinates, while the MOL 
makes IC 824 (NSO) and NGC 4678 (Non-Existent Object). SIMBAD gives the single 
identity IC 824.

IC 832. 
POSS. O-64. 
Safford and Spitaler.  12hr 51m 34.816s + 26 43' 00.722" (1950).
12hr 54m 00.940s + 26 26' 44.864" (2000). (Spitaler). 
There is a description error in the IC I and NGC 2000 in which they state the 
close double star lies north following, This should be corrected to read north 
preceding.
NOTE:  The incorrect statement originates in Spitaler's description.

IC 836.
POSS. O-717. 
Swift VII,#28.  12hr 54m 01.734s + 63 53' 19.082" (1950).
12hr 56m 03.241s + 63 37' 05.668" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed but not identified as being IC 836 in the CGCG ZWG 
316.006, UGC 08059 and MCG +11-16-07.  Correctly identified in both the NGC 2000 
and MOL also by Steinicke.  Listed in the PGC as 44092 = "Anon."  NED has correct 
identity as does APL and SIMBAD. 

IC 838. 
POSS. O-1393. 
Spitaler.  12hr 55m 46.022s + 26 38' 09.943" (1950).
12hr 58m 11.583s + 26 21' 58.425" (2000). 
This is a confirmed separate galaxy :
Although Spitaler's declination is off by about 3 arcmin too far south his 
description in which he states that it lies about 1.5 arcmin north following NGC 
4849 is correct and identifies his object.   
The CGCG incorrectly identifies NGC 4849 making it IC 838.  
UGC correctly makes IC 838 a companion galaxy to NGC 4849 = IC 3935,  (See IC 
3935).   NGC 2000 gives both NGC 4849 and IC 838 the same coordinates.  MOL shows 
IC 838 to be a separate object.  DSFG states  "IC 838 was NGC 4849a." as 
does the APL and Steinicke.  NED, SIMBAD and the PGC have the correct identity.

IC 839. 
POSS. O-1393. 
Bigourdan #179.  12hr 55m 50.017s + 28 23' 50.458" (1950).
12hr 58m 14.927s + 28 07' 38.980" (2000). 
This is a separate galaxy :   It is not part of the double system with NGC 4851 
and is plainly visible 07s preceding and 1' 16" south of NGC 4851, exactly where 
Bigourdan measured it to be.  The CGCG makes NGC 4851 + IC 839 but their IC 839 is 
the companion in the double system.  The correct IC 839 is listed as ZWG 160.057 
and is so designated in the APL.  The UGC and MCG have no listing.  MOL lists as 
separate galaxies but incorrectly make IC 839 the companion to NGC 4851 which lies 
~ 2s following and 4" north of NGC 4851.  Carlson gives  "IC 839 = NGC 4851 ?" and 
PGC makes IC 839 = NGC 4851.  Steinicke has the correct identity.  NED correctly 
equates it with ZWG 160.057. SIMBAD incorrectly makes it the south preceding 
component of a double system (NGC 4851), that lies close north following the correct 
IC 839. 
This is a prime example of a number of the modern authors not having consulted the 
historical data.

IC 841.
POSS. O-1581.
H.C.Wilson and Wolf List VI, No.132?  12hr 56m 50.838s (+ or -) + 22 06' 46.883" 
(1950).
12hr 59m 17.839s + 21 50' 36.359" (2000). (Wilson). 
12hr 57m 20.493s + 22 04' 55.456" (1950).
12hr 59m 47.448s + 21 48' 45.544" (2000). (Wolf).
Confirmed galaxy :  There is no nebular image at the RA as given by 
Wilson, however, as he did indicate that his RA was by no means precise I accept 
that Wolf's No.132 is the same object with much better coordinates. (See Dreyer's 
Note in the NGC/IC. pp.377. (IC 841).
This galaxy is identified by the CGCG only as ZWG 130.003 while the MCG identifies 
this same galaxy only as +4-31-002.  The PGC (Corrections) correctly notes the 
CGCG omission, however, it fails to include the MCG omission in its Corrections, 
meanwhile in its Main Catalogue it list its 44665 without the IC identity. 
The NGC 2000 . (No Type), APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and the MOL (NSO) correctly 
identify IC 841 at the Wolf coordinates.
NOTE:  Wolf identifies his #132 as IC 841 ?  

IC 847. 
POSS. O-729. 
Swift List IX,#36.  13hr 03m 19.732s + 53 56' 59.096" (1950).
13hr 05m 28.139s + 53 40' 56.150" (2000).  
This is equal to NGC 4973 (H 781-3) :  The identity IC 847 is for one of a group 
of galaxies which include the three NGC identities NGC 4967, NGC 4973 and NGC 
4974, these three having been discovered by Wm. Herschel whose measured positions 
were in error.  
John Herschel later made a correction to the position for NGC 4967, but apparently 
did not observe any other associated field objects as he only reports seeing NGC 
4967 = H 783-3  (Slough Observations 1833.).
When Dreyer was preparing his New General Catalogue he adopted John Herschel's 
correction but retained Wm. Herschel's positions for NGC 4973 and 4974 therefore 
the NGC data reads NGC 4967  13hr 03m 27s + 53 50'.2,  NGC 4973  13hr 04m 9s + 53 
52'.4  and NGC 4794 13hr 04m 23s + 53 54'.4   
In the year 1890 Swift observed a nonstellar object which according to Dreyer 
(ICI) has a position of 13hr 03m 49s + 53 56'.9 and therefore should be a new 
discovery to which he gave the identity IC 847, however, Dreyer  (Scientific 
Papers of Sir William Herschel. 1912) later reported positional corrections made 
by Rumker to both NGC 4973 and NGC 4974 so that they read NGC 4973 13hr 03m 26s + 
53 57'.1 and NGC 4974  13hr 03m 50s + 53 55'.6 also confirmed by Bigourdan.  
Based upon Dreyer's IC I coordinates for this object it would now seem that 
Swift's IC 847 is a duplicate observation of NGC 4974,  and due to this I was for 
some considerable time convinced of this equivalency, however, some additional 
evidence I recently examined has now required me to change my conclusion.
I am convinced that Dreyer's IC 847 coordinates are derived from the data supplied 
to him in personal correspondence by Swift, but Swift also published his List IX 
in the ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN No.3004, stating in the Introduction that "The 
places of a few have been redetermined and slightly changed"  and his #36 = IC 847 
is now given coordinates of 13hr 03m 20s + 53  56'.9 which strongly suggests that 
it is a duplicate of the corrected NGC 4973 not NGC 4974 .   
The CGCG correctly makes ZWG 270.049 = IC 847, however, it incorrectly makes ZWG 
270.051 = NGC 4973, thus making the two identities to be separate objects  The 
correct NGC 4974 is ZWG 270.051 which the CGCG incorrectly identifies as being NGC 
4973.  What the CGCG identifies as being NGC 4974 = ZWG 270.052 is actually an 
Anon.  
NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson all equate IC 847 with NGC 4974 probably based upon 
Reinmuth who it would appear was influenced by Dreyer's coordinates for IC 847 as 
given in the IC I.  
The MCG  +9-22-9 is identified as being IC 847 which is incorrect as this object 
is NGC 4974, while the correct NGC 4973 = IC 847 is listed only as +9-22-6. SIMBAD 
also incorrectly equates MCG +09-22-009 as being NGC 4973, however it does correctly 
identify IC 847.  
Steinicke correctly equates IC 847 with NGC 4973.  Additionally the MCG has 
incorrectly selected +9-22-11, the same Anon. as the CGCG ( ZWG 270.052 ) and 
misidentified it as being NGC 4973.   
The UGC has no listing for any of the identities.  The RC3 misidentifies NGC 4974 
giving it the identity NGC 4973.  The RNGC makes the same identity errors as the 
CGCG concerning NGC 4973 and NGC 4974 while also equating its NGC 4974 with IC 
847.  The PGC lists IC 847 as a separate galaxy.  The APL and NED correctly make 
IC 847 = NGC 4973.
NOTE :  The acceptance of IC 847 being equal to NGC 4973 has to be based upon 
Swift's coordinates as they appear in the AN. 3004 publication as if one accepts 
Dreyer's position as given in the IC I then Swift's #36 = IC 847 would be equal to 
NGC 4974.  I have chosen to go with former and am now in agreement with Dr. H. 
Corwin who previously had arrived at this equivalency.

IC 853.
(See IC 4205).

IC 869.
POSS. O-1581.
Javelle #239. and Swift List VIII.#71.
Either Not found or equal to a star :
This is a very interesting problem in which there are two possible conclusions.  
To begin with the identity IC 869 is one of six IC identities assigned to a group 
of galaxies which include IC 864, 866, 867, 868, 869 and 870.  Although Dreyer 
credits both Javelle and Swift as discoverers it was Swift who actually first 
observed the field on April 22nd. 1889, (List VIII).  (Javelle on June 11th. 
1891).  
Following are their given coordinates (1950).
Swift.
IC 864.             Not seen.
IC 866. Sw.68. 13hr 14m 44s + 20 55'.3  (1st of 5).
IC 867. Sw.70. 13hr 14m 54s + 20 52'.8  (3rd of 5).
IC 868. Sw.71. 13hr 14m 55s + 20 51'.3  (4th of 5).
IC 869. Sw.69. 13hr 14m 44s + 20 57'.3  (2nd of 5).
IC 870. Sw.72. 13hr 14m 56s + 20 51'.3  (5th of 5).

Javelle.
IC 864. J235.  13hr 14m 41s + 20 57'.2 
IC 866. J236.  13hr 14m 49s + 20 57'.0
IC 867. J237.  13hr 14m 52s + 20 54'.1
IC 868. J238.  13hr 15m 00s + 20 52'.4
IC 869. J239.  13hr 15m 05.578s + 20 56' 35.551" (1950). (Corrected Nominal 
Position).
               13hr 17m 31.041s + 20 40' 48.193" (2000). (Corrected nominal 
Position).
IC 870. J240.  13hr 15m 03s + 20 51'.7
The first thing the investigator learns when examining the group on the Palomar 
print is that Swift's coordinates are especially inaccurate and serve little 
purpose in trying to match up his object numbers with the Javelle and IC 
identities, however, fortunately Swift does provide some very important 
information in his descriptions for his #71 and #72 which  establishes beyond 
doubt which of his objects match those of Javelle and subsequently their IC 
identities.
Swift describes his #71 (4th of 5) as "Double with 5th" and his #72 (5th of 5) as 
"four pretty bright stars in a curve south following point to the 1st, 3rd, 4th 
and 5th." and these 4 stars are easily found on the Palomar print, their 
arc pointing as described to J236 (IC 866), J237 (IC 867), J238 (IC 868)  and J240 
(IC 870).
Now as to J239 = IC 869 = Sw.#71?  Javelle identifies his reference star as ANON 
(1) and this star is equal to GSC2.2 N1230111131 at 13hr 16m 56.601s +20 37' 
48.54" (2000).  From this star he measured his J239 to lie at + 0 tmin 34.62 tsec 
RA and 2 arcmin 57.9 arcsec north which results in coordinates for his J239 of 
13hr 17m 31.041s +20 40' 48.193" (2000).  When these coordinates are applied to 
the DSS (First Generation) with the HST Field of View Overlay activated they land 
right on a stellar image close south following a galaxy identified in NED as MAPS 
NGP 0 379 1276489 = NPM1G +20.0347. at 13hr 17m 29.942s +20 41' 02.63s (2000).
When I examined the south following image using First Generation DSS I took it to 
be a faint star and so reported in my Version 4.0, however, after Second 
Generation became available the image was seen to be definitely nonstellar, 
therefore the identity of this south following object (identified in NED as MAPS-
NGP 0 379 1276538 at 13hr 17m 31.60s + 20 40' 38.6 (2000)) would thus appear to 
establish the correct identity of J239 = IC 869, but there is another 
factor that creates a problem.
The image of the north preceding galaxy on the DSS is obviously the brighter, 
indeed according to the NED data it is more than 1.5 Mp brighter, yet if Javelle's 
positional data points to the south following object being IC 869, then surely he 
would have seen the north preceding object, but he makes no mention of it.  Does 
this mean that the north preceding galaxy is IC 869 and that Javelle's coordinates 
are slightly in error ?
I have recently discussed this problem with Dr. Corwin and although in his APL 
files dated June 21st 2000 he lists IC 869 as the north preceding galaxy he 
informs me that he will in his next update suggest that the IC identity is equal 
to both galaxies (IC 869 nw and IC 869 se), based upon the possibility that to 
Javelle both images might have appeared as a single image in the telescope, 
however, here again there is a problem.  
If the combined mages were what Javelle saw then it would appear logical that he 
would have used the brightest part of the image (the north preceding) to arrive at  
his measured offsets, whereas, what we find is that it is the fainter image, the 
south following one that his offsets point to as being J239.
All of this is indeed confusing, however, as Javelle's Corrected Nominal Position 
precisely fits the south following galaxy I am accepting it at this time as being 
IC 869.  
Only modern listings are APL (= NPMIG +20.0347 at 13hr 15m 04.479s + 20 56' 49".73  
1950). 
NED "Galaxy Pair." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  Steinicke (=*).  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL(NSO) and it is of passing interest that the MOL gives the 
declination + 20 59' 32" which was certainly not derived from historical data.
SIMBAD has "Not present in the database."

IC 872.
POSS. O-1561.
Swift List X, #21.  13hr 15m 41.332s + 06 37' 11.747" (1950).
13hr 18m 12.583s + 06 21' 25.262" (2000).
When Swift's given coordinates are examined on the DSS they land on a spot close 
north preceding a galaxy that is equal to UGC 08361, Mp 15.20 at 13hr 18m 18.59s +06 
20' 07.2s (NED).  From its appearance I would say that it is certainly bright enough 
to have been visible to Swift and the differences in coordinates would be considered 
quite small, based upon a great many as given by Swift.  The main problem with this 
particular identity is that in Swift's description he states "5060 in field" and if 
he is referring to NGC 5060 then this would be impossible as NGC 5060 lies at 13hr 
17m 16.23s +06 02' 14.9" (2000. NED) which would put it well outside Swift's field 
of view.
By searching the field around NGC 5060 there is another possible candidate as 
suggested by Corwin, (UGC 08349, Mp 14.30), which is at 13hr 17m 01.61s + 06 21' 
25.4" (2000), thus a difference from Swift's given position amounting to 1 tmin 10.9 
tsec in RA, however, this candidate would be within the field of view employed by 
Swift to confirm his statement in regard to NGC 5060.  So the question becomes which 
one of these two is likely to be the object Swift saw?
Although I have previously been of the opinion that the object UGC 08361 is Swift's 
IC 872, due to its relative closeness to his stated position, I am now of two minds 
as Dr. Corwin's argument concerning the other candidate (UGC 08349) has considerably 
merit, therefore, at this time I can not determine which one is IC 872.
NED equates UGC 08349 with IC 872, while SIMBAD makes it equal to UGC 08361.
PGC has no listing for IC 872. Steinicke equates it with UGC 08361. APL gives both 
as possible candidates. NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) have coordinates based upon 
the historical data.  CGCG MCG and UGC have no listing for the identity 872.
   
 
IC 877.
POSS. O-1561.
Swift List X, #22.  13hr 16m 26.427s + 06 20' 43.006" (1950).
13hr 18m 57.763s + 06 04' 57.609" (2000).
Not found : As with IC 876 and IC 878  Swift's RA is 1 tmin too large.  Only 
modern listings are Steinicke, APL (Not found), NED "Other," NGC 2000 (No Type) and 
MOL NSO). SIMBAD has "Object of unknown nature."

IC 878.
POSS. O-1561.
Swift List X, #23.  13hr 16m 29.408s + 06 23' 01.090" (1950).
13hr 19m 00.727s + 06 07' 15.765" (2000).
Not found :  There is a 1 tmin too large error in Swift's RA.  No nebular image at 
or close to the nominal position.
Swift describes it as " eeeF, pL, 4th of 5, eee diff."  
Only modern listings are Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 (No Type) and APL "Nothing 
here". NED "Nothing here." and SIMBAD "Object of unknown nature."

IC 879.
POSS. O-1361.
Muller.  13hr 16m 55.080s - 27 08' 52.397" (1950).
13hr 19m 40.383s - 27 24' 37.152" (2000).
Equal to IC 4222 (Swift List XI, #154).  The correct identification is IC 879.  
Muller was the first to see this galaxy and gave good coordinates for its position 
so that there is no dispute regarding any of his data.
Swift in his List XI, # 154 gives coordinates of 13hr 16m 44s - 28 09'.9 and at 
this position there are only two stars, however, Swift correctly describes his 
object as "NGC 5078 near north following." and this exactly describes IC 879.
The MCG gives the single identity IC 879.  The NGC 2000 and MOL both list the two 
identities as being separate objects with separate coordinates.  Steinicke, APL, 
NED, SIMBAD and the PGC have the correct equivalency.   
NOTE: Muller gives only a RA separation from his reference star AC #3023496, 
something that apparently was occasionally done at Leander McCormick Observatory. 
when there was not any large separation of either RA or Dec between the star and 
the Nova.

IC 880.
POSS. O-1561.
Swift List X, #24.  13hr 16m 36.407s + 06 22'31.287" (1950).
13hr 19m 07.726s + 06 06' 46.132" (2000).
Not found :  As with IC 872, IC 877 and IC 878 there is a 1 tmin too large error 
in Swift's published RA.  No nonstellar image at or close to nominal position.  
Swift states that it has a "pB * nr south," however, no such star is found at the 
required area south of the nominal position.  Only modern listings are Steinicke 
(=*), APL "Nothing here", NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). NED "Nothing here," and 
SIMBAD "Object of unknown nature."

IC 884.
POSS. O-1061.
Swift List VI, ? :
Unable to find or confirm :  This must rank about the highest in frustration level 
that I have encountered with Swift's objects.  According to Dreyer the data he 
gives for this identity comes from Swift's List VI, yet I am unable to match the 
IC identity with any entry in List VI, other than perhaps #53, however, the RA for 
#53 differs from that of Dreyer's by about 01 tmin, therefore where did Dreyer 
obtain the coordinates he gives for IC 884 ?
Dreyer's coordinates for IC 844 are 13hr 20m 14s - 12 28'.0
Now in Swift's List VII he lists a # 30 at 13hr 19m 15s - 12 28' 07" and in his 
Notes to this list he states that # 30 is the same as List VI, # 53 and the 
coordinates match (13hr 19m 15s - 12 28' 03"), but this still gives a difference 
in RA of about 01 tmin from Dreyer's IC 884 position.
I am unable to state with confidence whether IC 884 is in fact another observation 
of NGC 5110 (Swift List III, #71), which in turn is a duplicate observation of NGC 
5111 (H 119-3) at 13hr 20m 17s -12 42'.4.  This is the closest possible candidate 
being about 03 tsec and 14.4 arcmin from Dreyer's position for IC 884, which is 
well within the error range of Swift's coordinates, but my problem is which of all 
of Swift's published observations involved would be for IC 844 ? as none of them 
appear to be the source of Dreyer's given coordinates.
Not listed in the MCG.  The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) place it at Dreyer's 
position.  Steinicke and NED have (Not found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 887.
POSS. O-1061.
Swift List VI, #55.  13hr 21m 33.042s - 12 11' 59.683" (1950).
13hr 24m 11.960s - 12 27' 37.533" (2000).
Not found :  I was unable to find any suitable candidate at or anywhere near the 
nominal position.
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type)  MOL (NSO), NED (Nothing here), APL and 
Steinicke (Not found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  

IC 888.
POSS. O-1420.
Swift List VIII. #74.  13hr 23m 22.287s + 14 00' 13.269" (1950).
13hr 25m 50.072s + 13 44' 38.352" (2000).
Not found. Excellent possibility it is equal to NGC 5136 (H. 84-3) :  At Swift's 
given position no nebular image exists.  The closest image is that of a faint 
star, however, if Swift misread his RA by about 1 tmin too large then he could 
have been making a duplicate observation of NGC 5136.   
Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=NGC 5136), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO). NED (Equal to NGC 5136). SIMBAD "Not present in database."                 

IC 895.
POSS. O-116.
Swift List VIII.#75.  13hr 30m 02.322s + 35 54' 56.228" (1950).
13hr 32m 17.420s + 35 39' 32.157" (2000).
Not found :  No nebular image at Swift's position.  Only modern listings are 
Steinicke (NF), APL and NED "Nothing here", SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 896. 
POSS. O-90. 
Javelle #245.  13hr 31m 37.689s + 05 07' 25.936" (1950). (CNC).
13hr 34m 09.142s + 04 52' 04.688" (2000). (CNC). 
Confirmed galaxy :   MCG incorrectly lists +1-35-5 as being IC 896 while listing 
the correct IC 896 only as +1-35-7.   UGC also incorrectly equates IC 896 with the 
identity MCG +1-35-5, although it gives IC 896 the correct coordinates.  CGCG, 
Steinicke, NGC 2000, MOL, APL, NED, SIMBAD and PGC correctly identify IC 896.

IC 897.
POSS. O-1019.
Bigourdan #180.  13hr 31m 33.261s + 17 57' 30.416" (1950).
13hr 33m 58.561s + 17 42' 08.984" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy. But not at Bigourdan's coordinates as given above :
The galaxy IC 897 = B.180 was discovered by M.G.Bigourdan using the exceptionally 
fine 310mm refractor of the Paris Observatory.  
It was first published in the COMPTES RENDUS as part of the French Academie Des 
Sciences meeting held on April 6th 1891 in which its coordinates are roughly given 
as 13hr 27m 12s + 18 25'.0 (1860), or 13hr 31m 33.499s + 17 57' 11.317 (1950) and 
the description reads "Magnitude 13.5; situated from NGC 5217 at a PA of 105, 
Dist. = 3.5 arcmins."
Later, in Bigourdan's monumental work (Observations de Nebuleuse et d'Amas 
Stellaires 1919) he gives a much better account of his discovery in which he 
employs as his reference star from which to obtain coordinates for his 
B.180, the 9.5 Mv star BD + 18 2750, (equal to AC #728133, at 13hr 33m 39.764s + 
17 49' 41.42" (2000), the same star he used for his measured position for NGC 
5217), measuring IC 897 to lie 18.72 tsecs following and 7' 33".6 south of the 
star while NGC 5217 was 24.28 tsecs following and 1' 34" north of this same star 
and when these offsets are applied to the DSS, NGC 5217 can be correctly 
identified but the position arrived at for IC 897 lands on a blank spot about 2 
tsec of RA following and 35 arcsec south of an extended galaxy (ZWG. 102.016) which 
just about all the modern catalogues identify as being IC 897. (NGC 2000, MOL, UGC, 
CGCG, and PGC).
In my earlier versions of my survey I also accepted this galaxy as being IC 897, 
however, I now believe that this is not Bigourdan's object, based upon two 
reasons, the first being that it would require Bigourdan to be off on both his 
offsets, something unlikely and secondly, his notations given in his descriptions 
in both the Comptes Rendus and in his Observations.
They read as follows.  "By reference to NGC 5217 this object is at a PA of 105. 
Distance = 3.5 arcmins." and when the DSS is consulted there is at almost exactly 
Bigourdan's PA and Separation values from NGC 5217 the image of another galaxy 
which is the 15.7 Mp ZWG 102.020 (CGCG), a galaxy whose Mp is only 0.2 fainter 
than that given for the catalogued IC 897.
In its splendid Notes Section the Uppsala General Catalogue, (UGC), for its U08546 
= NGC 5217, 13hr 31.7m + 18 07'.0 (1950) states "Brightest in group with at least 
6 galaxies; 13hr 31'.9 + 18 06'.0 at Dist. 3.2 arcmins. and PA 100,  0.6 x 0.15, 
Mp 15.7 " which is almost exactly the PA and Distance factors given in the 
Bigourdan's descriptions.
It is now my conclusion that the galaxy ZWG 102.020 at 13hr 34m 54.25s + 18 06' 
13.7" (1950), or 13hr 34m 19.45s +17 50' 53.2" (2000), is the correct IC 897 and 
both Steinicke, NED and the APL agree. SIMBAD incorrectly. equates it with ZWG. 
102.016.
NOTE: SEE THE DEEP-SKY OBSERVER, (WSQJ. Issue #136. 2004. pps. 16 &17.)

IC 898.
POSS. O-1079.
Javelle #246.  13hr 31m 42.219s + 13 32' 14.429" (1950).
13hr 34m 09.695s + 13 16' 53.288" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Incorrectly equated with ZWG 73.031 in the CGCG, should be ZWG 
73.032.(See QJRAS #33. 1992).  Correctly identified in the NGC 2000 (GX), 
Steinicke, APL, NED and MOL (NSO).  SIMBAD and PGC incorrectly equate it with ZWG 
73.031.   

IC 903.
POSS. O-465.
Javelle #770.  13hr 35m 51.979s + 00 01'36.212" (1950).
13hr 38m 25.764s - 00 13' 37.569" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the NGC 2000 and MOL as (Nebula).  Correctly 
identified in the CGCG, MCG, UGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, RC3, PGC and APL.
   
IC 907.
POSS O- 675. 
Swift List VII.#33.  13hr 37m 28.798s + 50 58' 21.879" (1950).
13hr 39m 28.356s + 50 43' 10.722" (2000). 
Unable to confirm. Probably equal to MCG +9-22-90 :  At the coordinates given by 
Swift no nebular image exists.  The CGCG, PGC, RC3, NED and UGC have identified an 
object at 13hr 37.5m + 51 19'.0 as being IC 907, however, this is a difference in 
declination of ~ 21 arcmins.  The MCG lists this same object only as +9-22-90. The 
MOL lists IC 907 as (NSO) and gives it the original Swift position as does the NGC 
2000.  Not listed in the DSFG.  Steinicke and APL have identified the MCG galaxy 
as being IC 907, as has SIMBAD.

IC 916.
POSS. O-125.
Safford #27.  13hr 40m 13.144s + 24 43' 41.549" (1950).
13hr 42m 33.809s + 24 28' 35.614" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :   The UGC in its Notes to U08664 = IC 913 incorrectly states 
that IC 916 lies at 13hr 39.3m + 23 26'.0, at PA 61, Dist. 2.9 arcmins.  The 
galaxy being described is actually IC 914.  
Correctly identified in the CGCG, MCG, PGC, APL, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (GX), 
Steinicke and MOL (NSO).

IC 919 Group of Galaxies.
POSS. O-90
Barnard.  13hr 40m 59.463s + 55 50'12.596" (1950).
13hr 42m 51.034s + 55 35' 07.708" (2000). (IC 919).
Well I knew it had to happen sometime and that I would be drawn back again into 
the IC 919 Group problem and the recent exchange of findings by Harold and Brian 
has prompted me to re-examine what must surely be an investigators worst nightmare 
and as for myself I must admit I am now still as confused as I have always been 
regarding the true identities of the 18 Barnard objects.
The region was first noticed in 1890 by Burnham while doing some double star work 
using the 36 inch refractor of the Lick Observatory.  He noted it as having 
numerous nonstellar images in close proximity   Several months later he suggested 
to Barnard that he measure coordinates for them and Barnard complied  and 
published a paper (A.N. 2998) in which he gives positions (Epoch 1860), based upon 
"estimations of closely approximate places" referenced to two stars, DM + 56 1679 
(= SAO 028864), 13hr 38m 00'.5s + 56 22'.0 (1860) and DM + 56 1682 (= SAO 028871), 
13hr 38m 43.8s + 56 21'.5 (1860).
These two stars are the only definite sources from which to obtain separation 
values using Barnard's positions which can then be compared on the Palomar prints 
and this is what I have done and following are a comparison of the offsets from DM 
+ 56 1679 for Barnard, Corwin and Skiff as obtained from the coordinates as given 
by all three.

BARNARD. (1860 Epoch).  CORWIN. (1950 Epoch).   SKIFF. (2000 Epoch)..

Barnard #01=IC 917. - 38 tsecs    00'.0   
Corwin.             - 55 tsecs  + 00' 01"       
Skiff.                None given.
 
Barnard #02=IC 918. - 35 tsecs  - 02'.5   
Corwin.             - 48 tsecs  - 06' 27"    
Skiff.              - 47 tsecs  - 06'.4

Barnard.#03=IC 919. - 32 tsecs  - 03'.0   
Corwin.             - 38 tsecs  - 06' 56"    
Skiff.              - 38 tsecs  - 06'.9

Barnard.#04=IC 921. - 12 tsecs  + 01'.9   
Corwin.             - 18 tsecs  + 00' 43"    
Skiff.              - 17 tsecs  + 00'.9

Barnard,#05=IC 922. - 09 tsecs  - 01'.5   
Corwin.             - 29 tsecs  - 01' 59"    
Skiff.              - 29 tsecs  - 02'.0

Barnard.#06=IC 923. - 05 tsecs  - 01'.0   
Corwin.             - 11 tsecs  - 02' 02"    
Skiff.              - 09 tsecs  - 01'.3

Barnard.#07=IC 925.   00 tsecs  - 02'.0   
Corwin.             - 09 tsecs  - 01' 17"    
Skiff.              - 11 tsecs  - 02'.0

Barnard.#08=IC 926. + 09 tsecs  - 00'.5   
Corwin.             + 14 tsecs  - 00' 21"    
Skiff               + 14 tsecs  - 00'.3

Barnard.#09=IC 928. + 20 tsecs  - 01'.0   
Corwin.             + 23 tsecs  - 04' 10"    
Skiff.              + 20 tsecs  - 00'.2

Barnard.#10=IC 929. + 21 tsecs  + 01'.0    
Corwin..            + 20 tsecs  - 00' 17"    
Skiff.              + 21 tsecs  + 00'.6

Barnard.#11=IC 930. + 25 tsecs  + 02'.5   
Corwin.             + 20 tsecs  + 00' 34"    
Skiff.              + 28 tsecs  + 01'.2

Barnard.#12=IC 931. + 27 tsecs  - 01'.0   
Corwin.             + 24 tsecs  - 00' 55"    
Skiff.              + 24 tsecs  - 00'.8

Barnard.#13=IC 932  + 27 tsecs   00'.0   
Corwin.             + 26 tsecs  + 00' 34"    
Skiff.              + 26 tsecs  + 00'.6

Barnard.#14=IC 934  + 40 tsecs  + 01'.0   
Corwin.             + 27 tsecs  + 01' 10"    
Skiff.              + 37 tsecs  - 00'.1

Barnard.#15=IC 935  + 41 tsecs  - 02'.0   
Corwin.             + 38 tsecs  + 00' 44"       
Skiff.              None given.

Barnard.#16=IC 936  + 41 tsecs  - 01'.0   
Corwin.             + 44 tsecs  + 04' 09"    
Skiff.              + 38 tsecs  + 00'.8

Barnard.#17=IC 937  + 70 tsecs  + 00'.5   
Corwin.             + 64 tsecs  - 00' 31"    
Skiff.              + 64 tsecs  - 00'.4
Barnard.#18=IC 938  + 73 tsecs  - 01'.0   
Corwin.             + 66 tsecs  - 00' 40"    
Skiff.              + 66 tsecs  - 00'.6
 
It is obvious by examination of the above that there are considerable differences 
in the separation values between Barnard and those given by Harold and Brian.  
Probably the most important example is Barnard's Object #3 = IC 919, which is the 
only one of the 18 that Barnard describes as "considerably bright."  
Barnard places it at a declination 3 arcmins south of the star while Harold and 
Brian select an object (ZWG 271.059 = ZWG 272.004 due to overlapping prints), 
almost 7 arcmins south of this same star. 
Now granted Barnard's positions (from which the separation values are computed) 
are admittedly "estimations" but I have difficulty accepting that an outstanding 
visual observer such as Barnard would have been off by more than a 100 percent factor, 
especially as his sole purpose for examining the area was to provide 
coordinates for Burnham's "group or nest of nebulae."  I might accept that Barnard 
could err by up to 1 arcmin but not by almost 4 arcmins, therefore based upon 
Barnard's coordinates his Object #3 = IC 919 would be Harold and Skiff's IC 922 
and the galaxy ZWG 271.059 would not even be one of the 18 objects Barnard refers 
to in his paper.
This then poses the question How could Barnard have missed seeing the brightest 
galaxy in the immediate region ?  Well I expect that he did see it, however, I 
believe that he was only concerned with reporting on what he considered to be 18 
nebulae which formed an almost straight chain all being contained within a band of 
sky whose dimensions measure 5.5 arcmins north to south and 16.0 arcmins West to 
East.
It is as if Barnard wished to emphasize that all of his 18 objects are to be found 
in this band as Barnard in his paper states "that the entire group of 18 objects 
are contained within an area 16'.0 X 5'.5" and " no effort was made to see other 
nebulae outside the area mentioned" however, both Harold and Brian's selection for 
IC 919 exceed the 5'.5 declination range, never mind the additional excess in 
declination range for those objects selected by Harold and Brian lying north of 
the reference star which results in Harold's declination range being 11' 5".1 and 
Brian's being 8'.1 while the other candidate for the identity IC 919 (Harold and 
Brian's IC 922) is within the declination range and would be the brightest object 
within the band.
I feel that what made this group so interesting to Barnard was that he found all 
of them to be within this small 16'.0 X 5'.5 band of sky and that if we include 
ZWG 271.059 and Harold's selection for IC 936 then such an interest would be 
somewhat diminished and lessen the significance which prompted Barnard to report 
it in the A.N.  It certainly made quite an impression on Barnard as he referred to 
it again in another paper (A.N. #4136. Groups of small nebulae.) dated by him June 
1st 1897, "There are quite a number of such clusters the most remarkable of these 
being one composed of very small nebulae found by Mr. Burnham with the 36 inch and 
described in A.N. 2998, where no less than eighteen nebulae are crowded into a 
space 5'.5 X 16'.0.  There can be no question that the components of such a group 
are physically connected."
Now there is no doubt that at the positions given by Harold and Skiff for the 
objects they identify there definitely are galaxies, whereas I could only find 10 
nonstellar images based upon Barnard's positions and even for many of these I had 
to allow for the possibility of up to 1 arcmin caused by estimation error, the 
rest of the 18 being either not found or faint stars, however, in order to make 
their identities Harold and Brian have selected galaxies which for the majority do 
not remotely comply with the historical data, (in addition to many differences in 
RA and declinations they also have some of their identities out of order of RA, 
something necessary by offsetting from their IC 919), so either the historical 
data is grossly incorrect or their selections are wrong.
One other aspect of the identities selected by Harold and Brian that I am 
uncomfortable with is that when their coordinates are compared to those given by 
Barnard there is no evidence of any systematic pattern in the differences, rather 
it would seem that Harold and Brian again in the majority of cases made their 
selections based upon the existence of nebular images and just about completely 
ignored the historical data.
In fairness I must state that Harold admitted that his choices were subject to a 
lot of guesswork and Brian concluded that the identities for this group pretty 
much comes down to personal choices, a sentiment I can appreciate.
Well as you can see, nothing comes easy with this group of identities.  I honestly 
at this time am still at sea as to the correct solution (personally I wish they 
had all been NGC identities then I would have not had to bother with them).
Barnard's 18 IC identities in this group are as follows     
Nos.917,918,919,921,922,923,925,926,928,929,930,931,932,934,935,936,937 and 938. 
The CGCG gives only the identity ZWG 271.059 = ZWG 272.004. (overlapping prints) 
and this is what Dr. Corwin and B. Skiff have selected as being IC 919 and with 
the exception of the APL, NGC 2000 and the MOL.  
Both the NGC 2000 and MOL list IC 922, IC 928 and IC 931 as (Nebula) while also 
listing the other identities as (No Type) or (Nonstellar Objects). SIMBAD lists all 
18 identities as "Not present in the database." NED Lists all 18 identities, given 
them Dr. Corwin's positions, however, with the exception of IC 918 it adds a note 
stating "Identity not certain."

ADDENDA :
IC 919 GROUP.  
REPLY TO HAROLD'S COMMENTS.

I read Harold's reply to my assessment of the IC 919 identity problem with great 
interest and wish to here state that perhaps his selected identities are the 
correct ones as they are based upon existing galaxy images (with the possible 
exception of IC 917,) however, whether his remaining 17 selections are all based 
upon the historical data as Harold states "Brian and I have chosen to look at what 
Barnard wrote, what we believe he saw," is still not clear to me, because the 
exact words Barnard used in his paper are the following.
"Some months ago, while measuring double stars with the great telescope, Mr. 
Burnham ran upon a very singular nest or group of nebulae.  At his suggestion, I 
estimated their positions with reference to the two stars DM + 56 1679 and DM + 56 
1682.  In addition to the more prominent ones seen at first , a number of fainter 
ones were added, making eighteen new nebulae found in the small area 16' X 5'.5.  
Doubtless with more careful attention others could have been found in the same 
field.  No effort was made to see other nebulae outside the area mentioned. From 
these estimations, the following closely approximated places have been derived.  
These Nebulae are all very small, and if seen at all in a smaller telescope might 
be taken for small stars.  They are given here both to show the remarkably small 
space they occupy and to illustrate the wonderful power of the great telescope in 
the department of the nebulae."  
Now if Harold's selected identities are the correct ones then we have to conclude 
that Barnard was extremely inept when it came to estimating "closely approximated 
places" as opposed to "crude positions" and even if one accepts the "crude 
positions," is it conceivable that such an outstanding and highly qualified 
professional astronomer would have come up with declination values that differ 
from those given by Harold by as much as 5 arcmins (IC 936) and almost 4 arcmins 
(as in the case of both IC 918 and IC 919) ?, especially as according to Barnard 
the dimensions of the field that he claimed contained the 18 nebulae was only 5.5 
arcmins in declination width.  Barnard obtained his coordinates for what he 
considered to be 18 nebulous images by estimating their positions from the two 
stars he mentions, whose coordinates were established and available to him, also 
from his statement "closely approximated places," it is clear that he did not 
perceive his estimates to be "crude".
I would agree with Harold that Barnard probably arrived at his 16' X 5'.5 field 
from the range of his published coordinates, and there is absolutely nothing wrong 
about doing that, after all that is what his positions indicated.  Barnard's 
declination range is 5.5 arcmins whereas Harold's is 11.1 arcmins (IC 919 to IC 
936), or more than double Barnard's range, which, if Harold is correct, would 
suggest that not only was Barnard inept, but that he was completely incompetent 
when it comes to estimating minutes of arc in a telescopic field.
Well, I would disagree that these differences do support following the historical 
data, furthermore, does following the historical data allow for Harold's selection 
for his IC 930 having a Right Ascension 2.2 tsecs preceding his IC 928, whereas 
Barnard places his #11 = IC 930  5.0 tsecs following his #9 = IC 928. (a 7.2 tsec 
difference)?  Also Barnard gives IC 923 a declination 1 arcmin north of IC 925, 
whereas Harold places his IC 923 almost 1 arcmin south of his IC 925.  Again if 
one compares the differences between all of Barnard's given positions and the same 
differences according to Harold's selected identities there are for many of these 
identities no systematic matching pattern between the two sets of differences.
I must confess that I am unable to improve on Harold's identities, however, I 
would say that basing my investigation strictly upon Barnard's data, the 
historical data, which is what I have done, the problem is far from solved.  
Perhaps if Barnard's Observing Notes are in existence and become available (I also 
wrote to Lick requesting such information), then perhaps this issue can be laid to 
rest.  As for the present, I thoroughly agree with Brian's comment "you pays yer 
money, you takes your choice."
Note:  Since writing the above I have received from Professor Donald Osterbrock of 
the Lick Observatory a reply to my request for copies of any of the original 
logbook entries pertaining to this group made by either Burnham or Barnard.  He 
sent me all of the data involved that he could find, however, they contain no 
additional information that would shed further light upon the controversy.
NOTE :  Quite frankly, I must admit that having once more examined the matter I am 
no closer to resolving the involved identities.  As I am unable to clearly 
establish Barnard's identities (there are too many inconsistencies), I can only 
offer those as arrived at by Dr. Corwin as being the best available, although I 
still have difficulty with those identities that differ from the historical as to 
order of either RA or Declination with associated identities, while also I am 
still not comfortable with the large differences  of those identities which do not 
fit within the 16 X 5.5 field as stated by Barnard.

BARNARD'S COORDINATES PRECESSED TO 1950.      
CORWIN'S COORDINATES FOR 1950.

Barnard. IC 917. 13hr 40m 53.393s +55 53'12.264” Corwin.13hr 40m 39.5s +55 53'18"
Barnard. IC 918. 13hr 40m 56.475s +55 50'42.432” Corwin.13hr 40m 46.0s +55 46'50"
Barnard. IC 919. 13hr 40m 59.463s +55 50'12.596” Corwin.13hr 40m 55.7s +55 46' 20".9
Barnard. IC 921. 13hr 41m 18.998s +55 55'07.687” Corwin.13hr 41m 16.5s +55 54'00"
Barnard. IC 922. 13hr 41m 22.123s +55 51'43.856” Corwin.13hr 41m 04.8s +55 51' 17".9
Barnard. IC 923. 13hr 41m 26.052s +55 52'14.076” Corwin.13hr 41m 22.7s +55 51'15"
Barnard. IC 925. 13hr 41m 31.041s +55 51'14.352” Corwin.13hr 41m 24.7s +55 52'00"
Barnard. IC 926. 13hr 41m 39.817s +55 53'44.844” Corwin.13hr 41m 47.9s +55 52'56"
Barnard. IC 928. 13hr 41m 50.758s +55 52'15.453” Corwin.13hr 41m 56.6s +55 49'07"
Barnard. IC 929. 13hr 41m 51.652s +55 54'15.506” Corwin.13hr 41m 53.8s +55 53' 04".1
Barnard. IC 930. 13hr 41m 55.534s +55 55'45.725” Corwin.13hr 41m 54.4s +55 53'51"
Barnard. IC 931. 13hr 41m 57.676s +55 52'15.840” Corwin.13hr 41m 57.9s +55 52'22"
Barnard. IC 932. 13hr 41m 57.629s +55 53'15.839” Corwin.13hr 42m 00.2s +55 53'51"
Barnard. IC 934. 13hr 42m 10.524s +55 52'16.559” Corwin.13hr 42m 01.3s +55 54'27"
Barnard. IC 935. 13hr 42m 11.559s +55 51'16.616" Corwin.13hr 42m 11.9s +55 54'01"
Barnard. IC 936. 13hr 42m 11.512s +55 52'16.614" Corwin.13hr 42m 18.2s +55 57'26"
Barnard. IC 937. 13hr 42m 40.100s +55 53'48.222” Corwin.13hr 42m 37.8s +55 52'46"
Barnard. IC 938. 13hr 42m 43.137s +55 52'18.391” Corwin.13hr 42m 40.3s +55 52'37"


IC 942. 
POSS. O-705. 
Swift List VII,#34.  13hr 45m 54.795s + 56 52' 10.938" (1950).
13hr 47m 42.749s + 56 37' 15.605" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Listed in the CGCG only as ZWG 295.013.  MCG, NGC 2000, PGC, 
APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and MOL have correct identity.  UGC not listed.

IC 953, IC 955 and IC 957.
Parrish.  13hr 52m 04.634s - 30 01 59.827" (1950).
13hr 54m 56.849s - 30 16' 42.029" (2000). (IC 953).  
13hr 52m 50.866s - 30 03  44.052" (1950).
13hr 55m 43.218s - 30 18' 24.645" (2000). (IC 955).  
13hr 53m 15.369s - 30 03' 43.053" (1950).
13hr 56m 07.781s - 30 18' 22.789" (2000). (IC 957). 
Not found :
These three identities all lie in the same region of the sky and were part of the 
observations carried out at the Leander McCormick Observatory.
I was unable to find any nonstellar images that would be deemed suitable at or 
near the given positions of all three.
Only listings found were NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO) and both of these give the 
Coordinates based upon the historical data.  Steinicke makes IC 953 (=*) and (NF)   
for both IC 955 and IC 957.  NED makes all 3 identities (Not found), as does APL and 
SIMBAD.
NOTE :  For an excellent evaluation of the problems associated with these 3 
identities see WEBB SOCIETY QUARTERLY JOURNAL, July 1997. Issue #109.  LOST IN 
SPACE ?.  J. Kaye and M. Cragin.

IC 958. 
POSS. O-90. 
Swift List IX,#39.  13hr 53m 15,994s + 05 16' 41.479" (1950).
13hr 55m 46.664s + 05 02' 01.576" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 5360 (Marth) :  Swift's coordinates place it relatively close 
to NGC 5360 and his description "eeeF, pS, iR, seen only in glimpses" matches well 
with Marth's "vF, vS, lE."   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 gives 
Type as  [?].  MOL states (May not exist).   Carlson lists as  "Not Found."  APL and 
Steinicke give (= NGC 5360). SIMBAD has (Not found). NED has Equal to NGC 5360? 
"Identification as IC 958 is not certain."

IC 963.
POSS. O-81.
Javelle #267.  13hr 55m 01.595s + 17 39' 03.595" (1950).
13hr 57m 25.111s + 17 24' 27.327" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The MOL incorrectly lists the declination as +11 39' 12".  
Correctly identified in the CGCG, PGC, MCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and NGC 2000 
(GX).

IC 968.
POSS. O-1424.
Bigourdan #181.  13hr 58m 01.604s - 02 39' 57.218" (1950).
14hr 00m 36.979s - 02 54' 26.940" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The problem here is one of coordinates, something very unusual 
with Bigourdan objects.
There is no doubt that Bigourdan's # 181 exists as a galaxy and this can be 
confirmed by his relative separation values when compared to those he gave to the 
galaxy NGC 5400, also from his reference star which he called "Anon 4."
His given coordinates for IC 968 are off by about 3 to 4 tsec RA and about 2 
arcmin too far south and it would appear that the error is to be found in the 
coordinates he applied to the star BD -1 2892 from which he then measured offsets 
to his reference star "Anon 4".  As his declination for BD -1 2829 is off by about 
2 arcmin too far south then so is the declination he gives for "Anon 4" and this 
in turn is reflected in the coordinates he gives for both IC 968 and NGC 5400, 
however, that he saw both galaxies is beyond dispute as his offsets from his 
reference star to both these identified objects are correct and establish that his 
#181 = IC 968 is an existing galaxy, one of a double system. 
I have found that Bigourdan's measured positions are usually excellent therefore 
this apparent error would be quite rare in his published data and originates from 
the incorrect coordinates taken from the BD star catalogue.
The MCG, PGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and CGCG have the correct identity and 
more correctly reflect the proper declination, while both the NGC 2000 and MOL 
basing their positional data upon Dreyer have the Bigourdan historical coordinates   

IC 973.
POSS. O-1616.
Bigourdan #182.  14hr 03m 51.877s - 05 14' 56.441" (1950).
14hr 06m 28.889s - 05 29' 13.313" (2000). (Comptes Rendus).
This is a single star :  I was unable to find any reference to this in Bigourdan's 
OBSERVATIONS and relied upon his publication of discovery in the COMPTES RENDUS in 
which he describes it as appearing stellar.
Modern listings are NGC 2000 (*), MOL (May not exist), Carlson (Not found), NED 
"!*."  APL (= NGC 5467 = *) and Steinicke (= * = NGC 5467).  SIMBAD has "Not present 
in the database."

IC 974.
POSS. O-1616.
Bigourdan #183.  14hr 03m 57.228s - 05 16' 34.199" (1950).
14hr 06m 34.265s - 05 30' 50.730" (2000).
Unable to decide :  Bigourdan employed as his reference object the identity NGC 
5465, which is a faint star, therefore I treated this as a regular reference star 
and although I was unable to find this star listed in either the AC or Tycho-2 
catalogues it is listed in the GSC as 4981-340 at 14hr 06m 27.35s - 05 30' 23.3 
(2000).  
By precessing this back to the discovery date for IC 974 (1890) the position is 
14hr 00m 42.286s - 04 58' 50.988" and then applying Bigourdan's estimated offsets 
(+ 6.9 tsec RA and + 28 arcsec Dec) the 1890 position for IC 974 would be 14hr 00m 
49.186s - 04 59' 18.988" which when precessed would give the following 
coordinates, 14hr 03m 57.228s - 05 16' 34.199s (1950) and 14hr 06m 34.265s - 05 
30' 50.730" (2000).
When these coordinates are entered into the DSS they land on a blank area of sky 
between a very bright star and the following of two faint stars, the preceding 
faint star being NGC 5465.
Bigourdan describes IC 974 as "Object very much stellar, appearing to be slightly 
nebulous and situated at a PA of 105 degrees, distant 1.8 arcmin from NGC 5465. 
This object is a little fainter than NGC 5465 and because of its faintness it is 
difficult to decide if it is indeed nebulous.  Sky a little misty at this 
elevation."
Now the following of the two faint stars fulfills the PA in Bigourdan's 
description, however, the 1.8 arcmin separation is closer to 1 arcmin than 1.8 
arcmin between the two stars.
Granted, the separation values in this case were not measured by Bigourdan but 
were estimated and except for this discrepancy the following of the two faint 
stars fits Bigourdan's description, however, I am still bothered by 
the almost 1 arcmin difference in distance between the two stars, therefore at 
this time I shall hedge by concluding Not found at the corrected nominal position, 
but probably the following of the two faint stars.
NGC 2000 (*), MOL (May not exist), Carlson (Not found. Mt. Wilson), APL (=*) and 
Steinicke (NF). NED has "!*."  SIMBAD has "Not present in the database."

IC 984.
POSS. O-81.
Javelle #276.  14hr 07m 45.673s + 18 36' 04.457" (1950).
14hr 10m 07.526s + 18 21' 56.543" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG has incorrectly identified its ZWG 103.094 at 14hr 
07.6m + 17 38'.0 as being IC 984.  This should be corrected to ZWG 103. 099. (See 
RASQJ #33, pp.63 & 64. 1992).
This error is also reported in the PGC (Corrections).  Correctly identified in the 
UGC, MCG, APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD. NGC 2000 (GX), MOL (NSO) and RC3.

IC 986.
POSS. O-1424.
Javelle #781.  14hr 08m 53.270s + 01 33' 50.640" (1950).
14hr 11m 26.123s + 01 19' 45.522" (2000).  Based upon Part 2 data.
Confirmed galaxy :   The RA coordinates in Javelle's Catalogue, Parts 1 and 2, for 
his #781 differ by 2 tmin this due to a 2 tmin error in the RA of Javelle's 
reference star DM +2-2783 as given in Part 2 of the catalogue.  Dreyer fortunately 
used the data in Javelle's Part 1, which has the correct RA, although the 
declination is about 1.6 arcmin too far north.  
All of the modern authorities have the correct coordinates.

IC 987.
POSS. O-81.
Javelle #277.  14hr 09m 10.671s + 19 24' 38.386" (1950).
14hr 11m 31.840s + 19 10' 33.790" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the CGCG only as ZWG 103.112.  Correctly 
identified in the MCG, Steinicke, PGC, APL, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (GX), MOL (NSO) 
and DSFG (Notes to NGC 5492). 

IC 990.
POSS O-1386. 
Bigourdan #184.  14hr 13m 46.406s + 40 01' 43.712" (1950).
14hr 15m 49.153s + 39 47' 49.887" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in MCG only as +7-29-56.  Correctly identified in 
the CGCG, NED, APL, Steinicke, SIMBAD, PGC, NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  Not 
listed in RC3, UGC.  Listed in DSFG (Notes to NGC 5536).  

IC 996. 
POSS. O-705. 
Swift List VII,#43.  14hr 15m 22s + 57 52' 22" 
Error in RA :   CGCG, UGC, PGC, RC3, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and MCG give correct RA 
14hr 15m.8  (CGCG and UGC), or 14hr 15m.6 (MCG).   NGC 2000 requires + 24 tsec and 
MOL + 21 tsec in RA.

IC 997, IC 998 and IC 4401.
POSS. O-1062.
DSS Photograph of IC 997, IC998 and IC 4401 Field.
North up and Preceding right.
 
 
MODERN IDENTITIES.
A = IC 4401.  B = IC 997. C = IC 998.
=======================================
SWIFT'S DATA:  All Epoch 2000.0
List #10. (1893). MNRAS Publication.  
PREC. 14h 19m 56.241s - 04 28' 46.464"
(D) "pF; S; R; star with distant companion near n. p of 2."
FOL. 14h 20m 14.228s - 04 27' 44.838" (E) "eeF; S; R; e diff. f of 2."
---------------------------------------
List #11. (1898). Astronomische Nachricten Publication.
(168). 14hr 19m 34.961s - 04 27'25.219" (F) "vF; S; R; star with distant companion 
near n; p of 2."
(169). 14hr 19m 52.949s - 04 26'23.741"
(G) "eeF; S; R; f of 2."
=======================================
Howe's Data: All Epoch 2000.0
(1899 MNRAS Publication).
Nova = IC 4401.
14hr 19m 24.994s - 04 29' 14.037"
---------------------------------------
(1900 MNRAS Publication).
NOVA = IC 4401. = (OBJECT A).
14hr 19m 24.994s - 04 29' 14.037"
IC 997 = (OBJECT B).
14hr 19m 59.968s - 04 27' 05.165"
IC 998 = (OBJECT C).
14hr 20m 19.934s - 04 24' 57.519"

If you consult any of the sources that list these 3 galaxies you will find that 
the vast majority identify them as being 
A = IC 4401.B = IC 997.  C = IC 998.[See Photo].  
I should point out that up until now I seem to be the only person that disputes 
these identities but I shall explain how I arrived at my conclusions and others 
may judge their merit.
When I first examined this group I had no reason to dispute the given identities, 
however, a number of findings turned up that caused me to have some doubt as to 
their validity and after considerable time and thought I eventually formed two 
different scenarios, which explain my concerns and reach the same conclusions 
although from differing approaches.
The first person to observe this region was Lewis Swift,   using the 16 inch 
refractor of the Warner Swasey Observatory in Rochester, New York.  This telescope 
when used with the eyepiece employed by Swift for his search for new nebulae gave 
the unusually large field of view of 33 arcmin with a magnification of 132X, or a 
field that would just about cover the size of the full moon.
His method for obtaining positions was by using a chronometer for Right Ascension 
and climbing down from his observing ladder to read off declinations from the 
setting circle. Swift's positions can be highly frustrating as often they have 
large errors and in order to identify correctly one must often resort to his field 
descriptions and match up field stars or associated objects with what he 
describes.
For this field they appear without any identities in the February, 1893 issue of 
the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS), as List (10), in 
which he claims discovery of 2 nebulae.  He describes the preceding as "Pretty 
faint, Small, Round. Star with distant companion near North." and the following as 
"Exceedingly faint, Small, Round. Extremely difficult."
When Swift's List 10 coordinates are applied to the field his preceding would land 
at (D) and his following object would be at (E). [See Photo] 
Meanwhile, Louis Dreyer, the compiler of the famous NGC catalogue published the 
first of the IC catalogues in 1895 and assigned the identities IC 997 and IC 998 
by order of Right Ascension to the two Swift discoveries, giving them coordinates 
based upon Swift's data.
Swift next published in 1898 what he suggests as being a second observation, this 
time in the German astronomical journal, ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICTEN #3517, and here 
the same two discoveries are identified by order of Right Ascension as Swift's 
#168 and #169.  His positional data as given in this list shows a correction to that 
given in his earlier List 10 and  his descriptions read much as before, #168 "Very 
faint, Small, Round. Star with distant companion near north. Preceding of 2." and 
#169 "Exceedingly faint, Small, Round. Following of 2."
Now when we apply these corrected positions to the field we find that his #168 
lies at (F) and his #169 at (G). [See Photo].
The next person to examine telescopically the same field was another American, 
Professor Howe of the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver, Colorado.
Howe was a recognized professional astronomer and observed with the observatory's 
20 inch refractor.
His first account of his examination appears in the December issue 1899 MNRAS in 
which he lists a Nova (new discovery)
He adds the following NOTE.  "It precedes IC 997 about 30 tsec.  (IC 998) which 
its discoverer pronounces Exceeding faint, very difficult.  I did not see.  In its 
position, or very near it is a double star of mags. 13.5 and 13.5, distant 30 
arcsec and angle 160 degrees."
As for Howe's double star there is a bit of a problem in that the only pair in the 
vicinity fitting his description is according to the United States Observatory 
Catalogue (USNO-B1.0) Red magnitudes of 16.4 and 15.9, whereas Howe calls them 
both 13.5 magnitude.
Now it is very important to know that at this time Howe, using a larger telescope 
and with much better sky conditions than those at Rochester, states that he  could 
not see IC 998, his references being only to object A, his Nova and Object B, 
which he describes in his Note as being (997). Six pages later in the same 
publication Howe added the following information.
Swift #168 and #169, "Probably they are identical with 997 and 998.  I examined 
the region on one night only and saw only a very faint double star in or near the 
place of 998."
Here again Howe is suggesting that he saw only 2 objects, his Nova and what he 
identifies as IC 997.
Finally, Howe in the November 1900 issue of MNRAS list notes on a number of 
objects he observed belonging to the Index Catalogue and among his notes he 
writes,
"(997) and (998) I have examined this locality with considerable care, and see 
three nebulae, one of which is evidently a nova, as its description is widely 
different from that of any of the others.  997 and Swift 168 agree in description 
and are thought to be identical.  The star with distant companion near north is of 
mag. 9.5 and follows the nebula less than 1 tsec and 1.3 arcmin north.  Its 
companion is of mag. 10.5 and is 40 arcsec distant from the brighter star, at a 
Position angle of 225 degrees."
It is obvious that by the time of publishing this Howe not only had seen all 3 
galaxies but had concluded that Object B was Swift's 168 = IC 997 and Object C was 
Swift's 169 = IC 998, while his nova was Object A, later given the identity IC 
4401 by Dreyer.  Thus the identities found in the modern catalogues.
Howe continues in his NOTE.  "998 is very much fainter and smaller than 997 and is 
judged to be identical with Swift's 169.  Near it is a star of mag. 14 at a 
Position angle of 180 degrees and distance of 20 arcsec.  It is to be noticed that 
according to the Index Catalogue 998 follows 997 by 18 tsec and 1 arcmin north, 
these differences of coordinates being identical with those obtained from the 
Astronomiche Nachricten #3517 for Swift 168 and 169."
Then Howe give excellent coordinates for all three galaxies.
It was not until a couple of years ago that when re-examining this data while 
updating my files to more precise coordinates for epochs 1950 and 2000.0 that 
while looking at the field photograph taken from the Digitized Sky Survey that I 
began to suspect that any problem of identity might exist and caused me to begin 
an investigation that has resulted in two possible solutions to the problem, both 
solutions arriving at the same conclusions.

SOLUTION 1:
It first struck me that if Swift was able to see Object C as Howe suggests then 
surely he would have also seen Object A as it is both brighter and larger than C.  
Both lie well within the 33 arcmin field provided by Swift's telescope and also 
remember that Howe, himself states in both of his first statements that he could 
not see IC 998, his references as to what he saw being only applicable to Objects 
A and B. and it was not until his 1900 publication that he even mentions the Third 
object, Object C.
My next question was, What would have convinced Howe that Swift's two discoveries 
were B and C and not A and B and the answer would appear to lie in two references 
in Howe's published Notes.
First :  The 18 tsec separation in RA between Swift's #168 and #169 (actually the 
separation between Object B and C is closer to 21 tsec.).
Second : Swift's description for his 168 in which he says "Star with distant 
companion near north."
Also if one considers Swift's MNRAS coordinates as given in his List 10 they might 
indeed suggest that Objects B and C could be his two discoveries, but this then 
requires one to ignore his corrected positional data as given in his List 11. A.N. 
3517.
There is no doubt that in both Swift's positional data he does give exactly the 
same separation values, 18 tsec Right Ascension and 1 arcmin dec. But remember 
that Swift's general level of published coordinates are subject to error and I 
believe that Swift actually made only a single observation of the field, his 
first in 1892 (Dr. Harold Corwin also thinks that the single observation is a viable 
assumption) and that sometime after his List 10 was published Swift determined 
that a positional correction was necessary. 
In order to make such an assumption one has to show a reason and two possibilities 
are that perhaps there was some type of malfunction affecting his chronometer or 
miscalculation in his reductions. Whatever the reason, by the time he published 
his List 11 he had worked out what he believed to be a suitable correction and 
applied it to his original Right Ascension for either #168 or #169 then he could 
have  simply used the earlier separation values to arrive at coordinates for the 
other discovery object, thus the exact similarities between the original and 
corrected separation data in both of his lists.
What is suspicious about the similarities is that seldom if ever does more than 
one positional observation produce the exact same results.  An example of this are 
those made by Bigourdan and Javelle, two French observers who were very accurate 
measurers and who often made multiple measurements of objects by employing field 
associated stars, they always had small differences in separation values, never 
exactly the same.  Even today using machines to measure images on photographic 
plates one has only to examine the precise coordinates published in the various 
catalogues such as the Tycho-2 Catalogue and Guide Star Catalogue to name only 
two, and you will find  that there are minute differences between them and all the 
others, therefore my doubt that Swift actually ever made a second telescopic 
examination of the field, but instead made his positional corrections based upon 
what I have already described.
Whatever the reason for the corrections the fact remains that Swift made them 
before anyone else had examined the field, thus they are not the result of any 
outside influence.
Now regarding Swift's two associated stars in his description for his Object #168. 
"Star with distant companion near north."  Howe takes these stars to be the two 
immediately north of Object B, the brighter being GSC4980-965, mP 12.25.
However, I would argue that "the companion is hardly "DISTANT" as described by 
Swift, whereas lying north of Object A are two such stars, the closest being 
GSC4979-1100. Mp 11.34, [H on photo], which is only about 4.25 arcmin north of 
Object A and in a field of view of 33 arcmin I think it can be said that this can 
be described as "near", meanwhile, the companion star, GSC4979-1132. MP 11.96, [I 
on photo], also answers to the description "distant companion." 
One of the disagreements between Dr. Harold Corwin and I has been the term NEAR as 
used by Swift. Corwin feels that the distance between Object A and the star H 
would not be considered as being NEAR whereas that between Object B and the star 
directly north would.  In order to address this concern I searched Swift's 
published data and by scanning through only three of his lists as published in the 
Astronomische Nachricten, List 8, 10 and 11 I soon found 7 examples where Swift 
describes a star or double star as being NEAR to his discovery object and for 3 of 
these the distances involved are similar to that between Star H and Object A, 
while for the other 4 examples the distance of separation are even larger than 
between Star H and Object A.
It is clear that Howe's data and conclusions have influenced the modern day 
identities for these three galaxies, but it is equally clear in my opinion that 
had Howe employed Swift's corrected positions as published in 1898 (one year prior 
to Howe's first publication), and he certainly had these corrected positions as he 
includes them in his logbook, he would have immediately seen that they strongly 
suggest that Objects A and B were the two Swift discoveries, not Objects B and C.   
Swift's corrected coordinates (letters F and G) land nowhere close to Object C and 
are much more compatible with Objects A and B respectively.
It is my opinion that this with the other findings I have described, such as the 
brightness factor and the two stars should have guided Howe, however, he chose to 
base his conclusions upon other determinations, concluding to go with Dreyer's 
coordinates for IC 997 and IC 998, which in turn were based entirely upon Swift's 
erroneous List #10 positions and ignore Swift's List 11 corrections which places 
the two Swift objects much closer to where Object A and B exist, and in doing so I 
believe he was in error, an error that I argue still exists to the present time.
Having arrived at the conclusions I have described I next sought additional data 
to support those conclusions and wrote to Professor Stencel, the present director 
of the Chamberlin Observatory, requesting copies of any of Howe's logbook entries 
for the field in question if they still existed in the Denver College archives and 
he most kindly took the time to search for them and send me a copy.
After examining these I was able to determine that Howe was in some doubt as to 
just what were Swift's two discoveries as there are numerous annotations scribbled 
in pencil on the data for that particular night's work.  There are references to A 
and B being Swift's #168 and #169, followed by other references suggesting that 
they are not the same and on the second page of the entry there is scrawled in 
large handwriting the word Nova in brackets, under which is written "Possibly this 
is Swift 168. dated Aug. 4. 99"
Finally I have asked some experienced deep sky observers to take a look at the 
field and report what they were able to see.  One of these, Curtis Croulet, 
employing a 10 inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and observing from an excellent 
mountain dark sky site was able to see both Objects A and B, yet even knowing 
exactly where Object C is located he was unable to see any nebular image, only 
seeing with difficulty that there was a very faint star at the position.
The other experienced observer was Ron Morales, who observes with a 12.5 inch F7 
reflector and he reported exactly the same results as Curtis.
What is of particular importance about these two observations is that both 
observers were able to see only two of the three IC galaxies, Objects A and B, and 
as Swift, using a 16 inch telescope, reports only seeing two of the three objects 
the logical conclusion would greatly favor that the two would be the same, namely 
Objects A and B.
   
SOLUTION 2.
I was thus satisfied that I had found a solution that in my opinion created doubt 
as to the proper identities of these three galaxies, however, very recently while 
reviewing all the pros and cons of my arguments I realized that a second possible 
solution could be reasonably argued and here again the visual observations of the 
field made by Curtis Croulet and Ron Morales offered the key to this second 
solution.
Both of these observers made their reports without any knowledge that the other 
was involved and their reports are almost identical, which is to be expected as 
they are both experienced and excellent deep sky observers.  What I had overlooked 
in both reports is that they each stated that Object B was obviously brighter than 
Object A, Object A requiring averted vision in order to see at first, whereas, 
Object B was seen quite easily with direct vision.  
The significance of this is that it directly contradicts Swift's descriptions in 
both of his lists, in which he makes the preceding object, Object A, the brighter 
of the two nebulae.  Obviously there appeared to be an additional problem here and 
I spent considerable time trying to come up with a viable explanation and 
eventually I did find a logical answer that might have caused such a situation.  
If somehow, sometime before Swift's first publication the data describing the 
appearance of his two discoveries had become switched or transposed this would 
still make his identities #168 and #169 correct by virtue of their order of Right 
Ascension and relative position of preceding and following, but would make #169 
the brighter of the two instead of the fainter of the two.  This switching of data 
between associated objects is not a precedent as it has occurred with other 
identities and if this is the correct solution it would also support my claim that 
Swift made only a single observation of the field as it would be expected that had 
he actually made a second telescopic examination he would have realized that his 
descriptions as they apply to the two objects in his original observation were 
reversed and he would have corrected this along with his corrected positional 
data.
I should also point out that if this second solution is correct then I would have 
to abandon completely my identifying the two stars (H) and (I) as being the two 
described by Swift and accept that the brighter star just north of Object B is 
indeed Swift's "star near north," however, I would still argue that Howe's 
"companion' still does not fit the description "distant companion," and that it 
would then most likely be one of the two stars north and slightly following the 
main star.
In the end both solutions arrive at the same conclusions that Swift's two 
discoveries are Objects A and B and that C is neither Swift's #168 or #169   
So has this controversy been resolved ?  Well not as of the present time, however, 
I believe that I have presented reasonable arguments, based upon findings that 
produce logical assumptions in favor of the three galaxies being.
A = Swift's #168 = IC 997 = IC 4401. (duplicate IC identities).
B = Swift's #169 = IC 998.
C = An anonymous galaxy discovered by Howe.
So there you have it.  Can  I prove that either Solution 1 or Solution 2 are 
correct ?  The answer is no.  However, I would say that there is sufficient 
evidence in the historical record to suggest that the modern identities are at the 
very least suspect.

UPDATE. June 23rd 2004:
After having posted on the Amastro mailing website a request for visual observations 
of the IC 997 field and posed the following 4 questions.

(A). Size of aperture and magnifications employed, also size of FOV would be 
helpful.
(B). How many of the 3 galaxies were visible.
(C). Which did you see by order of brightness.
(D). If you had just been scanning the field without having any prior knowledge that 
it contained any galaxies would it have been likely that you would have noticed any, 
or all of the 3 galaxies. (The request also included a DSS photograph of the field, 
showing the relative positions of the 3 galaxies).
 
I received the following 3 replies.  The first is from Doug Snyder, using an 
Obsession 20" (0.5m) f/5 Scope.  The eyepieces used, 17mm and 12mm, provided 
magifications of 149X and 211X, with FOV's of 33' and 23".

 He reports "I observed all three, but with increasing difficulty.
'B' was easy with direct vision, 'A' was somewhat more difficult, but with
direct vision; 'C' was visible only using averted vision and was visible
only about 25% of the time when I used 211X.  I could not detect it using
149X. 
Using your field chart for identification, the order of brightness was B, A,
C.
I would have noticed 'B' readily; if I had been scanning that field without
the 'B' galaxy being present, I doubt if I would have picked up on 'A'.  'C'
definitely would not have been detected during scanning."

Doug made this observation from his observatory which is located in Palominas, 
Arizona at an elevation of close to 4500 feet, in a sparsely populated area just 
north of the Mexican border.  He rated the Transparency as 8 on a scale of 10 and 
the Seeing as 9 on the same scale.

The second reply was from fellow project member Steve Gottlieb who wrote,

IC 997 = MCG -01-37-001 = PGC 51220
14 19 59.3 -04 27 05
V = 12.8;  Size 1.3x0.8;  SB = 12.7;  PA = 23d

18" (6/18/04): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 or 5:3 ~N-S.  A
striking equilateral triangle of mag 11-12 stars is close NE with the nearest
star 1' N of center. Also a mag 14 star is just 0.8' N of center.  Contains a
small, brighter, roundish core and the extensions are a much lower surface
brightness.  This galaxy is the brightest of a trio (easy with direct vision)
with IC 4401 9' WSW and IC 998 5' ENE.
************************************************************

IC 4401 = MCG -01-36-015 = PGC 51173
14 19 25.1 -04 29 21
V = 13.4;  Size 1.5x0.6;  SB = 13.2;  PA = 21d

18" (6/18/04): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~SW-NE, though the
orientation shifted slightly with averted vision.  Weak concentration to a
small slightly brighter core.  Visible with direct vision, though mostly the
small core remained.  Second brightest of trio with IC 997 9' ENE and IC 998.
************************************************************

IC 998 = 2MASX J14201929-0424594
14 20 19.2 -04 25 00
Size 0.9x0.3;  PA = 60d

18" (6/18/04): faint, very small, round.  The view is a bit confused by a
very faint star which is close south (~20") so these objects could initially
appear to be a faint, close double.  The galaxy appeared only 10" or so in
diameter.  Barely visible with direct vision though only a faint stellar
nucleus remained.  Faintest of trio with IC 997 and IC 4401 and situated 5'
ENE of IC 997.

And the third report was from Bob Hill and is as follows.

First, a brief note on conditions, equipment used, and observer.

Our observing site is a pasture provided by a friendly local rancher
located about 50 miles ESE of Amarillo Texas at +35°12'00" W101°51'00"
at 3400' altitude. NELM for these observations was 6.4. Conditions were
calm, seeing was <2" (double double a very clean separation)
transparency around 8/10. An excellent night.

The instrument used is a 20" f/5 Obsession with a 1/12 wave
(interferometry) Galaxy mirror with enhanced coatings. Optics were
clean. Tracking is provided with a ServoCat/Argo Navis combination that
is very smooth and accurate. Eyepieces used for this observation were
20, 17, 12, 9 and 7mm Naglers. All eyepieces are clean.

I have been involved on the amateur scene on and off since 1961 and have
only one simple goal in my observing. It's a big universe out there, and
I want to see all of it. ;-)

Before starting this evenings observations, I had re-read both yours and
Dr. Corwins notes on these galaxies at the NGC/IC website. I printed out
a MegaStar finder chart with a RealSky overlay covering the area from
14h21m to 14h19m and -4°16' to -4°40'. The telescope was critically
colimated and had two hours for the optics to come to ambient.

I tried to duplicate the FOV and magnification used by Swift for his
objects #168 & 169, thus using first the 20mm Nagler and then the 17mm
Nagler for 127x and 149x respectively. I also included MCG-1-37-2,
located 14' NE from object B, as a check on these observations, and
because I had a question in my mind as to if this was the third galaxy
that Hayes (Howe) had seen in this field.

With the 20mm, 40'fov, object B was immediately obvious with direct
vision with a bright star 1' to the N and a fainter star on the NW edge
of the galaxy. The galaxy had an irregular shape being wider at the N
end. Object A was fainter, being first detected with averted vision,
then held with direct as an oval object aligned NS elongated 3:1. Object
C was not visible although the two very faint stars located immediately
S of it's position would at times appear blurred. The MCG galaxy was not
visible with this eyepiece.

With the 17mm, 34' fov, B starts to show somewhat better with the
extension to the E of the nucleus being bright fading to the N, A is
somewhat easier to hold with direct vision, but still with no real
detail. Object C would appear about 5% of the time as an extremely faint
small bit of fuzz to the N of the very faint double star 6' NE from B.
The MCG gx would appear about 10% of the time as a very faint streak
about 1' in length aligned NE-SW.

With the 12mm at 212x, 24' fov, B would show occasional hints of being
double, while A showed a small oval core region with an occasional
stellar core. Object C, while not being any more visible than before,
would appear elongated when it did appear. The MCG galaxy was easier
seen, being visible around 40% of the time.

The 9mm eyepiece, at 282x, 18' fov, seemed to provide the answer to the
puzzle. B is definitely double at this magnification, A has a nicely
defined core, and C becomes visible with averted vision around 70% of
the time as a very faint elongated streak aligned NE-SW around 30" in
length. At this magnification it became very obvious that there was a
third object associated with A and B, and it was not the MCG galaxy
further to the NE.

In conclusion, it would seem obvious that objects B and A are Swifts
objects 168 and 169 for these reasons. From my lack of success in
detecting object C from my location with a larger modern instrument,
modern eyepieces, better skies and a lot better transparency than
Rochester due to my altitude, there is no way that Swift could have seen
object C with the low magnification that he used. I have no details of
the eyepiece or refractor that he used, but without modern coatings the
instrument would have suffered from both scattered light and ghost
images. Both of these would serve to reduce the contrast necessary to
detect object C.

On the other hand, Hayes (Howe) with the larger aperture of the Chamberlin
instrument, 5200' of altitude, much better skies, and probably higher
magnification, could easily have detected object C as his Nova.

Thus A=IC 997
     B=IC 998
     C=IC 4401
(End of report).

Now Swift at the end of his List #10.(A.N.), published exactly one year prior to his 
MNRAS (List X) publication, has a note stating "as the large and increasing number 
of electric street lights of this city has rendered the search for these faint 
bodies almost useless, and may compel me to entirely abandon their quest and enter 
upon some other line of work."  Yet according to the modern authorities we are 
expected to accept that somehow, using a 16 inch telescope, under sky conditions as 
he describes, he was able to discover object "C" that proved to be only visible 25%, 
of the time, with averted vision, to Doug Snyder employing a 20 inch telescope in 
vastly superior sky conditions to those obtainable in Rochester, New York and with a 
photograph showing the images and locations of all three objects. 

IC 1001 GROUP.
POSS. O-1418.
Confirmed galaxies :
This group consists of the three following identities
IC 1001 = Javelle #285.  14hr 18m 09.348s + 05 39 20.523 (1950).
14hr 20m 39.405s +05 25' 37.868" (2000).
IC 1002 = Javelle #286.  14hr 18m 12.363s + 05 42' 45.967" (1950).
14hr 20m 42.380s + 05 29' 03.437" (2000).
IC 1003 = Javelle #287.  14hr 18m 59.808s + 05 18' 08.475" (1950).
14hr 21m 30.083s + 05 04' 27.927" (2000).
This is one of the most unusual and interesting problems I have as yet 
encountered.  
According to Javelle's catalogue data (Part 2), he employed as his reference star 
for his #285 and #286 the 8.7 Mv star DM + 5 2870 giving it a 1860 position of 
14hr 15m 13.4s + 05 51'.0 and for his #285 he measured separation values of - 1 
tmin 32.09 tsec RA and - 4 arcmin 39.9 arcsec dec. while for his #286 he gives - 1 
tmin 29.03 tsec RA and - 1 arcmin 14.6 arcsec dec. which when applied to his 
reference star and then precessed to 1950 gives #285 coordinates of 14hr 18m 11.4s 
+ 05 21'.3 and #286 coordinates of 14hr 18m 14.4s + 5 24'.8, however, when these 
coordinates are examined on the Palomar print no nebular images are to be found 
that would qualify as being suitable candidates, in fact they indicate areas of 
blank space .
Next, for his #287 Javelle employed a different reference star, the 9.5 Mv star DM 
+6 2873 giving it a 1860 position of 14hr 15m 10.4s + 06 8' 42".  His separation 
values are -1 tmin 17.54 tsec RA and - 2 arcmin 58.0 arcsec dec. which when 
applied to this reference star and then precessed to 1950 results in coordinates 
of 14hr 18m 23s + 05 41' 03" which when examined on the Palomar print also lands 
on a blank space. Thus we have Javelle seeing 3 objects where no objects exist, 
therefore I decided to investigate other possibilities.
Firstly, when Javelle claims to have seen something it is extremely rare if ever 
that he is referring to empty space.  
Certainly he has confused single or multiple stars for nonstellar objects or given 
in his data incorrect sign directions and on a few cases claimed discovery of a 
galaxy that had been previously discovered, but to claim three separate objects 
where none exist would be a first for him.  so I decided to use only one of his 
reference stars for all three novae and as it was obvious that DM + 5 2870 had 
produced nothing I decided to use only DM + 6 2873 and apply Javelle's separation 
values for his #285 and # 286 to this star and the results were rather remarkable.
DM + 6 2873 is equal to AC 328424 at 14hr 22m 11.303s + 05 30' 26.01" (2000) and 
when the proper precession tables are applied places #285 at 14hr 18m 09.348s + 05 
39' 20.523" (1950) where there is a galaxy equal to ZWG 047.014,while for #286 the 
coordinates are 14hr 18m 12.363s + 05 42' 45.967" (1950) which are also an 
excellent match for the galaxy ZWG 047.015 at 14hr 18m 12.3s + 05 42' 50" (NED), 
however, when the required separations and precession factors were applied for 
#287 = IC 1003 no nonstellar image was found.  
The solution for this problem was found by Dr. Corwin whose investigations 
revealed that Javelle misidentified his reference star (DM +6 2873) and that the 
star he actually used was DM +5 2873, which is equal to AC #328463 at 14hr 22m 
47.489s + 05 07' 32.90" (2000) and that by applying the proper precession 
procedures and Javelle's offsets the correct coordinates for IC 1003 are 14hr 18m 
59.808s + 05 18' 08.475" (1950) which land beside the galaxy ZWG 047.024
Based upon these findings I would submit that the three Javelle discoveries are as 
described above and that Javelle's error was in including in his published 
catalogue the reference star DM + 5 2870 and that his measurements were actually  
made from the star DM + 6 2873 for IC 1001 and IC 1002 and from DM + 5 2873 for IC 
1003
Due to the historical confusion we have the following errors or omissions.
The CGCG and PGC identify IC 1001 only as ZWG 47.014 and IC 1002 only as ZWG 
47.015 as does NED.  Also NED identifies what is IC 1003 as CGCG 027-024 without 
reference to its IC identity while for the identities IC 1001 and IC 1002 
and IC 1003 NED has "There is no object with this name in NED.": SIMBAD has for all 
3 IC identities "Not present in the database."  
Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give IC 1001 and IC 1002 coordinates 
based upon the historically published coordinates which are incorrect.  The APL 
has the correct identifications for all three.  Steinicke correctly identifies all 3 
galaxies.    The PGC lists only the identity 8ZW.401 for IC 1003.
NOTE:  The PGC (1996 version) has no identities for any of the 3 IC objects.

IC 1004.
POSS. O-1417.
Javelle #288. 14hr 18m 28.789s + 17 53' 33.419" (1950).
14hr 20m 50.294s +17 39' 51.427" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The MCG and PGC have equated MCG +03-37-07 with the identity 
IC 1004 at 14hr 18.7m + 17 56'.0 and both SIMBAD and NED also identifies this galaxy 
as being IC 1004, however, when this position is applied to the Palomar print it 
shows the image of a galaxy different from Javelle's #288, as measured from his 
reference star DM +18 2868 = GSC 1472-1190, their candidate lying at about 0.2 tmins 
following and 2.1 arcmins north of IC 1004.  NED identifies the correct IC 1004 only 
as MAPS-NGP 0 441 0271979. MCG +03-37-7 would appear to be the same galaxy as Holm 
634A/B (parts of a multiple galaxy).  
Correctly identified in the APL, Steinicke, NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 1005.
POSS. O-1442. 
Swift VII,#44.  14hr 17m 37.559s + 71 49' 32.575" (1950).
14hr 18m 16.831s + 71 35' 46.580" (2000). 
Equal to NGC 5607 (H 331-2) :  Swift's RA is too small by about 1 tmin 10 tsec, 
which at such high declination is relatively close in angular measurement.
With the exception of APL, NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO), none of the modern 
authorities, (UGC, CGCG, MCG, RC3 or PCG) list the identity or equivalency with IC 
1005, although all of them do have the prime identity (NGC 5607).  Steinicke list 
IC 1005 as (= NGC 5607), SIMBAD "Not present in database," and NED has "No object 
with this identity in NED."

IC 1008.
POSS. O-70.
Safford 5.  14hr 22m 49.963s + 28 33' 34.469" (1950).
14hr 25m 02.458s + 28 20' 03.332" (2000).
Not found at nominal position :   At Safford's coordinates no nebular image is to be 
found, however, there are a couple of possible candidates as follows. The APL and 
Steinicke have equated this identity with IC 4414 (Javelle #1308), who gave his 
object coordinates of 14hr 21m 30s + 28 34'.3. describing it as "Pretty bright."  
Safford, using the 18.5 inch Alvan Clark telescope at Dearborn Observatory 
describes his nova as "Pretty faint." and even though many of Safford's 
discoveries were not accurately measured there is I feel a better candidate for 
his IC 1008 than IC 4414 and it is a galaxy whose coordinates are 14hr 23m 24s + 
28 28'.0 (1950. MOL) and which is identified in the MCG as (+5-34-38 = IC 1008) and 
not only would it be within the magnitude capabilities of the Dearborn telescope but 
it also better fits Safford's description.
The PGC, SIMBAD and NED also identifies IC 1008 as equal to MCG +5-34-38 .
Only other modern listings found were NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) and both 
give it the Safford coordinates.

IC 1010.
POSS. O-1440.
Javelle #783.  14hr 24m 47.375s + 01 15' 01.843" (1950).
14hr 27m 20.347s +01 01' 36.143" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The only error concerns Javelle's data as he gives a 
declination error in Part 2 of his catalogue of about 4 arcmin.  This is due to 
Javelle having reversed the correct sign for his separation, making it to lie 
1 arcmin 51.8 arcsec south of his reference star when it should be this same 
amount north of the star.  His Part 1 declination is correct.

IC 1012.
(See IC 4431).

IC 1013.
POSS. O-61.
Javelle #291.  14hr 25m 36.042s + 26 03' 39.469" (1950).
14hr 27m 50.386s + 25 50' 15.621" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the CGCG only as ZWG 133.060 and in the MCG only 
as +4-34-30.  Steinicke has correct identity.  NED, SIMBAD and PGC identify IC 1013 
only by the ZWG and MCG numbers. Correctly identified in the NGC 2000 (No Type) and 
MOL (NSO). The APL has identified as IC 1013 an entirely separate extended galaxy 
located close north following, having a 10th magnitude star close following it.  This 
is an "ANON." Listed as [KG2002] J142758.81+255159.0 in SIMBAD.

IC 1016.
(See IC 4424).

IC 1018 and IC 1019.
POSS. O-61.
Javelle #294 = IC 1018. 14hr 25m 58.084s + 26 03' 13.937" (1950).  
14hr 28m 12.388s + 25 49' 50.880" (2000). 
Javelle #295 = IC 1019  14hr 25m 59.890s + 26 10' 13.962" (1950).   
14hr 28m 14.094s + 25 56' 51.150" (2000).
Both are confirmed galaxies :  The NGC 2000 gives these two identities with 
coordinates that makes IC 1019 the preceding of the two, the difference in RA 
being 0.2m which is definitely incorrect.  
Oddly enough, they correctly place IC 1018 as south of IC 1019 which is correct. 
The CGCG, MCG, APL, SIMBAD, NED, Steinicke, MOL and DSFG (Notes to NGC 5629) have 
the correct alignment (IC 1018 the south preceding) and correct identities.  
The PGC incorrectly makes IC 1018 the south following of the pair.

IC 1026.
POSS. O-70.
Safford 13.  14hr 29m 06.327s + 31 26' 36.675" (1950).
14hr 31m 15.299s + 31 13' 21.877" (2000).
Not found at nominal position :  It is highly likely that what Safford found and 
described is the Mp 12.86 galaxy NGC 5653 at 14hr 28m 01.31s + 31 26' 11.2" 
(1950).  
Not listed in CGCG, UGC, MCG and RC3.   Listed as a single star by the NGC 2000, 
MOL and Carlson (Mt Wilson plate).  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD has "Not present in the database." Equated with NGC 5653 by both 
Steinicke and APL.
NOTE: See IC 1030.

IC 1029. 
POSS. O-1368. 
Bigourdan #185.  14hr 30m 42.217s + 50 07' 27.845" (1950).
14hr 32m 27.035s + 49 54' 16.954" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 5673 (H 696-2) :    This is a most complex problem which was 
drawn to my attention by Alister Ling who with Paul Campbell had observed the 
field with a 20 inch telescope and questioned the given identities of the two 
field galaxies NGC 5673 and IC 1029. 
NGC 5673 was discovered by Wm. Herschel (H 696-2).   The field was later examined 
by John Herschel who gave it coordinates of 14hr 29m 51s + 50 09' 35" (Slough 
Observations 1833), and these are the coordinates found in the NGC.  
Bigourdan made two observations of the field and described it as containing two 
extended objects, the preceding at 14hr 29m 41s + 50 11' 23" and the following at 
14hr 30m 41s + 50 08' 03".  
He noted that the following was the brighter object but because both J. Herschel 
and Dreyer's coordinates and description matched the preceding object, even having 
a faint associated star which Bigourdan measured as being at a PA of 300  Distant 
0'.8 of arc, he assumed that the preceding had to be H 696-2 = NGC 5673 and that 
therefore the following object was a nova, which became IC 1029. 
Dreyer (1912 ) in his  "Notes" to Wm. Herschel's SECOND CATALOGUE  states  H 696-
2. Sweep # 736,  "The transit must have been entered 1m too late, as the RA is 
about 1m too great and the RA from H 189-1 (NGC 5676) following is 0m 17s instead 
of 1m 20s."  But Wm. Herschel's separation of 0m 17s is correct and when the RA 
separation 0m 17s is measured on the Palomar print it confirms that it is the 
following, not the preceding of the two field galaxies that is H696-2 = NGC 5673 
and this is where Wm. Herschel had correctly placed it originally at 14hr 30m 33s 
+ 50 07' 04" (Scientific Papers of Sir William Herschel). 
What John Herschel had seen and mistaken for H 696-2 was actually a nova rather 
than his father's discovery and by accepting John Herschel's coordinates for H696-
2 over those given by Wm. Herschel both Dreyer and Bigourdan were misled.  
Dreyer meanwhile had assigned the identity IC 1029 to Bigourdan's "nova" which in 
reality is NGC 5673, therefore a duplicate identity.   As for the preceding 
galaxy, the true nova, it appears obvious that it was discovered by J. Herschel, 
however, due to IC 1029 being equal to NGC 5673 this nova can only be considered 
as an non-credited galaxy.  
All of the modern catalogues incorrectly make the preceding galaxy NGC 5673 and 
the following one IC 1029.  This should be corrected to show the preceding galaxy 
as being h1838 (also noted by Bigourdan), but without NGC identity and the 
following galaxy to be NGC 5673 = IC 1029.
NOTE :  It is my feeling that as Dreyer assigned the identity NGC 5373 to Wm. 
Herschel's discovery (H696-2), then regardless of later errors of identity it 
should remain the identity for what Wm. Herschel saw and he saw only the following 
of the two objects, not the preceding one.

IC 1030.
POSS. O-70.
Safford 6.  14hr 31m 35.021s + 31 54' 47.195" (1950).
14hr 33m 43.179s + 31 41m 39.033" (2000).
Not found at nominal position :  Again, as in the case of IC 1026, Safford's 
object is equal to a NGC object, in this case NGC 5672 at 14hr 30m 30.04s + 31 53' 
22.6" (1950).  
In both the IC identities the amount of RA error is 1 tmin 5 tsec from the NGC 
coordinates.  
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD has "Not present in the database."  Steinicke 
and APL have it equal to NGC 5672. 
 
IC 1043.
POSS.0-1418.
Javelle #310 :  14hr 38m 12.287s +03 35' 15.205" (1950).
14h 40m 43.445s + 03 22' 25.752" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy:  The declination for Javelle's reference Star in Part 2, DM +4 
2895 is off by almost 2 arcmin too small.  This star is also AC #125829 at 14 40m 
46.601s + 03 28' 50.48" (2000) and when Javelle's offsets, (- 0 tmin 03.33 tsec RA 
and 6 arcmin 24.4 arcsec south) from this star's position are measured they land 
on the correct object which would lie at 14hr 40m 43.445s + 03 22' 25.752" (2000).
Additionally, in Javelle's catalogue Part 2 he incorrectly gives the incorrect RA 
for his star, making it 14hr 23m 43.8 (1860) when it should be 14hr 33m 43.8, 
fortunately Dreyer employed the "correct" RA as is shown in Part 1 of 
the catalogue, therefore except for the 2 arcmin declination error those sources 
listing the identity IC 1043 are either correct or reflect in their data this 
error.  Other listings are NGC 2000 (No type), MOL (NSO),  Both Steinicke and APL 
have the correct identity. NED has "There is no object witth this name in NED," but 
list the correct galaxy as 2MASX J14404334+0322265. SIMBAD has "Not present in the 
database," and no other listing.

IC 1045.
POSS. 0-145.
Swift List VIII,#82. 14hr 38m 51.733s +42 57' 19.039 (1950).
14hr 40m 45.688s +42 44' 30.740"
Not found at nominal position:  It is quite possible that this is equal to NGC 5731 
as  the differences in coordinates (about 36.5 tsec RA and 2 arcmin Dec.) are well 
within Swift's level of error, however, as Swift makes mention of only a single 
object in the immediate field, (his #82), it would then be also possible that he was 
actully observing NGC 5730 at 14hr 39m 52.2s +42 44' 32" (2000), which is of similar 
magnitude and whose declination is almost exactly the same as Swift gives.
Either of these two NGC galaxies would be suitable candidates.  
Only listings found were NGC 2000 and MOL, both at the historical positions. APL has 
equal to NGC 5731? And Steinicke supports this equivalency. SIMBAD has "Not present 
in the database."  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."
NOTE: (See Corwin's Notes).

IC 1046.
POSS. 0-1442
Swift List VII,#49.  14hr 37m 09.802s + 69 14' 20.790" (1950).
14hr 37m 52.349s + 69 01' 26.173" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the MCG only as +12-14-11 and noted in the PGC 
(Corrections).  Correctly identified in the CGCG, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, APL, PGC, 
NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO).  Not listed in the UGC, RC3 or DSFG.

IC 1048.
POSS. O-1421.
Javelle #312.  14hr 40m 28.971s + 05 06' 12.959" (1950).
14hr 42m 58.945s + 04 53' 29.914" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The only error is historical and quite minor.  Dreyer in his 
description makes it elongated preceding and following, however, Javelle states 
"elongated north and south towards the meridian." and this is correct.

IC 1055.
(See IC 4491).

IC 1056. 
POSS. O-715. 
Swift List VII,#50.  14hr 44m 03.319s + 50 36' 34" (1950).
14hr 45m 43.643s + 50 24' 00.199" (2000).  (IC 1056). 
14hr 44m 20.290s + 50 34' 55.023" (1950).
14hr 46m 00.591s + 50 22' 21.985" (2000).  (IC 1057).  
It is equal to IC 1057 (Swift List VII,#51) :   Due to the discovery date for IC 
1057 being almost 3 months prior to that for IC 1056 the correct identity is IC 
1057 as it was to Swift's object No. 51 (IC 1057) that Dreyer assigned the 
identity IC 1057.    CGCG, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and UGC make IC 1056 = IC 1057.  
MCG and RC3 give only IC 1056.   NGC 2000 gives both identities with different 
coordinate as does the MOL.  PGC makes IC 1056 = IC 1057.  APL lists the single 
identity IC 1056.

IC 1057.
(See IC 1056).

IC 1062.
POSS. O-54.
Javelle #321.  14hr 48m 59,169s + 18 53' 32.350" (1950).
14hr 51m 17.571s + 18 41' 13.699" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :
It is identified in the CGCG only as ZWG 105.047 .  This noted in the PGC 
(Corrections).  The NGC 2000 (GX), MOL (NSO), APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, Steinicke and 
MCG have the correct identity.

IC 1063 and IC 1064.
POSS. O-1421.
Javelle #322. 14hr 49m 41.671s +04 53' 09.621" (1950).
14hr 52m 11.640s + 04 40' 53.315" (2000). IC 1063 
Javelle #323. 14hr 49m 41.534s + 04 53 16.971" (1950).
14hr 52m 11.502s + 04 41' 00.659" (2000). IC 1064.
Javelle discovered his #322 = IC 1063 on May 18th 1892 and the star he employed as 
his reference is equal to AC #330564 whose position precessed to the discovery 
year (1892) would be 14hr 46m 31.817s + 05 08' 03.212".  His offsets are +16.180 
tsec RA and 30.400 arcsec south which when applied to the 1892 position of the 
star and then precessed to both 1950 and 2000 gives the positions for both epochs 
as shown above.  When these coordinates are entered into the DSS they land right 
on the south edge of a superposed star which is easily visible on the following 
edge of a 14th Mp galaxy.  Javelle's description for his #322 reads "Faint, 
stellar, seen as a star of 14th magnitude surrounded by nebulosity."
On July 15th 1892 Javelle discovered his #323 = IC 1064.  This time he employed 
as his reference star AC #126725 whose position precessed to the discovery year 
(1892) would be 14hr 46m 01.062s + 05 04' 19.576".  His offsets are + 46.800 tsec 
RA and 3 arcmin 20.600 arcsec north which when applied to the 1892 position of the 
star and then precessed to both 1950 and 2000 gives the positions for both epochs 
as shown above.  When these coordinates are entered into the DSS they land exactly 
on the superposed star located on the following edge of the same galaxy.  
Javelle's description reads "Very faint, very small round, with a small condensed 
center."
From the above data it would appear that Javelle by stating in his description for 
IC 1063 "surrounded by nebulosity," is indicating that he realizes that it is a 
nonstellar object and if this is correct then the identity IC 1063 would be 
established, however, when it comes to his description for his #323 = IC 1064 
there is no mention of nebulosity, rather he seems to be describing the 
associated, superposed star, which has no physical connection with the galaxy, 
its association being one of line of sight.  Now if this assumption is correct the 
identity IC 1064 would be for the associated star.  
Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) make the two identities separate 
objects.  The APL quotes DEEN (IC 1064 = IC 1063).  Steinicke equates both 
identities.  The MCG, UGC, PGC and CGCG gives the single identity IC 
1063.  NED list the identity IC 1063 but makes the identity IC 1064 "There is no 
object with this name in NED."  SIMBAD has "Not present in the database."

IC 1065.
POSS. O-1575.
Swift List VII,#52.  14hr 48m 16.517s + 63 27' 58.940" (1950).
14hr 49m 20.775s + 63 15' 36.571" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the MCG only as +11-18-8, this is noted in the 
PGC (Corrections).  
Correctly identified in the CGCG, APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, UGC, RC3 DSFG 
and NGC 2000 (GX) who all give it the more accurate RA of 14hr 48.2m.  The MOL (NSO) 
gives it a RA of 14hr 47m 56s. which does not agree with any of the other 
authorities either historical or modern.

IC 1076.
POSS. O-54.
Swift List VIII #84.  14hr 52m 36.275s + 18 14' 35.609" (1950).
14hr 54m 54.991s + 18 02' 27.747" (2000).  
Javelle #330.  14hr 52m 40.943s + 18 14' 46.355" (1950).
14hr 54m 59.651s + 18 02' 38.595" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Although Dreyer in the IC I credits both Swift and Javelle as 
co-discoverers the historically correct discover is Swift who observed it on April 
22, 1889 whereas Javelle's observation date was June 3, 1892.  All the modern 
catalogues that list this identity have the correct object.

IC 1087.
(See IC 1088).

IC 1088.
POSS. O-1429.
Javelle #337.  15hr 04m 17.123s + 03 59' 02.451" (1950).
15hr 06m 47.601s + 03 47' 30.925" (2000).
This is a star :  The CGCG, MCG, NED, SIMBAD, PGC, UGC (Notes), NGC 2000 (No Type) 
are all incorrect as they make IC 1088 the south following companion of IC 1087, 
while although the MOL correctly gives Javelle's declination north following IC 1087 
they indicate that it is a nonstellar object (NSO). however, Javelle's clearly makes 
IC 1088 to be a 14th magnitude star north following IC 1087.  
The south following component of the double system is not only at the incorrect PA   
but its separation from the north preceding object does not fit Javelle's data. 
Correctly identified in the APL and by Steinicke as (=*).
Javelle claimed discovery of two objects (IC 1087 and IC 1088) during the same 
observation.  For both he employed the same reference star, DM +4 2966 which is 
equal to GSC 342-66 and which has a position of 15hr 07m 02.59s + 03 50'
50.5"(2000).  His offsets for IC 1087 are - 00 tmin 19.8 tsec RA and 04'14.8" 
south in declination and when this are applied to the reference star they land on 
the north preceding component of a double system almost in contact and establish 
the identity for IC 1087.
From this same star his offsets for IC 1088 are - 00 tmin 15.30 tsec RA and 03' 
18.7 " south and this when applied lands on a faint star north following IC 1087
NOTE :  Steve Gottlieb was the first person to question the identity of IC 1088 
and the credit for the correction belongs to him.

IC 1090.
POSS O-1371.  
Bigourdan #186.  15hr 03m 54.022s + 42 52' 33.164" (1950).
15hr 05m 43.150s + 42 40' 59.489" (2000).  
Not found :  The closest image is that of a faint star north preceding the nominal 
position.  It is my opinion that a number of the modern authorities are in error 
concerning this identity.  
The CGCG, PGC, NGC 2000, NED, SIMBAD and RC3 have each selected a galaxy, 1 ZWG
101(Catalogue of Selected Compact Galaxies and Post-erupted Galaxies = ZWG 
221.022) at 15hr 01.9m + 42 53'.0 (CGCG) as being IC 1090,which indicates a 
difference in RA of about 2 minutes and this galaxy lacks the 10.5 Mv reference 
star (Anon 3), at or close to the separation values as given by Bigourdan.
Bigourdan selected as his reference a 10.5 Mv star he named Anon (3), (equal to AC 
#1471237 at 15hr 03m 55.851s +42 57' 45.501 (1950)).  He first measured this 
star's separation from the known star BD + 43 2462, 15hr 01m 38s + 42 41' 52" 
(1950), obtaining separation values of + 2m 17s and +15' 30" which would give a 
position for his Anon (3) of 15hr 03m 55s +42 57' 22"   Now by applying 
Bigourdan's measured separations from this star to his B. 186, which are -2.01s RA 
and - 5' 12" Dec; they would place B.186 at 15hr 03m 53s + 42 52' 10", Nominal 
Position. 
Both of Bigourdan's stars are easily located on the Palomar print and at 
Bigourdan's separation values they both result in showing that B.186 is the same 
single star or blank space, therefore I can see no justification for accepting 
the 2m RA difference required to accept that 1 ZWG 101 is B.186 = IC 1090.  
The MOL (NSO) has given coordinates in accordance with those by Bigourdan, but has 
incorrectly made it a Non-Stellar Object.  There is no listing in the UGC, or 
DSFG.  The MCG has no listing for IC 1090 but they do list the CGCG candidate as 
Anon.  APL has (Not found; nominal position) and Steinicke (=*), this is the star 
north preceding.

IC 1092.
POSS. O-1422.
Javelle #339.  15hr 05m 10.201s + 09 32' 58.957" (1950).
15hr 07m 35.884s + 09 21' 30.139" (2000).
Confirmed Galaxy :  Identified in the CGCG, NED, and PGC only as ZWG 077.015.  
Correctly identified in the APL, Steinicke, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO).
NOTE: SIMBAD gives the single identity IC 1092 and poor coordinates in Declination 
(09 23.1' 2000) which are about 1.5 arcmin too far north.

IC 1095.
POSS. O-1422.
Swift List VIII #85.  15hr 06m 09.596s + 14 12' 07.355" (1950).
15hr 08m 31.117s + 14 00' 41.571" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy:  Nothing at Swift's nominal position, however, at about 2.324 
tsec following and 20 arcmin 11.155 arcsec south, at 15hr 06m 11.920s +13 51' 
56.200" (1950) or 15hr 08m 33.75s + 13 40' 30.8" (2000), there is the galaxy ZWG 
77.019 = MCG +02-39-003, which both catalogues list as being an Anon. and this 
galaxy does have a 9th magnitude star south following as described in Swift's 
description and is in my opinion what Swift saw. 
Only other listings found are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) both at Swift's 
given position and Steinicke and APL who select the correct image on the DSS at 
15hr 08m 35s + 13 40 13" (2000),     
The PGC gives its 54062 and 54063 only the CGCG and MCG identities with the same 
coordinates and Mp of 15.2  NED has "No object found for the identity IC 1095," but 
lists it as ZWG 077.019. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but lists it as 
MCG +02-39-003
NOTE:  In my previous files I had identified a galaxy (ZWG 77.016 at 15hr 05m 
36.70s + 14 04' 00" (1950) as being IC 1095, however, I now believe that to be 
incorrect and that ZWG 77.019 is the correct IC 1095.    

IC 1096.
POSS. O-91.
Javelle #342.  15hr 06m 05.018s + 19 23' 00.701" (1950).
15hr 08m 21.742s + 19 11' 34.574" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  A very interesting problem in that I believe that most of the 
modern authorities have selected the wrong candidate as being IC 1096.
IC 1096 and IC 1097 are a pair in a group of 3 closely associated galaxies and by 
order of RA the modern sources identify the first as being a 15.6 Mp "anon" at 
15hr 06.0m + 19 23'.0, the second as being IC 1096, Mp 15.1 at 15h 06'.1m + 19 
24'.0 and the third as being IC 1097, Mp 14.7 at 15hr 06'.2m + 19 22'.0 (CGCG and 
UGC coordinates and identities), same identities in the MCG.
The third galaxy is definitely IC 1097 as can be clearly established by applying 
Javelle's offsets from his reference star the 9.4 Mv. DM +19 2928, his separation 
values being + 0m 11.52 tsecs and - 1' 37".5 of arc (corrected for NPD).  However, 
when his separation values for IC 1096 are applied to this same star, +0m 
2.22tsecs and - 1' 04".6 of arc, they strongly suggest that it is the first of 3, 
and not the second of 3 that is IC 1096.  Again by employing the more precise 
coordinates for the star AC #793933 (15hr 08m 19.492s + 19 12' 38.92, epoch 2000), 
which is equal to DM +19 2928 and applying Javelle's separations they clearly show 
that IC 1096 is the 1st of the 3 galaxies.
Also when one measures on the Palomar print his separations between his two novae 
(0m 9.30 tsecs and 32.2 arcsecs) this only makes sense between objects 1 and 3.
Of course the argument can well be how would he have selected a 15.6 Mp object and 
missed a 15.1 Mp  object ? which is probably why the modern catalogues select the 
2nd and 3rd objects as being the two IC identities, however, based upon Javelle's 
data Object #1 is IC 1096 and Object #3 is IC 1097, which leaves Object #2 as an 
"anon".
The NGC 2000 list both identities with exactly the same coordinates while the MOL 
taking its coordinates from Dreyer's data would seem to have the correct 
identities.  The APL lists correctly IC 1097 (RC3) but the two listings it gives 
for the identity IC 1096 (WS and UZC), have coordinates consistent with the second 
of the three galaxies.  Steinicke has correctly selected and identified the first 
of 3 as being IC 1096.  The CGCG, UGC (Notes to IC 1097), MCG, PGC, SIMBAD and NED 
have each incorrectly made the 2nd of 3 equal to IC 1096.
NOTE : Dr. H. Corwin has since informed me that he is in agreement with my 
conclusions on the 3 identities.

IC 1098.
POSS. O-1096. 
Bigourdan #188.  15hr 05m 04.144s + 55 47' 21.837" (1950).
15hr 06m 26.927s + 55 35' 51.182" (2000). 
This is a single star :  Bigourdan states in his observation that he thought that 
it quite likely that it was only a 13 mag. star.  The NGC 2000, MOL, Steinicke, 
APL and Carlson all identify it as being a star.  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 1100.
POSS. O-1575.
Swift List IX, #45.  15hr 05m 14.377s + 63 10' 55.026" (1950).
15hr 06m 12.757s +62 59 24.325" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 5881 (H 818-2) :  Dreyer originally gave NGC 5881 coordinates 
of 15hr 08m 08s RA, however, in his 1912 publication of Sir William Herschel's 
Scientific Works Dreyer has a correction in which he states "818-2. RA in GC and 
NGC is 2 tmin too great. The companion star is 12 Drac; Hev, Woll. Cat.  The neb 
is probably = IC 1100."
The CGCG, UGC, MCG, PGC and RC3 all give the single identity IC 1100  The NGC 2000 
and MOL give each as separate identities with separate coordinates.  The APL 
correctly gives (= NGC 5881), as does NED.  Steinicke also lists both identities as 
being equivalent.  SIMBAD correctly identifies IC 1100, however, they also identify 
NGC 5881 as an entirely separate galaxy, which is UGC 09764.

IC 1101.
POSS. O-1429.
Swift List IX, #47.  15hr 08m 28.154s + 05 57' 15.870" (1950).
15hr 10m 56.869s + 05 45' 57.671" (2000).
Confirmed Galaxy :  Identified in the UGC only as U09752.  CGCG, APL, SIMBAD PGC, 
Steinicke, NED, RC3, NGC 2000 and MOL have correct identity.

IC 1104.
POSS.O-751.
Bigourdan #190.  15hr 10m 11.833s - 04 52' 09.480" (1950).
15hr 12m 49.900s - 05 03' 21.933" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings found are NGC 2000 (=*), MOL (NSO), 
NED "Not found." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL and Steinicke (=*).

IC 1111.
POSS.0-1096.  
Swift List VIII, #86.  15hr 12m 59.772s + 54 42' 35.874" (1950).
15hr 14m 23.140s + 54 31' 30.757" (2000).
Unable to arrive at a definitive identity:  As usual Swift's given coordinates 
produce no nebular image at, or what would be considered as being slightly off and 
thus the investigator is pretty much reduced to equating Swift's description with 
what may lie in adjacent fields.
The APL and Steinicke have chosen to equate the identity IC 1111 with an earlier 
Swift discovery NGC 5876, which Swift had placed at 15hr 07m 59.918s +54 42' 
07.585" (1950), or about 5 tmin preceding his RA for his #86.
Swift's description for NGC 5876 is "Faint, Small, much brighter in the middle, 
Round" while his description for IC 1111 is pretty bright, Small, Round, triangle 
with 2 stars."
NGC 5876 does have 2 stars as noted in Corwin's Puzzle Solution Files therefore 
even though a 5 tmin positional error might be considered excessive, even for 
Swift, this is a viable solution.
There is another possible candidate which although fainter than NGC 5876 does lie 
closer to Swift's original coordinates and it is CGCG Zwg.274-037 = UGC 09800, 
which lies at 15hr 14.6m +54 40'.0 (1950).  Although this galaxy is fainter, (15.5 
Mp) than NGC 5876 it still is well within the capability of Swift's telescope, 
especially as his observation of his Object #86 was carried out at Echo Mountain 
under much more favourable skies than he would have had for his observation of NGC 
5876 in Rochester, New York.  Also there are 2 stars lying fairly close north 
preceding that might be considered as making a scalene (three uneven length sides) 
triangle with this object
The majority of the modern literature, CGCG, UGC, MCG, RC3, PGC, SIMBAD and NED, 
make IC 1111 the separate galaxy UGC 09800, while both the NGC 2000 and MOL give 
coordinates as given by Dreyer based upon Swift's data, at which nothing exists.
As for myself , I quite frankly am unable to decide as both choices have 
reasonable arguments and either could be the correct solution. 

IC 1114.
POSS. O-768. 
Bigourdan #191.  15hr 11m 55.459s + 75 37' 55.641" (1950).
15hr 11m 16.963s + 75 26' 43.792." (2000). (Comptes Rendus). 
Not found :   In his main publication Bigourdan does not give a precise position 
for this object, instead he states that in relation to his reference star BD + 76 
557 (the same star he employed to measure the coordinates for NGC 5909 and NGC 
5912) it lies at a PA of 255 and a Dist. of 6 arcmins.  This star is equal to 2 
MASS Cat. Star at 15hr 12m 50.90s + 75 28' 16.2" (2000). 
He does give coordinates for IC 1114 in the Comptes Rendus that when precessed 
using the Ned Coordinate and Extinction Calculator give the above quoted positions 
for 1950 and 2000 and at these coordinates on the DSS there is only a blank spot, 
which does have the PA of 255 degrees from the reference star.
Both the APL and Steinicke identify IC 1114 as being a star located at 15hr 11m 
16s +75 28' 30" (2000), or 15hr 11m 19.25s +75 28' 25.1" (2MASS All Sky Cat.)  
however, I reject this candidate due to 3 factors.  Firstly, this star in no 
manner is compatible with Bigourdan's Comtes Rendus position. Secondly, it does 
not comply with the 255 degree PA from the reference star, in fact the 
APL/Steinicke candidate actually lies about 9 arcsec north of the declination for 
the reference star, which would imply a position angle of 275(+) degrees, not 
Bigourdan's 255 degrees which would place it south of the reference star and 
thirdly, the appearance of the APL/Steinicke candidate on the DSS would suggest a 
brightness of below 17th mP, (2Mass Cat. gives it a (R)visual magnitude of 16.70) 
and would it would almost certainly have not been visible in the 12.4 inch 
aperture telescope used by Bigourdan.  
The NGC 2000 gives (No Type) and MOL (Non Stellar Object). NED has (Not found). 
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
Incidentally the declination value of + 75 20.0' as given by both the CGCG and UGC 
for NGC 5909 and NGC 5912 is too small by about 14 arcmins.
NOTE:  I was able to find the APL/Stienicke star listed in only the 2MASS All Sky 
Catalogue.  It was not listed in any of the other well known modern star 
catalogues.

IC 1115.
POSS. O-1431.
Swift List VIII, #87.  15hr 19m 43.816s - 04 17' 00.466" (1950).
15hr 22m 21.510s - 04 27' 41.419" (2000).
Equal to two stars which are part of an asterism :  Close south preceeding Swift's 
position there is a small group of about 4 stars with an extremely faint galaxy 
involved.  This galaxy is far too faint to have been seen by Swift.  Probably the 
two brightest stars in the group are what Swift is referring to as his nova.  
Possibly a double as their images are almost in contact.  South following the 
group is a 9th magnitude star as described by Swift.  Howe also examined this 
field and found only a double star 12.5 and 13.5 mag. distant 05 arcsec.
Only modern listings are Steinicke (= * Group), APL (**), NGC 2000 (=*), NED "Not 
Found." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  MOL (May not exist).

IC 1118 and IC 4543.
POSS. O-1422.
Swift List XI #179.  15hr 22m 13.070s + 13 39' 31.275" (1950).
15hr 24m 34.333s + 13 28' 58.392" (2000). (IC 4543).
Javelle #349.  15hr 22m 38.115s + 13 37' 13.631" (1950).
15hr 24m 59.514s + 13 26' 38.544" (2000). (IC 1118).
Equivalent identities :
There can be no doubt that both are identifying the same object .  Swift describes 
exactly the star close north preceding and Javelle's separation values from his 
reference star makes it this same object.
As Javelle was the original discoverer by 6 years the correct identity should be 
IC 1118 and thus it is correctly identified in the CGCG, PGC, NGC 2000, MOL and 
MCG.  The APL lists IC 4543 = IC 1118.  When the field is examined on the Palomar 
print there is a second galaxy in the field at 15hr 22.2m + 13 39'.5 and both the 
NGC 2000 and MOL incorrectly identify this as being IC 4543.  Additionally they 
type it as being a planetary nebula.  Steinicke correctly gives the equivalency.  
NED gives the single identity IC 1118 while making the identity IC 4543 "No Object 
found."  SIMBAD also has the single identity IC 1118.

IC 1122.
POSS. O-1429.
Bigourdan #192 and Barnard.15hr 26m 57.045s + 07 47' 29.541" (1950).  
15hr 29m 23.638s +07 37' 12.961" (2000). (Bigourdan).
Confirmed galaxy : It is not equal to NGC 5931.  Bigourdan measured both 
identities and placed his B192 about 6 tsec preceding and about 3 arcmin north of 
NGC 5931. The PGC is incorrect in equating both identities and the CGCG and MGC 
have incorrectly identified what is NGC 5931 as being IC 1122.  The NGC 2000 gives 
the same coordinates to both identities thus suggesting equivalency.  By 
comparison of the RA data I would say that the MOL gives the correct identities 
for both objects.  The APL correctly states that IC 1122 is not equal to NGC 5931.  
NED lists IC 1122 as equivalent to NGC 5931, as does SIMBAD.  Steinicke has correct 
object.   

IC 1123.
POSS. O-1376.
Bigourdan #193.  15hr 27m 09.706s + 43 04 07.801" (1950).
15hr 28m 54.388s + 42 53' 50.885" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke and APL (=*), NED "No 
object exists." SIMBAD "Not present in the database. NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 1124.
POSS. O-1119.
Swift VIII,#88.  15hr 28m 21.424s + 23 49' 11.634" (1950).
15hr 30m 31.931s + 23 38' 59.518" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This is not an error in the context normally found and I enter 
it only for the historical significance.  
Javelle made an observation some 14 years after Swift and noted the presence of a 
nebula, (he numbered as J.1367), which he measured from the 7.3Mv star DM+24 2874 
resulting in coordinates of 15hr 27m 49s + 23 48'.2 (1950), which are at quite 
some variance with those given by Swift as to RA.  However, when this object is 
examined on the Palomar print there can be no doubt that despite the very 
inaccurate Swift RA coordinates this is definitely Swift's object #88 as can be 
established by reference to his description in which he stated "eeF; vS; vE; 2pB 
st. in field n," and the south following of these 2 stars is Javelle's DM+24 2874.
Dreyer obviously concluded that the Javelle observation was a duplicate as he not 
only equated the two observations (Notes and Corrections to the Index Catalogue 
1888-1894.  NGC/IC page 377.), but he also has no reference to any identity for 
J.1367 in his IC II, however, he did employ Swift's coordinates which are in 
considerable error, fortunately the modern catalogues do not reflect this, rather 
their coordinates are in keeping with those given by Javelle.

IC 1125.
(See IC 1128).

IC 1126.
POSS. O-1082.
Bigourdan #194.  15hr 32m 31.659s + 05 09' 24.106" (1950).
15hr 35m 00.661s + 04 59' 26.985" (2000).
This is a single star :   At Bigourdan's position there is a faint star which 
makes up a close triangle with a fainter star south preceding and what might be a 
very faint galaxy very close north preceding.  This "galaxy" is too faint to have 
been seen by Bigourdan as is also probably the fainter star.  It definitely is not 
NGC 5952 which lies south preceding this group.
The NGC 2000 and MOL  make IC 1126 = NGC 5952 based upon Carlson who states "IC 
1126 = NGC 5952, Reinmuth," however, Bigourdan made an observation on the same 
night of NGC 5952 and gave it excellent coordinates of 15hr 32m 26.7s + 05 07' 
50", therefore again it is highly unlikely that he was confusing NGC 5952 for his 
Nova.  On both occasions he used the same reference star, BD + 5 3041 (equal to 
GSC 358-683) and his offsets for both identities are considerably different, 
especially in declination.  The APL and Steinicke have (=*).  The PGC has no 
listing for the identity IC 1126.  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."


IC 1127. 
POSS. O-1119. 
Safford #7.  15hr 33s 44.181s + 23 38' 42.897" (1950).
15hr 35m 54.465s + 23 28' 49.515" (2000).  
Not found at Safford's nominal position :  Again, as in the cases of IC 1026 and 
IC 1030, Safford's RA differs by about 1 tmin from IC 4553, therefore I am 
accepting that IC 1127 is equal to IC 4553.   
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing for IC 1127.  NGC 2000 lists without any Type.  
MOL lists as  (Nonstellar Object) and Steinicke has (= IC 4553).
NOTE ;  Dr. Corwin in his NGC/IC Bugs List provides a good argument to suggest 
that IC 1127 = IC 4553, pointing out that Safford's coordinates are far from 
precise and that the difference in positions for both identities is within 
reasonable error acceptance.  NED and SIMBAD also equate the two identities.

IC 1128.
POSS. O-151.
Swift List VIII, #89.  15hr 35m 20.803s - 01 22' 50.245" (1950).
15hr 37m 55.952s - 01 32' 37.263" (2000).
Nothing found at Swift's position :  It is probably equal to MCG 0-40-004 which 
would mean that Swift has about a 12 arcmin error too far north in his 
declination.
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) both give coordinates based upon the 
historical data.  The RC3, CGCG, PGC, UGC, MCG, NED, SIMBAD and Steincke all 
identify MCG 0-40-004 as being IC 1128. The APL equates it with IC 1125, which is 
equal to MCG +0-40-003 at 15hr 33m 05.6s -01 37' 42" (2000).

IC 1139.
POSS. O-1363. 
Swift VII,#58.  15hr 34m 02.687s + 82 46' 05.510" (1950).
15hr 29m 40.957s + 82 36' 01.850" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  The MCG has selected its +14-7-19, 14hr 31.5m + 82 52'.0 as IC 
1139 ? which is incorrect. The CGCG's ZWG 366.017, PGC 55279, NGC 2000 (Galaxy) 
and MOL (NSO) correctly identify IC 1139.  The APL has the correct identity and 
states "Not in MCG."  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED have correct identity.

IC 1140.
POSS. O-82.
Bigourdan #196.  15hr 47m 04.996s + 19 15' 40.833" (1950).
15hr 49' 19.266s + 19 05' 35.987" (2000).
This is a small group of 3 stars without nebulosity :  Bigourdan described it as 
only possibly nebulous and that it appeared to be made up of 2 or 3 stars lying at 
a PA of 120 degrees and distant 1.3 arcmin from his reference star.
Bigourdan's reference star is equal to GSC 1498-865 which has a 1900 position of 
15hr 44m 50.891s + 19 25' 58".844 (NED Calculator).  Bigourdan's position for this 
star is about 1 arcmin too far south, however, by employing the star GSC 1498-865 
and applying his offsets as to PA and distance the 3 stars he describes are easily 
found. 
Only modern listings found are APL and Steinicke (= *3).   NED "No object found."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). SIMBAD has "Not present in the database."

IC 1142.
POSS. O-82.
Javelle #356.  15hr 48m 11.286s + 18 17' 21.472" (1950).
15hr 50m 26.553s + 18 08' 20.348" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  It would appear that due to a typographical error in Part 2 of 
Javelle's Catalogue in which he gives the separation in RA from his reference star 
DM + 18 3074 as + 0m 41.95 tsecs when it should be + 1m 41.95 tsecs that Dreyer 
was misled and therefore the resultant RA is in error by 1 tmin.  Because of this 
both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and the MOL (NSO) have a 1 tmin error in their RA.  
The error is corrected in the CGCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, PGC, SIMBAD, UGC, and MCG.

IC 1145. 
POSS. O-752.
Swift List VII,#61.  15hr 46m 37.134s + 72 36' 35.002" (1950).
15hr 46m 13.591s + 72 27' 23.449" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the MCG only as +12-15-15 which is noted in the 
PGC (Corrections).  The modern catalogues, with the exception of the MOL give a 
much more accurate RA (~ 15hr 44.6m).  The MOL gives 15hr 46m 35s.

IC 1148.
POSS. O-113.
Safford #10.  15hr 54m 42.832s + 22 33' 08.019" (1950).
15hr 56m 52.918s + 22 24' 30.953" (2000).
Equal to NGC 6020 (Stephan List VII, #2).  The UGC, MCG, MOL, PGC, Steinicke, APL, 
NED and Carlson all correctly equate the two identities. The CGCG and RC3 give 
only the identity NGC 6020.  SIMBAD has the correct equivalency.
 
IC 1150.
POSS. O-83.
Javelle #357.(CNP).  15hr 56m 01.210s + 16 01' 00.394" (1950).
15hr 58m 18.570s + 15 52' 28.464" (2000).
Possible candidate :  
APL list as "Nothing here" and also suggests that it is possibly equal to NGC 6018., 
NED as "No object found" and Steinicke has (Not found) while SIMBAD has "Not present 
in the database."  
Javelle employed as his reference star DM +16 2854 which is equal to AC #553466 at 
15hr 58m 39.443s +15 52' 22.91 (2000) and measured separation values of - 00 tmin 
20.90 tsec RA and +00 arcmin 08.4 arcsec for his #357.   When these offsets are 
applied to the more precise coordinates of AC #553466 they result in a position 
for 1950 of 15hr 56m 01.210s + 16 01' 00.394" where no nonstellar image is found.  
The APL's 3 stars lie considerably north preceding this position and do not match 
Javelle's offsets from either of the two 9th magnitude stars following in the same 
field.
Only other listings are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).
In attempting to find any suitable nonstellar candidate in regards to the 
Corrected Nominal Position I noticed that at 15hr 57m 29.8s +15 52' 22s (2000), 
NED, there is the galaxy NGC 6018 which in addition to having a small, stellar 
like nucleus also has a star invested north following the nucleus, both easily 
seen on the DSS.  Javelle's description for IC 1150 is "Faint, it has 2 small 
stars surrounded by nebulosity."  
Additionally Bigourdan's has two observations of NGC 6018, describing it as 
"Nebula formed by a very bright point, 13.3 to 13.4 mag, accompanied by a small 
star 13.4 mag. placed at between 220 and 225 degrees PA and between 7 and 
10 arcsec distant, all being accompanied by nebulosity of 0.3 arcmin extent."  I 
would submit that Javelle's description of IC 1150 and Bigourdan's description of 
NGC 6018 are virtually the same although one has to admit that NGC 6018 does not 
fulfill Javelle's Right Ascension offset from his reference star, but it does fall 
within the acceptable error level for the declination requirement, being less than 
6 arcsec different.

IC 1164.
POSS. O-752.
Bigourdan #197.  15hr 55m 14.030s + 70 43' 26.690" (1950).
15hr 55m 04.989s + 70 34' 47.364" (2000). 
Not found. Probably a single star as suggested by the IC description :
I was unable to locate Bigourdan's observation of this object in his 1919 work 
thus the data is from the Comptes Rendus.  Not listed in any of the modern sources 
except APL (= * closest to nominal position). NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  
Steinicke has (= *).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."  SIMBAD 
has "Not present in the database."
NOTE: In Bigourdan's Appendix VIII, Page 31 he has an entry for this identity giving 
it coordinates that compute to a J2000 position of 15hr 55m 02.387s +70 35' 10.348" 
which places it just off the edge of the northern component of two stars. 

IC 1165.
POSS. O-83.
Javelle #366.  15hr 59m 51.021s + 15 50' 04.623" (1950).
16hr 02m 08.418s + 15 41' 47.170" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the CGCG only as ZWG 108.067. (This noted in the 
PGC).  APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000, MOL, PGC, RC3 and MCG have correct 
identity.

IC 1170.
POSS. O-83.
Javelle #370.  16hr 02m 17.617s + 17 51' 30.625" (1950).
16hr 04m 32.666s + 17 43' 22.419" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  It lies just preceding NGC 6041.  The MCG has a typographical 
error in its identity listing it incorrectly as IC 1710, also incorrectly equating 
it with NGC 6039-40.
CGCG, UGC, Steinicke, APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (Gx) and MOL (NSO) all 
correctly identify IC 1170.

IC 1171.
POS. O-83.
Bigourdan #198.  16hr 02m 36.872s + 18 06' 57.555" (1950).
16hr 04m 51.616s + 17 58' 50.553" (2000).
This is a star :  Bigourdan described it as "a star surrounded by a small amount 
of nebulosity which is doubtful" and in a second observation noted that it was not 
seen. Only listings are APL and Steinicke (= *), NGC 2000 and MOL, both typing it 
as a star.  NED "No object found," and Carlson (Not found on Mt. Wilson plate).  
SIMBAD describes it as "Object of unknown nature."

IC 1172.
POSS. O-83.
Bigourdan #199.  16hr 02m 44.361s + 18 00' 02.829" (1950).
16hr 04m 59.229s + 17 51' 56.212" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 6044 (Swift List IV.#23) :  Bigourdan's description and 
coordinates are from his COMPTES RENDUS publication, however, his positions match 
NGC 6044 and later when preparing his 1919 OBSERVATIONS he no longer included this 
nova in this work.
The MCG gives only the identity NGC 6044.  The CGCG, Steinicke, APL, NED and PGC 
correctly give the equivalency.  The MOL lists both identities as being separate 
as does the NGC 2000 (Gx).  SIMBAD has incorrectly identified it as being a galaxy 
at 16hr 06m 33.2s +17 46' 34" (2000).

IC 1175.
POSS. O-83.
Bigourdan # 200.  16hr 03m 07.565s + 18 17' 37.183" (1950).
16hr 05m 22.085s + 18 09' 32.131" (2000).
This is a single star :  Bigourdan stated that the object was dubious.  He 
measured its separation from the galaxy NGC 6055 giving the NGC object coordinates 
of 16hr 03m 19.004s +18 17' 19.227" (1950).  NED gives NGC 6055 16hr 03m 18.05s 
+18 17' 37.88" (1950) and when Bigourdan's separation values (- 10.5 tsec RA and + 
0.13 arcsec Dec.) are applied to this they land upon a single, faint star.  The 
APL gives (= ** HCds) and Steinicke has (= *).  Only other listings are Carlson 
(Not found on Mt.Wilson plate).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED."  
NGC 2000 (?) and MOL (May not exist).  SIMBAD has "Object of unknown nature."

IC 1176.
POSS. O-83.
Swift List VII, #69.  16hr 03m 06.469s + 18 05' 24.674" (1950).
16hr 05m 21.219s + 17 57' 19.566" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 6056 (Swift List III, #88) :  The "2 pretty bright stars are 
plainly visible to the south as Swift describes in his data for IC 1176.  CGCG in 
its NOTES and OMISSIONS, Vol 3, equates both identities as does the APL, 
Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and PGC while the MOL states "May be NGC 6056.  The NGC 2000  
The MCG identifies it only as IC 1176 = + 3 - 41- 100, without any reference to the 
equivalency.
Corwin in his paper NOTES ON THE HERCULES GALAXY CLUSTER. Pub, Astron. Soc. 
Pacific, Volume 83, June 1971. correctly equates the two identities.

IC 1179.
POSS. O-83.
Swift List VII, #71.  16hr 03m 09.741s + 17 53' 09.913" (1950).
16hr 05m 24.719s + 17 45' 05.020" (2000).
Equal to NGC 6050 (Swift List IV, #26) :  The MCG and NGC 2000 (Gx) queries 
whether it might be equal to NGC 6054.  Carlson states "= NGC 6054, Mt Wilson."
The UGC makes it equal to NGC 6050.  Described in the CGCG and Notes section for 
IC 1185 in the DSFG as NGC 6050 + IC 1179 "Twin spirals in contact."  The APL and 
Steinicke make it equivalent with NGC 6050A.  The PGC, SIMBAD and NED list IC 1079 
and NGC 6050 as separate identities with separate coordinates.
Based upon Swift's description for NGC 6050 "eeF, S, R, v diff." I doubt very much 
if the south preceding galaxy would have been visible to him and therefore I have 
opted to go for the equivalency and that what Swift was describing in both 
observations is the single nebular image.

IC 1180.
POSS. O-83.
Bigourdan #202.  16hr 03m 14.025s + 18 16' 41.217" (1950).
16hr 05m 28.557s +18 08' 36.577 (2000).
Bigourdan measured the coordinates for his #202 from the galaxy NGC 6055 whose 
position for the year 1950 is 16hr 03m 17.590s +18 17 42.450 (DSS) and when 
precessed back to the year 1888 (discovery date for his #202) NGC 6055 would be at 
16hr 00m 31.046s + 18 27" 54.930" (NED's Coordinate Calculator).
His offsets are - 3.6 tsec RA and -1 arcmin 1 arcsec Dec. which gives a 1888 
position for #202 of 16hr 00m 27.446s + 18 26' 53.930" which when precessed to the 
year 1950 results in placing his #202 = IC 1180 at 16hr 03m 14.025s + 18 16' 
41.217" and at this exact position on the DSS there is no image, the closest 
viable image being a 15 or 16 Mp star which lies 1 tsec following and 30 arcsec 
north of Bigourdan's Corrected Nominal Position.
As Bigourdan describes it as "A star thought to be accompanied by a little 
nebulosity" I am accepting the above mentioned star as being what he saw, however, 
this does require his offsets to be in some error. 
The APL and Steinicke list it as (= *) and the NGC 2000 as (?) and MOL (May not 
exist).  The PGC has no listing for the identity IC 1180. NED has (Not found). 
SIMBAD has "Object of unknown nature."

IC 1181.
POSS. O-83.
Swift List VII, #72.  16hr 03m 18.951s + 17 43' 25.606" (1950).
16hr 05m 34.104s + 17 35' 21.305" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy. Double system with IC 1178 :  The MOL states "Same as IC 1178" 
which is not entirely correct as this would suggest both identities for the same 
object.  The CGCG and UGC correctly describe it as making a double system with IC 
1178 while the APL  makes its IC 1178 = 1181A and its IC 1181 = IC 1181B.  The MCG 
correctly identifies both galaxies.  The NGC 2000 (Gx) has the correct identity.  
Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and PGC have the correct identity.

IC 1182.
POSS. O-83.
Javelle #372.  16hr 03m 22.030s + 17 56' 10.779" (1950).
16hr 05m 36.942s + 17 48' 06.675" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  UGC incorrectly queries whether it is equal to IC 1184 (which 
is a double star).  
Additionally the UGC (Notes) state that the CGCG is probably wrong in the identity 
of IC 1184 and to a degree this is correct, however, Zwicky in Vol 3. CGCG (ERRORS 
AND OMISSIONS), states "For IC 1184 add = IC 1183" and the identity IC 1183 is 
correct.  The MOL has what is probably a typographical error in its declination 
value which it gives as being + 17 46' 06".
The PGC (Corrections) also incorrectly equates IC 1183 with IC 1184, but again the 
identity IC 1184 is for an entirely different object, namely a double star. The 
APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, RC3, NGC 2000 (Gx) and MCG have the correct identity.

IC 1183.
POSS. O-83.
Bigourdan #203.  16hr 03m 23.162s + 17 54' 10.940" (1950).
16hr 05m 38.110s + 17 46' 06.896" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy. Equal to NGC 6054 :  The CGCG (see IC 1182 and IC 1184) 
incorrectly equates this with IC 1184.
The UGC in its NOTES correctly identifies IC 1183, however, it again suggests that 
IC 1182 is equal to IC 1184 as does the PGC (Corrections).  The NGC 2000, MOL, RC3, 
NED and MCG have the correct identity.  The APL and Steinicke equate IC 1183 with 
NGC 6054 and Corwin gives an excellent argument in his data files to support this 
equivalency. SIMBAD incorrectly equates IC 1183 with IC 1184.

IC 1184.
POSS. O-83.
Bigourdan #204.  16hr 03m 29.043s + 17 55' 37.554" (1950).
16hr 05m 43.960s + 17 47' 33.884" (2000).
This is a double star whose components appear as being in contact :
Bigourdan's reference star is AC #738929and its position precessed back to the 
discovery date (1888) would be 16hr 00m 32.297s + 18 03' 53.153"
Using Bigourdan's separations (+9.7 tsecs and +1' 56" of arc) from his reference 
star which lies just south preceding IC 1183 there can be no doubt as to which 
object Bigourdan was referring.  Furthermore, he states in his third observation 
of the object dated June 8th 1888 "This object is surely only a star."
Both the CGCG and PGC (Corrections) make IC 1184 = IC 1183, as does SIMBAD.  The NGC 
2000 and MOL both type this identity as being a galaxy.  The APL has the correct 
identity (H.C. = **) as does Carlson (** Mt. Wilson plate) and Steinicke (= *2).  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
 
IC 1190.
POSS. O-83.
Swift List VII, #74.  16hr 04m 06.019s + 18 22' 54.227" (1950).
16hr 06m 20.393s + 18 14' 52.911" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy  :  The APL identifies it as (= UGC 10195 = CGCG 108.136 = MCG 
+03-41-113 = KS136 at 16hr 03m 38s + 18 21' 16.2") and this is the correct object.  
After reading Corwin's latest version of his IC Bug List and examining the 
problem, his conclusion based upon the statement by Swift "another and NGC 6061 in 
line," appears to clinch the identity of IC 1190 as there is no doubt as to the 
identities of IC 1191 and NGC 6061 and the galaxy UGC 10195 completely fills the 
alignment.  The NGC 2000 types it as (?) and the MOL (May not exist).  Carlson 
gives (Not found Mt Wilson plate).  Steinicke has the correct object.  The UGC, 
CGCG, PGC and MCG only identify this object as an "anon."  NED has correct 
identity. SIMBAD incorrectly equates it with NGC 6061.

IC 1194.
POSS. O-83.
Javelle #377.  16hr 04m 23.821s + 17 55' 00.434" (1950).
16hr 06m 38.708" + 17 47' 00.278" (2000)
Confirmed galaxy :  An unusual problem as all the modern authorities listing this 
identity have in my opinion identified the wrong galaxy.  
There are 3 galaxies in close association.  The preceding is an elongated spiral 
and is IC 1192.  It is closely followed by two other galaxies, the fainter, which 
has a declination about 27 arcsecs north of the declination of IC 1192, is a 
lenticular with a star on its following edge while the brighter one which is an 
elliptical lies at a declination below that of IC 1192 and it is this brighter 
elliptical that is incorrectly listed in the modern literature as being IC 1194.
When Javelle's separation values for his #377 = IC 1194 (+ 2 tmins 48.92 tsecs and 
- 1 arcmin 31.2 arcsec) are measured from his reference star DM + 18 3108 at 15hr 
57m 32.3s + 18 11' 24" (1860) equal to AC #738753 at 16hr 03m 50.016s + 17 48' 
08.30 (2000) and by employing the Type 2 procedures with the NED Calculator 
Precession Tables the coordinates would be 16hr 06m 38.708s + 17 47' 00.278" 
(2000), which lands directly on top of the north following galaxy of the three, 
furthermore, comparison of Javelle's given declinations for IC 1192 and IC 1194 
clearly demonstrate that he placed IC 1194 north of IC 1192 and this is the same 
lenticular.
Why Javelle makes no mention of the brighter elliptical I am unable to say, 
however, based upon his data it is the northern of the two that is his #377 = IC 
1194. Dr. Ron Buta has suggested that when he visually examined the field with the 
McDonald Observatory's 30 inch reflector some years ago he noticed that the south 
following galaxy had a stellar-like nucleus and that this may have appeared to be 
a simple star to Javelle and would explain why Javelle did not consider it to be 
another nova.
The CGCG, MCG, RC3, PGC, NGC 2000 (GX), and DSFG have each selected the brighter 
elliptical as being IC 1194 as has NED who also identifies the correct IC 1194 as 
IC 1194A.  The MOL lists the correct IC 1194 as IC 1194A and the southern 
elliptical as IC 1194B.  Steinicke has the correct galaxy.  Simbad's Database also 
incorrectly identifies the southern elliptical galaxy as being IC 1194.
NOTE :  Dr. Harold Corwin has published a paper NOTES ON THE HERCULES GALAXY 
CLUSTER. (Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific, Vol.82. June 1971) in which he discusses the 
problem of the identity of IC 1194 and the entire credit for finally 
solving the identity problem belongs to him as it was his NOTE cautioning the 
reader that although the modern identity sources select the brighter elliptical as 
being IC 1194 Javelle's data is more consistent with the northern lenticular that 
guided my investigation.  In his current NGCICPOS he lists the elliptical as IC 
1194 and the lenticular as IC 1194A, however, we are now both in agreement that 
the correct IC 1194 is the most northern of the 3 galaxies and that the elliptical 
is not either a NGC or IC galaxy. 
 
IC 1197.
POSS. O-1067.
Spitaler.  16hr 05m 51.993s + 07 41' 05.907" (1950).
16hr 08m 17.902s + 07 33' 11.956" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the UGC only as U10219.  The CGCG, APL, 
Steinicke, NED, PGC, SIMBAD, MCG, RC3, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO) have the correct 
identity.

IC 1200.
POSS. O-752.
Swift List VII. #77.  16hr 04m 32.566s + 69 48' 29.681" (1950).
16hr 04m 27.788s + 69 40' 25.777" (2000).
Equal to NGC 6079 (H884- 3) :  Wm. Herschel made an observation of NGC 6079 and 
obtained coordinates of 16hr 05m 38s + 69 38' 43", however, Bigourdan made four 
separate observations of NGC 6079 and stated that he found the NGC was off in RA 
by being 1m 5s too large and giving it coordinates of 16hr 04m 39s + 69 41' 45".
In Dreyer's later work (Scientific Papers of Sir William Herschel. 1912) he notes 
that "H.III. 884. In the same sweep as H.III. 883, and its RA is also nearly 1m 
too great.  The neb. followed same star G.2091. 1hr 57m 03s,  s. 8", which gives 
16hr 05m 04s  19 54' (NPD), agreeing well with Bigourdan."
Swift was without doubt relying on the original data and thus would have thought 
that his #77 was an entirely separate and new discovery, but there would seem to 
be little doubt as to the equivalency, especially as both Bigourdan in his 
observations for NGC 6079 and Swift in his for IC 1200 refer to the 12th Mv star 
close south.
The CGCG, UGC,DSFG and MOL give only the identity NGC 6079 each at the correct 
coordinates.  
The NGC 2000 lists both at different coordinates.  The MCG gives the identity only 
as +12-15-50.  The RC 3 lists neither identity while the PGC gives the single 
identity NGC 6079.  The APL, NED and Steinicke have the correct equivalency. SIMBAD 
has "Not present in the database," but does give the single identity NGC 6079. 
Note :  I was unable to find any listing or reference to the identity IC 1200 in 
the MOL.

IC 1201.
POSS O-752. 
Swift List VII.#78.  16hr 05m 47.675s + 69 44' 35.439" (1950).
16hr 05m 42.971s + 69 36' 36.338" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  Swift in his description incorrectly makes it the north 
following of two, however, it is actually the south following of two, the north 
preceding companion being IC 1200.  The MCG identifies it only as +12-15-51 while 
the CGCG, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, UGC, APL, PGC, NGC 2000 and MOL correctly identify 
it. Listed in DSFG in Notes to NGC 6079.

IC 1202.
POSS. O-168.
Swift List VII, #79.  16hr 10m 31.753s + 09 59' 46.458" (1950).
16hr 12m 55.105s + 09 52' 10.282" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 6081 (Stephan) :  The MOL (NSO) list both identities as 
separate galaxies.  The equivalency is correctly given in the CGCG, Steinicke, 
APL, NED, SIMBAD, MCG, UGC, NGC 2000 and PGC.  The RC3 gives only the identity NGC 
6081.   

IC 1203.
POSS. O-1026.Thome.  16hr 12m 17.807s - 22 13' 01.640" (1950).
16hr 15m 16.074s - 21 20' 30.055" (2000). (Dreyer).
Not found : The only images found at this positions are for a few very faint 
stars.
Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and the MOL as (NSO).  The APL has (asterism 
of 6-8 stars) and Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED have (Not found).

IC 1204.
POSS. O-752.  
Bigourdan #207.  16hr 07m 22.613s + 70 03' 48.221" (1950).
16hr 07m 14.548" + 69 55' 55.100" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the CGCG only as ZWG 338.046 and in the MCG only as 
+12-15-53.  The PGC gives only the CGCG and MCG identities.
MOL (NSO) and NGC 2000 (No Type).  Not listed in UGC, RC3 and DSFG.  Correctly 
identified in the APL, SIMBAD and Steinicke.  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." however it does list the identity CGCG 338-046.

IC 1207.
Thome.  16hr 16m 18.131s - 29 31' 22.586" (1950).
16hr 19m 26.145s - 29 38' 34.888" (2000).
Not found :  No nebular image at or close to the given coordinates.  Close to the 
given position there are only a few faint stars.  Thome does not give any 
description for this identity and therefore I am not even sure he was claiming a 
nonstellar object.  Dreyer states that Thome's identities refer to some nebulae 
picked off the charts of the Cordoba Durchmusterung.
NGC (No Type).  MOL (NSO).  APL has an asterism of 6-8 sts.  Steinicke 
(* group) and ESO (451-?019).  NED "No object found." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 1209.
POSS. O-83.
Javelle #380.  16hr 16m 22.373s + 15 40' 43.859" (1950).
16hr 18m 39.305s + 15 33' 30.374" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Typed in the NGC 2000 as (Neb.).  The MOL lists this identity 
twice, 16hr 16m 23s + 15 40' 43" (NSO) and 16hr 16m 23s +15 41'.0 (Faint nebula).  
The only image I found was that of a galaxy.  The CGCG, RC3, APL, PGC, Steinicke, 
NED, SIMBAD, UGC and MCG have the correct identification and type.

IC 1213.
POSS. O-143.
Swift List IX, #61.  16hr 19m 26.049s - 01 24' 26.328" (1950).
16hr 22m 01.370s - 01 31' 27.141" (2000).
This is a duplicate of NGC 6172 (Stephan XIII, #86).
This is a case in which Swift cannot be blamed for thinking that he had discovered 
a nova.  Stephan's published coordinates for NGC 6172 has a 10 tmin typo error in 
RA which can be verified by consulting his given reference star.  When this 
correction is made Stephan's position for NGC 6172 would be 16hr 19m 34.5s - 01 
23' 16" and confirms that this is the same galaxy as seen by Swift.  (See Corwin's 
APL Corrections).
The MCG gives only the IC 1213 identity, as does the CGCG and UGC.  The NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO) give both the identities and coordinates as separate 
objects.  The APL, Steinicke, NED and PGC correctly give the equivalency. SIMBAD 
gives the identities IC 1213 and NGC 6172 without equivalency, but they are 
referring to the same object.

IC 1217.
POSS. O-752. 
Swift List VII,#85.  16hr 16m 12.606s + 69 47' 54.234" (1950).
16hr 16m 03.630s + 69 40' 35.479" (2000). 
Not found :  Close to Swift's position there is visible on the Palomar print the 
image of an extremely faint, compact galaxy, however, I strongly doubt whether 
this could possibly be Swift's object.  Listed only in the NGC 2000 (No Type), 
Steinicke, APL, SIMBAD and NED (Not found) and MOL (NSO).

IC 1220.
POSS. O-88.
Swift List X, #34.  16hr 26m 59.209s + 08 33' 58.226" (1950).
16hr 29m 23.771s + 08 27' 27.314" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the CGCG only as ZWG 52.030 and in the MCG only 
as +1-42-005. Other modern listings are APL (= CGCG 052-030).  Steinicke, who has 
the correct identity. SIMBAD has correct identity.  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).  The PGC gives only the CGCG and MCG identities.  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED," but does list the identity CGCG 052-030.

IC 1226.
POSS O-1375. 
Swift List X,#38.  16hr 39m 41.044s + 46 06' 20.730" (1950).
16hr 41m 09.606s + 46 00' 39.707" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   The only error involving this identity is the very minor one 
that Dreyer in the IC I catalogue states that Swift's data is to be found in his 
List IX, whereas, it is actually in his List X.  Correctly identified in the CGCG, 
PGC, Steinicke, NED, NGC 2000 (GX.) and MOL (NSO).  APL has (= IC 1232).
NOTE: APL in its New Version queries whether it might be equal to IC 1232.   

IC 1227. 
POSS. O-1414. 
Bigourdan #210.  16hr 39m 17.173s + 58 42' 50.727" (1950).
16hr 40m 07.842s + 58 37' 06.788" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 6206  (Swift List V,#71) :   Bigourdan suspected it might be 
Swift's object stating that both are probably identical.   CGCG, UGC, RC3, PGC and 
MCG give the single identity NGC 6206.  NGC 2000 gives IC 1227 = NGC 6206.  MOL 
states  "May not exist."  Steinicke and APL correctly equate the two identities.  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 1228.
POSS. O-1410. 
Swift List X.#39.  16hr 41m  54.748s + 65 40' 47.398" (1950).
16hr 42m 09.430s + 65 35' 13.042" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in MCG only as +11-20-26.  CGCG, Steinicke, APL, NED, 
PGC, SIMBAD, UGC, RC3, NGC 2000 (Galaxy) and MOL (NSO) correctly identify IC 1228.  
Not listed in DSFG.

IC 1229.
POSS. O-1101. 
Swift List X.#40.  16hr 43m 44.415s + 51 22' 53.452" (1950).
16hr 44m 59.165s + 51 17' 28.658" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  The UGC does not list IC 1229, however, in its NOTES for 
U10538 = IC 1230 it incorrectly states "IC 1225 at a dist. 2.5 arcmins. PA 354." 
but this should be for IC 1229 as IC 1225 lies at 16hr 36.9m + 67 44'.0 and the 
UGC correctly identifies IC 1225 at its correct position in the main catalogue.  
MCG, PGC, Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 and MOL correctly identify IC 1229.  
Not listed in RC3.

IC 1232.
POSS. O-1370.
Swift List IX. #69  16hr 47m 14s ? +46 10' 27.217" (1950).
16hr 49m 42s ? + 46 05' 21.594" (2000).
Not found :  No nonstellar image at or close to Swift's coordinates.  Swift does 
state that his clock drive had failed thus the question mark.
Only listings found were NGC 2000 (No type), MOL (NSO)  NED "There is no object 
with this name in NED," SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL has equal to IC 
1226 and Steinicke (Not found).

IC 1233.
POSS. O-1410.
Swift List IX.#70.  16hr 47m 57.910s + 63 13' 58.795" (1950).
16hr 48m 25.879s + 63 08' 49.974" (2000). 
Not found at nominal position :  No nebular image exists at Swift's position, 
however, at about 10 arcmins south there is the galaxy NGC 6247 (D'Arrest) and 
Dreyer queries whether this might be Swift's #70.  
Certainly Swift's description for IC 1233 does favourably compare with the 
photographic appearance of NGC 6247, especially the reference "Very extended, 
between two stars," and I believe that this is the object Swift saw and listed as 
being his #70.  
Listed only in Steinicke (Not found),  NED There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type. = NGC 6247 ?). APL 
(= NGC 6247) and MOL (NSO).

IC 1234. 
POSS. O-1414. 
Bigourdan #211.  16hr 51m 54.906s + 56 57 31.015" (1950).
16hr 52m 50.520s + 56 52' 39.590" (2000).
This is a faint star: 
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing for IC 1234.  NGC 2000 lists without Type.  MOL 
list as (Nonstellar Object) and Steinicke (Equal to a star).  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  APL has equal 
to a star at 16hr 51m 55.25s + 56 57' 31.3" (1950).

IC 1238 and IC 1239.
POSS. O-1377.
Marth #327  16hr 58m 26.856s + 23 09' 46.920" (1950).
17hr 00m 33.083s + 23 05' 25.230" (2000). (IC 1238).   
Bigourdan #213.  16hr 58m 38.004s + 23 05' 48.318" (1950).  
17hr 00m 44.312s + 23 01' 27.525" (2000). (IC 1239, Comptes 
Rendus).
There is considerable confusion concerning the identities of this small group of 
galaxies whose dominant member is NGC 6278 discovered by Wm. Herschel (H 124-3).  
Marth later claimed discovery of 2 additional objects, Marth 327 and 
328, and this was followed by Stephan who added 2 more in an observation which 
included NGC 6278.
Originally, Dreyer equated Marth's and Stephan's novae, giving them the identities 
NGC 6276 and NGC 6277, however, he later corrected part of this to show that 
Marth's #327 is not equal to NGC 6277 and that Marth's # 327 should have been 
inserted in the NGC after NGC 6275. (NGC/IC Notes and Corrections pp.224).  When 
the IC I was published Dreyer, in an effort to remedy this, identified Marth's 
#327 as IC 1238 at Marth's given coordinates, however, close to this position 
there is visible on the Palomar print only the image of a close double star whose 
components are aligned at almost 90 degrees.
Next we come to the observations of the field by Bigourdan.  He correctly 
identified Herschel's NGC 6278 but apparently he identified NGC 6276 as being a 
nova, Big.213 = IC 1239.  Later he realized his error and this most likely 
accounts for the reason that no B. 213 appears in his 1919 publication.  Therefore 
the identity IC 1239 is a duplicate of NGC 6276.
During Bigourdan's examination of this field he came across what he believed to be 
a nonstellar image whose position he measured from a 10.5 Mp star he called
(Anon.2) stating that this star lay about -24s RA and north by about 7 arcmins of 
NGC 6278.  From this star he measured separation values to this nonstellar image 
of -6s RA and -01' 22" dec. and there is very close to this position a galaxy 
visible on the Palomar print lying between the reference star and the asymmetrical 
peculiar galaxy UGC 10650 which is located south preceding.  
Unfortunately Bigourdan had surmised that this might be Marth's NGC 6277, 
identifying it as NGC 6277?, and probably because of this, this existing object 
never received any historical identity and therefore must be included in the 
category "Anonymous."
Finally, the identity NGC 6277, based upon Stephan's coordinates turns out to be a 
faint star located between NGC 6276 and NGC 6278.  
For a number of years I had convinced myself that the image visible on the Palomar 
print suggested it being nonstellar, however, recent re-examination has caused me 
to refute my  original conclusion and I now am of the opinion that it is a star.
As for the modern catalogues the following errors apply.
The CGCG confuses the identity NGC 6276 making it NGC 6277 which is a star.  
The UGC and MCG each equate NGC 6276 and NGC 6277 which is incorrect as only NGC 
6276 is an existing galaxy.  
Both the NGC 2000 and MOL list the IC identities.  The NGC 2000 lists IC 1238 as 
(No Type), the MOL as (NSO), and IC 1239 as (GX) and (NSO), no listing of any 
equivalency. The PGC correctly equates the identities IC 1239 and NGC 6276.  
The APL makes IC 1238 = ** and IC 1239 = NGC 6276 as does Steinicke   NED has for 
IC 1238 "There is no object with this name in NED," and correctly equates IC 1239 
with NGC 6276. SIMBAD has for both identities "Not present in the database."

IC 1240. 
POSS. O-1414. 
Bigourdan #214.  17hr 00m 22.933s + 61 07' 15.936" (1950).
17hr 00m 59.745s +61 02' 59.500" (2000). 
Not found :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing for IC 1240.  NGC 2000 lists 
without Type.  MOL lists as  (Nonstellar Object).  Steinicke, APL and NED have 
(Not found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
NOTE: Bigourdan's given position for his reference star is off by abut 2 arcmin 
too far south.

IC 1243.
POSS. O-505.
Swift List IX, #72.  17hr 08m 14.350s + 10 51' 05.460" (1950).
17hr 10m 35.662s + 10 47' 26.014" (2000).
Not found :  The only thing close to Swift's position is a small asterism formed 
by a compact group of 7 stars in the form of a question mark (?) turned backwards. 
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?) and MOL (May not exist).  Dreyer (Notes page 
378 NGC/IC states "Only 5 stars 12-14 in line north to south, 45 arcsec long; 
Howe."  Steinicke has (* Group) and NED "No object found." APL has 5 stars. SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 1244.
POSS. O-1132.
Swift List VIII.#92.  17hr 08m 35.765s + 36 22' 27.096" (1950).
17hr 10m 21.563s + 36 18' 47.925" (2000).  
List IX. #73.  17hr 08m 46.982s + 36 15' 58.042" (1950).
17hr 10m 32,960s + 36 12' 19.676" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Swift made two separate observations of this galaxy four 
months apart and his coordinates for List VIII are by far the better.  Correctly 
identified in CGCG at 17hr 8.8m + 36 21'.0 but only identified in the UGC as 
U10739.  MCG, NGC 2000 (Gx.) APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and MOL (NSO) 
correctly identify IC 1244.  Not listed in RC3.

IC 1246.
POSS. O-1127.
Bigourdan #215.  17hr 12m 03.634s + 20 17' 37.445" (1950).
17hr 14m 13.255s + 20 14' 13.903" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
(Not found), SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 1247.
POSS. O-415.
Bigourdan #216.  17hr 13m 33.437s - 12 43' 36.693" (1950).
17hr 16m 22.044s - 12 46' 52.572" (2000).
This is a single star :  Dreyer, (NGC/IC Notes, page 378), states "Not found by 
Howe, 2 nights."  Bigourdan made three separate observations and reported seeing 
this object on only the first.  For the other two observations he stated that it 
was a 13.4 or 13.5 star without trace of nebulosity.
The MOL lists it as (May not exist).  The NGC 2000, APL and Steinicke each 
correctly have it as being a star. NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
NOTE:  Bigourdan on two later observations describes it as a 13.5 Mv star without 
any nebulosity.

IC 1251 AND IC 1254.
POSS. O-756. 
Swift List X.#43.  17hr 11m 11.452s + 72 28' 48.540" (1950).
17hr 10m 18.782" +72 25' 14.895" (2000). (IC 1251).  
List X, #44.  17hr 12m 42.959s + 72 29' 26.394" (1950).
17hr 11m 49.852s + 72 25' 59.252" (2000). (IC 1254). 
Both confirmed galaxies :  These two were actually discovered by Swift's young son 
Edward who incorrectly described IC 1251 as the "South preceding of 2" and IC 1254 
as the " North following of 2 ."  The correct alignment is North preceding - South 
following and this error is continued on in the MOL.  The NGC 2000 give both the 
same declination value.  The CGCG, PGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, UGC,.RC3, DSFG 
(Notes to NGC 6340) and MCG have the correct identifications and alignments.

IC 1252.
(See IC 4649).

IC 1253.
POSS. O-1127.
Safford #29.  17hr 17m 40.206s + 16 42' 53.214" (1950).
17hr 19m 54.271s + 16 39' 53.865" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 6347 (Stephan List XI, #55) :  Both the NGC 2000 and MOL have 
been influenced by Dreyer who incorrectly gives the identity IC 1253 a declination 
of + 18 42'.8, but examination of Safford's discovery announcement paper clearly 
establishes that he gives a declination as shown above.
No listings for IC 1253 in the other catalogues.  The CGCG, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, UGC 
and MCG give only the single identity NGC 6347.  Steinicke and APL have (= NGC 
6347).

IC 1270.
POSS. O-1148. 
Swift List VII,#93.  17hr 47m 20.214s + 62 14' 22.172" (1950).
17hr 47m 47.257s + 62 13' 27.868" (2000). 
Not found: :  At the nominal position there is no nonstellar object.  There are 
the stars reported in Swift's description and his nominal position does land 
between them, however, I did not see any acceptable candidate there.  
Listed only in the NGC 2000, APL, Steinicke and MOL, each making it a single star.  
NED has (Not found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 1272.
POSS. O-260.
Bigourdan #218.  18hr 02m 51.904s + 25 07' 19.629" (1950).
18hr 04m 54.351s + 25 07' 36.651" (2000).
This is a double star :  No evidence of a star cluster or nebulosity.  The only 
modern identities are in the NGC 2000 (Open cluster) and MOL (Open cluster).  NED 
(No object with this name in NED). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  Steinicke 
(=*2), APL (= 4-5 stars).  The Palomar print shows it to consist of two close stars 
aligned north-north preceding south-south following.

IC 1273.
POSS. O-260.
Bigourdan #219.  18hr 03m 00.248s + 25 07' 32.472" (1950).
18hr 05m 02.691s + 25 07' 50.101" (2000).
This is a double star :  Close north following IC 1272, it also is not a star 
cluster nor does it indicate the presence of any associated nebulosity, being 
simply a double star whose components are aligned south preceding north following.  
Again the only modern listings are Steinicke (* 2), APL (**), NED "No object 
found." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (Open cluster) and MOL (Open 
cluster) and these two types are probably influenced by Dreyer's description based 
upon Bigourdan's observational data.  

IC 1277.
POSS. O-282.
Bigourdan #220.  18hr 08m 33.535s + 30 59' 19.293" (1950).
18hr 10m 27.207s + 31 00' 00.876" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Both the NGC 2000 and MOL list this as being an "Open 
Cluster."  Correctly identified in the CGCG, PGC, SIMBAD, UGC, MCG, DSFG (NOTES to 
NGC 6575), APL, Steinicke, NED and RC3.

IC 1278.
POSS. O-282.
Bigourdan #221.  18hr 08m 48.835s + 31 08' 15.999" (1950).
18hr 10m 42.272s + 31 08' 58.689" (2000).
This is a compact asterism formed by 4 stars :  Only modern listings are Steinicke 
(* Group), APL 4-5 stars, NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 1279 and IC 1281.
POSS. O-197.
Swift List VII,#95.  18hr 09m 21.100s + 36 01' 13.556" (1950).
18hr 11m 06.327s + 36 01m 58.281" (2000). (IC 1279)  
List VIII,#96. 18hr 09m 51.125s + 36 00' 40.179" (1950).
18hr 11m 36.374s + 36 01' 27.091" (2000). (IC 1281).
Equivalent identities :  According to Dreyer (NGC/IC Notes, P.378), IC 1281 is 
equal to IC 1279.  Although Dreyer had previously suggested this possibility, (IC 
I), he was later supported by an observation made by Howe (MNRAS. LXI. 1. 
Nov. 1900) in which Howe states that he saw only one nebula at the Index 
Catalogue's positions and his measured position is 18hr 9m 30.150s + 35 59' 
37.513" which indicates that it is IC 1279.  He specifically states that he did 
not see IC 1281.
Swift made his List VII observation on October 18th 1887 in which he refers to the 
object lying "in a semi-circle of stars" and this is what one finds on the DSS for 
IC 1279.  
His List VIII #96 (IC 1281) description states that the object he is observing is 
"considerably elongated, semi-circle of stars near," again this applies only to 
his List VII object. Meanwhile Howe, employing a larger telescope than Swift, saw 
only a single object which he identified as Swift's List VII, # 95 (IC 1279), so 
why was he unable to see the object that does lie following IC 1279 and which NED 
gives a Mp of 15.72 ?
Due to these findings it is now my opinion that on both occasions Swift was seeing 
the same object, IC 1279 and thus IC 1281 is a duplicate of IC 1279 and not the 
faint galaxy following as I originally thought.
The CGCG, APL, Steinicke, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and UGC (Notes), identify the faint 
following galaxy as IC 1281.  The NGC 2000 lists IC 1279 (No Type) and IC 1281  = IC 
1279 (?), while the MOL gives IC 1279 (NSO) and IC 1281 (May not exist).  The MCG 
gives only the identity IC 1281 but they are incorrectly referring to IC 1279 
(This error is noted by the PGC).  The RC3 gives only the identity IC 1279.

IC 1280.
POSS. O-1089.
Bigourdan #222.  18hr 10m 16.646s + 25 38' 40.078" (1950).
18hr 12m 18.375s + 25 39' 29.477" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 6581 (Stephan List 1)  :  Both Stephan and Bigourdan employed 
the same Mv 8.0 reference star, Stephan identifying it as 33,555 Lat. while 
Bigourdan identified it as A.G.CAM.8732, (It is also known as GSC 2096-731, DM +25 
3481 and SAO 085828).  Bigourdan gave the 1900 separation from this star as -0m 
34s RA + 0' 42" while Stephan measured it as -0m 32.55s RA and + 0' 56".3 (1870).
On the same night Bigourdan searched for NGC 6581 at the coordinates as given in 
the NGC, which meant that he was searching in an area about 11 tsecs of RA 
following where he had measured his B.222 and strangely he never made any personal 
measurement for what he states is NGC 6581, explaining that because it was 
difficult to distinguish from 2 or 3 faint, close stars he was unable to make any 
measurement.
There is no doubt that Bigourdan's coordinates for his B.222 are superior to 
Stephan's in accuracy, however, there is only one possible candidate for both 
identities in the immediate field and although Bigourdan's coordinates may be 
better, Stephan's description for this galaxy "Scarcely visible. A vaporous aspect 
comprised between two very small stars." is excellent, and pins down the fact that 
he is describing the same object as B.222.
Steve Gottlieb has an observation of NGC 6581 which he describes as "Small, round.  
A mag 14.5 star at the NE end and a mag 15 star at the south end.  Image is 
confused by these two close faint stars.  A wide pair of stars is SW.  Located in 
the U11156 group and incorrectly identified as U11155 in the RNGC."
CGCG, MOL, and PGC give the single identity IC 1280.  The  MOL lists both 
identities as separate objects and continue an error as given in the RNGC for the 
identity 6581 in that the declination is given as + 25 25'.0, which is for an 
entirely separate galaxy listed in the UGC as U11155. (See Gottlieb's 
observation).  The DSFG also incorrectly identifies NGC 6581 as being at the RNGC 
and MOL declination, (U11155). Not listed in the UGC or RC3.  NED list IC 1280 and 
IC 1280 as equivalent identities. APL and Steinicke have the correct equivalency.
 
IC 1282.
POSS. O-1089.
Bigourdan # 223.  18hr 11m 57.352s + 21 05' 06.191" (1950).
18hr 14m 05.399s + 21 06' 03.116" (2000).
This consists of a small group of stars without nebulosity: 
Bigourdan described it as "Formed of 2 or 3 small, closely associated stars with 
perhaps some nebulosity."  Only modern listings are Steinicke (=*4), APL (4 
stars), NGC 2000 (Type ?) and MOL (May not exist).  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
   
IC 1285.
POSS. O-1089.
Bigourdan #224.  18hr 14m 06.867s + 25 05' 13.705" (1950).
18hr 16m 09.419s + 25 06' 19.883" (2000).
A very small group of stars without associated nebulosity :
Bigourdan described it as being a 13.3 Mv star accompanied by a few others more 
faint and that perhaps it might have some traces of nebulosity.
Only modern listings are Steinicke (= *4), APL (= 5 sts), NED "No object found." 
SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (?) and MOL (May not exist).

IC 1293.
POSS. O-789. 
Swift List VIII,#97.  18hr 40m 46.278s + 56 15' 47.979" (1950).
18hr 41m 41.511s + 56 18' 47.344" (2000). 
Swift's nominal position lands close to a grouped line of 4 stars none of which 
appeared to me to have associated nebulosity :  
Howe in an observation states "It appears to consist of 3 stars of mag. 14 of 
which the following one is nebulous''. The only listings for this identity I could 
find were Steinicke (* Group), NED "No object found." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 1294.
POSS O-340. 
Swift List VII,#99.  18hr 48m 13.150s + 40 11' 12.125" (1950).
18hr 49m 51.711s + 40 14' 44.985" (2000). 
Not found :   The only modern catalogues listing IC 1294 are Steinicke who has 
(Not found).  APL (3-4 stars).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED." 
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) both at coordinates based upon the historical 
data.

IC 1300.
POSS. O-774. 
Swift List X,#47.  19hr 22m 51.537s + 52 33' 01.874" (1950).
19hr 24m 03.638s + 52 38' 58.854" (2000). 
This is a duplicate observation of NGC 6798 (Swift List II,#80.) :  
Howe (1900) reports on a letter he received from Swift stating that the 
declination value he originally gave for IC 1300 was 1 degree too far south and 
when this correction is applied to the data it confirms the equivalency of IC 1300 
and NGC 6798. 
CGCG, MCG, UGC, PGC, RC3 and DSFG give the single identity NGC 6798.  Dreyer in 
his IC II NOTES, page 378. states "IC 1300, Delenda = NGC 6798'' and Carlson 
refers to this correction in her TABLE 2.  NED and SIMBAD have correct 
equivalencies. Equivalency correctly noted in the APL and by Steinicke.

IC 1301.
POSS. O-814. 
Swift List IX,#93.  19hr 25m 22.948s + 49 11' 13.784" (1950).
19hr 26m 44.601s + 49 17' 21.391" (2000). 
This is a confirmed galaxy but not at the position originally given by Swift :   
Swift at some time after his discovery wrote to Professor Howe at Chamberlin 
Observatory informing him that the declination for IC 1301 was about 35 arcmins 
greater than that given in the Index Catalogue I (See Howe. M.N. LX1, p.48.), 
which would thus give a declination value of + 49 46' (+ or -).  
Although no galaxy exists precisely at this corrected position there is one (ZWG. 
256.018) at 19hr 25m 16.927s + 49 39' 23.31" (1950), or about 28 arcmin north of 
his nominal position, that roughly fits Swift's description "eeF,vS,R, 2B and 1 F* 
in line nr. f, nearest * nf close D with 300." however, I would not describe them 
as "2 Bright and 1 Faint" as Swift does, as none of the three are bright, the 
brightest being GCS 3551-564 Mp 10.46, at 19hr 25m 56.01 + 49 40' 57.5" (1950).  
Neither would I say that the 3 stars are in line and it is ZWG. 256.018 that is 
identified in the CGCG, PGC, Steinicke, UCG, APL, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 and RC3 as 
being IC 1301.  
This same galaxy is identified in the MCG only as + 8-35-009.  The MOL incorrectly 
gives the original Swift declination.
There is a brighter candidate (IC 4867) at 19hr 25m 12.488s + 50 01' 24.23" 
(1950), which is about 50 arcmin north of Swift's nominal position that has stars 
that do fit much better with Swift's description "2 bright and 1 Faint star in 
line near following."   
The brightest star is GSC 3551-1744, Mp 6.89, the second brightest is GSC 3551-
1320. Mp 8.52 and the third is GSC 3551-358, Mp 10.31  
Additionally, GSC 3551-1744 has a companion star, GSC 3551-1932, Mp 11.63 and the 
3 main stars are in line thus each of these stars are more in common with Swift's 
description.  
Dreyer in his IC II adds to its description, [? = IC 1301.] (Also see IC II. Page 
378. RAS 1971).  
The question then becomes which of these two candidates is the correct IC 1301 ?  
Although the 35 arcmin correction favours ZWG.256-018, the description of the 
associated stars fits better with Swift's object #93 being equivalent with IC 4867 
and is my choice for this identity.
NOTE:  The latest versions of both Steinicke and Corwin now agree with my 
assessment that IC 1301 = IC 4867.

IC 1304.
POSS. O-281.
Espin.  19hr 33m 46.895s + 40 55' 46.928" (1950).
19hr 35m 27.477s + 41 02' 29.141" (2000). (Dreyer).
Not found :   I am not even certain that what Espin was referring to in his 
description (Faint nebulosity) was for a galaxy, however, I could not detect upon 
the Palomar print any type of nonstellar object anywhere in the field.  The only 
modern listings I could find were Steinicke and NED (Not found), SIMBAD "Not present 
in the database." APL (Field stars in Milky Way), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 1312.
POSS. O-372.
Bigourdan #226.  20hr 14m 35.047s + 17 53' 29.132" (1950).
20hr 16m 50.844s + 18 02' 48.639" (2000). (Based upon 1884 data).
This is a small asterism comprised of faint stars closely grouped.
Only listings are Carlson (= NGC 6892 ? Reinmuth). NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
which equates it with the identity NGC 6892 and states that both identities are 
for nonexistent objects.  Steinicke has (= *4), NED states "No object with this name 
in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL has (12-15 Field stars).  
NOTE : It is interesting to find in Bigourdan's publications that he gives 3 
separate observations.  The first on Sept. 20th 1884 in which he refers to a Trace 
of nebulosity associated with a star at the extreme limit of visibility.  His 
second on Oct. 26th 1896 on which occasion he found nothing and his third on Oct. 
29th 1896, in which he describes it as being half nebulous and half stellar in
which he sees a 13.4 Mv star which is accompanied by a few traces of nebulosity of 
about 20 arcsecs in size, with a 12th magnitude star at a PA of 0 degrees, distant 
1.2 arcmin.  He additionally states for this observation that this object was 
distinct from that measured on 20th Sept. 1884.

IC 1315.
POSS. O-332.
Bigourdan #227.  20hr 15m 20.739s + 30 31' 48.958" (1950).
20hr 17m 21.777s + 30 41' 10.793" (2000).
This is a single star with a few extremely faint stars immediately north :  
Only modern listings are Steinicke (* Group), NED "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).  APL (5-6 stars).
NOTE: Bigourdan describes his #227 as an object that appears to be formed by a 
star, 13.2 - 13.3 mag. accompanied by excessively faint nebulosity, the star not 
being in the middle.  Near the nebulosity one suspects another one or two stars at 
the extreme limit of visibility.

IC 1316.
POSS. O- 315.
Bigourdan #228.  20hr 20m 00.378s + 06 20' 21.995" (1950).
20hr 22m 28.015s + 06 30' 01.445" (2000).
Not found :  At the position as given by Bigourdan (1891), no nebular image 
exists.  The CGCG, and MCG list IC 1316 but their candidate is actually NGC 6901 
discovered by Marth.  The UGC, NGC 2000, MOL, SIMBAD and PGC all incorrectly equate 
IC 1316 with IC 5000 (which is actually an equivalent identity of NGC 6901).  
Carlson incorrectly states "= IC 5000;  Declination of 1316 is wrong, of 5000 
correct. Mt Wilson plate." There are no connections between the two identities IC 
1316 and IC 5000.  The APL gives (Not found).  Steinicke has (Not found).  NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED." 
(See IC 5000).

IC 1323.
POSS. O-1122.
Javelle #390.  20hr 27m 41.082s - 15 21' 10.831" (1950).
20hr 30m 29.372s - 15 11' 03.743" (2000).
Equal to two stars :  The closest image to his position is made up of 2 faint 
stars of similar magnitude aligned almost directly east and west.
The MOL lists it as (NSO).  The only other modern listings are NGC 2000 (D*), NED 
(No object found), SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (equal to **) and 
Steincke (=*).

IC 1325. & IC 1326.
POSS. O-812.
Swift List VIII, #98.  20hr 30m 26.562s + 09 42' 19.972" (1950).
20hr 32m 51.238s + 09 52' 35.973" (2000). (IC 1325).  
Swift List VIII, #99. 20hr 29m 36.551s + 09 43'14.667" (1950).
20hr 33m 01.217s + 09 53' 31.243" (2000). (IC 1326).
IC 1325 is equal to NGC 6928 and IC 1326 is equal to NGC 6930 :  Examination of 
the Palomar print shows the three brightest galaxies in the field to be as 
follows.
(A).  This is the smallest and the most preceding of the field.  It is NGC 6927 
(Marth).
(B).  The second is the largest and brightest.  It is NGC 6928 (Marth).
(C).  The third and most southerly is extended south preceding north following 
and is NGC 6930 (Marth).
Swift saw only the two brightest, which are NGC 6928 and NGC 6930 and his 
descriptions are excellent , especially as regarding the 3rd one NGC 6930, even to 
the "Pretty faint star near south, wide double star near south following."  
Unfortunately, not only did Swift not realize that these had already been 
discovered by Marth but he also incorrectly stated their relative alignment to 
each other as he makes his preceding object (IC 1325) to be south preceding his IC 
1326 when the correct alignment should be north preceding.
The CGCG, PGC, SIMBAD and UGC give only the NGC identities.  Carlson incorrectly 
equates IC 1325 with NGC 6927 (Mt. Wilson plate and Reinmuth) and IC 1326 with NGC 
6928 (Mt. Wilson plate), however, examination of Reinmuth's observations shows that 
he correctly identifies all three NGC identities but errs in his equivalencies as 
for NGC 6927 he states "IC 1325 = NGC 6927?" while for NGC 6930 he states "IC 1325 
south preceding preceding the middle of NGC 6930 by 1.5 arcmin." which I do not 
understand, as having correctly identified NGC 6930 there is no nebular image 1.5 
arcmin SSP its middle.
The MOL also equates the identities in the same manner as Carlson.
Howe in a series of corrections to Swift objects (MNRAS LXI. 1, page137), has what 
I believe is the correct equivalencies involved.  He states "IC 1325 and IC 1326.  
I am inclined to the opinion that these two Swift nebulae are identical with two 
which Marth found with the Lassell reflector at Malta, and which are Nos.6928 and 
6930 respectively in the NGC."  Also see Dreyer's correction (NGC/IC. page 378).
Steinicke, APL, NGC 2000 and MCG have the correct equivalencies.  NED lists both 
the identities IC 1325 and IC 1326 as "There is no object with this name in NED."

IC 1329.
POSS. O-558.
Swift List IX, #95.  20hr 41m 22.559s + 15 24' 22,999 (1950).
20hr 43m 42.276s + 15 35' 15.829" (2000).
This is a group of faint stars :  Swift described it as being in the center of a 
trapezium of 4 stars and this group is found as described at his coordinates. 
Only listings are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) both at coordinates consistent 
with Swift's.  NED (Not found), SIMBAD "Not present in the database," and Steinicke 
(*Group). APL (8-10 stars).  

IC 1333 and IC 1334.
POSS. O-1150.
Javelle #395  20hr 49m 29.026s - 16 25' 55.951" (1950).
20hr 52m 17.191s - 16 14' 35.826" (2000). (IC 1333) and 
Javelle #396. 20hr 49m 29.613s - 16 28' 28.683" (1950).
20hr 52m 17.817s - 16 17' 08.527" (2000). (IC 1334).
These are equivalent identities.:  Javelle found J.395 on August 4th 1891 and 
J.396 on July 22nd 1892 or almost one year apart.  He employed different reference 
stars for both observations and when his separations for each identity are 
measured from each of their respective reference stars they give coordinates that 
are only about 2.5 arcmin apart (The second observation being the more accurate).
As there is only a single galaxy visible in the immediate field it is almost a 
certainty that this is the galaxy seen on both occasions by Javelle.  Also if 
Javelle had been referring to a supposed different image during his first 
observation then surely he would have at that time also seen what he describes in 
his second observations as a brighter object only 2 arcmin directly south.
The MCG "Anon." -3-53-008 should be identified as being IC 1333=IC 1334.  The NGC 
2000 and MOL list both identities as separate objects.  The RC3 and PGC give the 
single identity IC 1334.  NED makes IC 1333 "There is no object with this name in 
NED," while listing the identity IC 1334 as a galaxy. SIMBAD has for IC 1333 "Not 
present in the database," while correctly identifying IC 1334.  The APL and 
Steinicke correctly give the equivalency.

IC 1334.
(See IC 1333).

IC 1346 and IC 1354.
POSS. O-791.
Javelle #407.  20hr 58m 56.248s - 14 03' 39.082" (1950).
21hr 01m 41.746s - 13 51' 49.201" (2000) (IC 1346) and 
Javelle #415.  20hr 59m 12.012s - 13 57' 11.888" 1950).
21hr 01m 57.402s - 13 45' 21.199" (2000). (IC 1354).
There is considerable confusion here and the credit for sorting it out belongs 
entirely to Dr. Corwin whose excellent account in his APL IC Puzzles should be 
consulted.
Javelle observed both these identities on August 7th 1891 and gives as his 
reference star the 10th mag. BD -14 5910, however, what he was actually using was 
a different star (GSC 5782-1182 whose position is about 05 tsec preceeding and 5.5 
arcmin south of BD -14 5910).  When this star is employed and Javelle's separation 
values are applied they fall on two separate galaxies which are the true IC 1346 
and IC 1354, however, on July 26th 1892 Javelle again observed this region and 
claimed discovery of another Nova (Javelle # 411 = IC 1350).  This time he did use 
as his reference star the correct BD -14 5910 and his offsets show that this is a 
duplicate observation of IC 1354 as the separations from the two different stars 
for the two different identities prove, therefore IC 1350 is equal to IC 1354.
The MCG queries whether its -2-53-019 might be IC 1346 and this identity is 
correct.  Also it gives only the single identity IC 1350.  The NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and MOL (NSO) both give the incorrect historical positions for IC 1346 and IC 1354 
and separate identities to IC 1350 and IC 1354.  The APL has the correct 
identities and coordinates.  Steinicke has correctly identified IC 1346 and IC 
1350 = IC 1354.   The PGC identifies IC 1346 only as MCG -2-53-19 and gives the 
identity IC 1350 without any equivalency with IC 1354.  NED correctly identifies 
both IC 1346 and IC 1350, however, it makes the identity IC 1354 "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD correctly identifies IC 1346 and has the 
correct identity for IC 1350, but makes its equivalent identity (IC 1354) "Not 
present in the database."
The correct 1950 coordinates for these identities are 
IC 1346.  20hr 58m 51.4s - 14 09'.5 
IC 1354 = IC 1350.  20hr 59m 06.8s - 14 02' 59"

IC 1350 and IC 1354.
(See IC 1346).

IC 1361.
POSS. O-552.
Javelle #793.  21hr 08m 59.404s + 04 50' 55.473" (1950).
21hr 11m 29.268s + 05 03' 15.315" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The only error here concerns the declination as given in the 
MOL in which it reads + 04 05' 57"

IC 1373.
POSS.O-575.
Spitaler N.28.  21hr 18m 04.643s + 00 52' 36.544" (1950).
21hr 20m 37.673s + 01 05' 22.710" (2000).
There is no error regarding this identity and I only list it as something of 
historical interest.
Spitaler in his observation of the field gives only coordinate for IC 1373 and 
then adds "Has two others south."  Dreyer in his IC 1 correctly copies this 
description but as he had no other details as to exactly where these other two 
nebulae were located he did not assign them any identifications.
Examination of the Palomar print shows that almost directly south of IC 1373 at 
about 2.5 arcmins there is an extended galaxy listed in the UGC as U11724 and also 
close south preceding IC 1373 there is a very small companion also mentioned in 
the UGC Notes for U11724.
It is quite likely that the extended galaxy is one of those that Spitaler refers 
to in his description, however, it would be difficult to say whether the companion 
to IC 1373 is Spitaler's other referred to object.

IC 1376.
POSS. O-810.
Safford #85.  21hr 22m 03.185s - 05 57' 31.780" (1950).
21hr 24m 41.272s - 05 44' 34.353" (2000).
Not found :  No nebular image at his given position.  Safford in a Footnote to 
this identity states "Probably equal to GC 4654," however, GC 4654 is equal to NGC 
7051 which has a declination about 3 degrees of arc farther south of the 
declination given by Safford for his nova.  As Safford did not give any description 
to his object any possible candidate would at best be only an 
assumption.  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO). APL and 
Steinicke (Not found). NED "No object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database."

IC 1382.
POSS. O-1141.
Safford #55.  21hr 24m 35.447s + 18 26' 10.661" (1950).
21hr 26m 55.249s + 18 39' 14.565" (2000).
Not found :  No nebular image in the vicinity. Only listings found are APL and 
Steinicke (= NGC 7056). NED (Not found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 1389.
POSS. O-1163.
Javelle #436.  21hr 29m 20.987s - 18 14' 22.901" (1950).
21hr 32m 08.023s - 18 01' 05.561" (2000).
Listed in the MCG only as "Anon." -3-55-001.  Correctly identified in the NGC 2000 
(No Type), MOL (NSO), APL, PGC, NED and Steinicke.

IC 1405. 
POSS. O-1130. 
Javelle #445.  21hr 48m 17.035s + 01 47' 08.763" (1950).
21hr 50m 49.606s + 02 01' 13.255" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   MCG incorrectly equates its + 0-55-20 with IC 1406 but this 
is IC 1405.  UGC points out this MCG error in its "Notes."    CGCG, NGC 2000, MOL, 
APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and PGC give the correct identity.

IC 1407. 
POSS. O-1130. 
Javelle #447.  21hr 49m 51.264s + 03 11' 32.548" (1950).
21hr 52m 22.972s + 03 24' 40.702" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Listed in the CGCG only as ZWG 376.048.  The PGC equates 
CGCG's ZWG 376.048 with the identity NGC 7148, however, NGC 7148 is a double star 
close north preceding the confirmed galaxy NGC 7149 = ZWG 376.047.  Also the PGC's 
#67535 which they identify only as 11 ZW.152 is the correct IC 1407.  Not listed 
in UGC or MCG.  Correctly identified in the NGC 2000, APL, Steinicke and MOL.  NED 
makes the identity IC 1407 "There is no object with this name in NED," however, 
they identify the correct object as IIZw 152. SIMBAD has "Not present in the 
database," but identify the same galaxy as CGPG 2149.8+0312.

IC 1415.
POSS. O-1146.
Bigourdan #229.  21hr 56m 09.432s + 01 06' 34.333" (1950).
21hr 58m 42.468s + 01 20' 56.911" (2000).
Not found :  This is a very interesting problem in that Bigourdan in his first of 
two observations describes his B.229 as being just a trace of nebulosity almost 
beyond noting and that it lies off the edge of a 13.4 magnitude star. He also 
gives the following data as to 2 associated field stars.
Star Mag. 13.3, PA 90, Dist. 2 arcmin.  Star Mag.12.8, PA 130, Dist. 3 arcmin.
A later observation states that he was not able to see any nebulosity for certain 
and then places it from his main reference star at PA 128, Dist. 8 arcmin.
When Bigourdan's position for his Nova is measured on the Palomar print it falls 
on the 13.4 magnitude star and this star has immediately off its south following 
edge a very faint, diffuse galaxy which has to be at least 17 Mp, probably 
fainter.
The 2 associated stars are also visible at positions in accordance with 
Bigourdan's data as is his main reference star the 9.5 magnitude BD + 1 4802, but 
there is no way that Bigourdan could have seen the galaxy that exists at his 
position unless at the time of his observations it was somehow brighter than now, 
an explanation that is highly unlikely, other than the possibility that when he 
observed it, it was experiencing an unusually bright supernova that somehow 
suggested to him a nebular image, again very unlikely.
Dr Corwin at my request examined the field and agrees that its image on the print 
would strongly indicate that it was well beyond the capabilities of Bigourdan's 
telescope and additionally Steve Gottlieb very kindly examined the field with a 
17.5 inch telescope at an excellent California observing site and reported to me 
that using various powered oculars he was unable to detect the galaxy in question.
How Bigourdan selected the correct field star which does have a galaxy where he 
stated is something I am unable to solve but I am convinced that the image on the 
Palomar print could never have been visible to him.
The NGC 2000 (=*) APL an NED (Not found), SIMBAD "Not present in the database," and 
MOL (NSO) and Steinicke (Not found) are the only modern sources I have found which 
list this identity.

IC 1416.
POSS. O-1146.
Bigourdan #230.  21hr 56m 16.617s + 01 12' 42.949" (1950).
21hr 58m 49.592s + 01 27' 05.793" (2000). (See Bigourdan's correction IC II).
This is a very faint star :  At the coordinates as given by Bigourdan I was able 
to find only the image of a faint star.  Bigourdan's reference star is equal to AC 
#188937 whose coordinates for the year 2000 are 21hr 58m 46.153s + 01 32' 50.81" 
and when Bigourdan's offsets (+ 03.310 tsec RA and 5 arcmin 45.300 arcsec south) 
are applied after precession to the discovery year and then precessing back to 
epochs 1950 and 2000 the positions for IC 1416 are as given above and land right 
on the faint star.  Only listings are APL, NED and Steinicke (Not found), SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 1422.
POSS. O-1146.
Javelle #794.  22hr 00m 26.661s + 02 21' 26.750" (1950).
22hr 02m 59.001s + 02 35' 58.698" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the PGC and CGCG only as ZWG 377.016.  Only 
other listings are NED "There is no object with this name in NED," but they do 
list ZWG 377.016. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but list it as LEDA 
67922. APL, Steinicke, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO) all correct.

IC 1424.
POSS 0-1137.
Bigourdan #231.  22hr 00m 41.821s + 10 57' 17.110" (1950).
22hr 03m 09.145s + 11 11' 49.525" (2000).
This is a single star just south following NGC 7190 and is not the very faint 
galaxy which lies south following this star.  Bigourdan measured his #231 from the 
galaxy NGC 7190 whose modern position is 22hr 03m 06.6s +11 11' 57" (2000) and 
when his offsets (+ 2.53 tsec RA and 0 arcmin 7.7 arcsec south) are applied to 
these coordinates they land on the faint star south following NGC 7190, the 
correct coordinates for the star being 22hr 03m 09.1s + 11 11' 49.5" (2000).
Listed in NGC 2000 as (Gx.) and in the MOL as (NSO).  Steinicke and APL have (= *).  
NED has"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."  
NOTE :  See IC 5160 regarding NED's error with the identity NGC 7190.

IC 1426.
POSS. O-833.
Javelle #459.  22hr 01m 13.275s - 10 09' 20.455" (1950).
22hr 03m 52.839s - 09 54' 46.721" (2000).
Not found :  No nebular image at or close to Javelle's position.  The closest 
image is that of 2 stars.  Listed in NGC 2000 as No Type and the MOL as (NSO).  
The APL has (Nothing here).  NED and Steinicke gives (Not found). SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."

IC 1429.
POSS. O-1137.
Bigourdan #232.  22hr 04m 34.669s + 09 51' 10.661" (1950).
22hr 07m 02.821s + 10 05' 51.307" (2000).
Equal to a faint star :  Bigourdan in his description states that the nebulosity 
was only suspected.
Bigourdan estimated the coordinates for his reference star which happens to be AC 
436101 22hr 06m 57.845s + 10 09'07.94" (2000) and when Bigourdan's offsets (- 4.9 
tsec RA and - 3 arcmin 17 arcsec dec.) are applied to this position after the 
proper precession rates are introduced they land upon a blank space.
Dr. Corwin has pointed out that Bigourdan incorrectly gave his RA offset as minus 
when it should have been plus (Puzzle Solution Files) and his explanation for this 
I affirm, this then gives the above coordinates and land close south following 
Corwin's stellar candidate.  As Bigourdan's offsets were estimations rather than 
actual measurements I am in agreement that IC 1429 is this faint star.  
Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NGC 2000 (No Type), and MOL 
(NSO).  NED (No object found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database." and MOL (NSO).

IC 1430 and IC 1431.
POSS. O-833.
Javelle #460.  22hr 04m 48.195s - 13 49' 38.006" (1950).
22hr 07m 29.728s -13 34' 56.654" (2000). (IC 1430) and 
#461.  22hr 04m 58.036s - 13 45' 34.599" (1950).
22hr 07m 39.519s - 13 30' 52.906" (2000). (IC 1431).
Both confirmed galaxies :  Javelle states that his reference star is DM -14 6219, 
however, this is not the star he actually used, which is a different 9.5 Mv star 
(GSC 5809-1358), which lies about 01 tmin preceeding DM -14 6219.  Due to this his 
given coordinates are incorrect and this is reflected in the data found in some of 
the modern sources.
The MCG has no listing for IC 1430 and lists IC 1431 as an "ANON." -2-56-015.  The 
NGC 2000 gives the correct identity and position for IC 1431, however, their 
coordinates for IC 1430 are based upon the erroneous historical data and there are 
no nonstellar objects at that position they give.  The MOL types both identities 
as (NSO) but gives them the incorrect Right Ascension values.  The PGC has no 
listing for IC 1430 but they do correctly identify IC 1431.  NED lists both 
identities as "There is no object with this name in NED." But they do identify the 
correct IC 1430 as NPM1G -13.0561 and the correct IC 1431 as MCG -02-56-15. SIMBAD 
has IC 1430 "Not present in the database," but list it as LEDA 936014, and correctly 
identoify IC 1431.   The APL and Steinicke have the correct identities and 
coordinates for both galaxies.

IC 1441. 
POSS. O-778. 
Bigourdan #233.  22hr 13m 07.375s + 37 03' 14.048" (1950).
22hr 15m 18.573s + 37 18' 11.499" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   This proved to be one of the most interesting investigations 
of my survey.  
MCG incorrectly makes what is IC 5191 to be IC 1441 while identifying the correct 
IC 1441 as NGC 7240.  Carlson makes IC 1441 = NGC 7240.   CGCG, UGC  "Notes," APL, 
Steinicke, NGC 2000, MOL, DSFG (NOTES to NGC 7240), NED, SIMBAD and PGC have all 
correctly identified IC 1441. 
Bigourdan observed B.233 on September 1889 and October 1895, however, Barnard, 
using the Lick Observatory's 12 inch refractor had observed and sketched the same 
field on December 5th, 1888, or almost one year prior to Bigourdan and there is 
absolutely no doubt that he was the first person to note the existence of what 
became IC 1441, (object e in his sketch).  This can easily be confirmed by 
comparison of Barnard's field sketch published in ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN 
No.4136, P.118. with the Palomar print.
Barnard noted and sketched the relative position of six objects, two of which are 
NGC 7240  (Stephan) and NGC 7242  (Stephan) and he was credited by Dreyer in the 
IC II with three discoveries, IC 1591, IC 1592 and IC 1593, however he failed to 
provide any coordinates for his discoveries which resulted in Dreyer having to 
give them common coordinates  See (IC II).  But why did Barnard not receive credit 
for IC 1441 ?  The answer is to be found in a NOTE appended to the AN. paper which 
states that the paper was not prepared for publication until June 1st, 1897 and 
also states under the date August 30th, 1906 that he had put the paper in an 
envelope nine years previously but for some unknown reason it had never been put 
in the mail.  Thus it is quite understandable that at the date of Bigourdan's 
discovery Bigourdan could not have been aware of Barnard's earlier observation.
NOTE:  Bigourdan gives his reference star a declination about 48 arcsec too far 
south.

IC 1448.
POSS. O-1180.
Javelle #472.  22hr 31m 52.716s - 13 11' 34.822" (1950).
22hr 34m 32.213s - 12 56' 03.316" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 7308 (Leavenworth).  This is one of those unfortunate 
situations in which due to the poor coordinates provided by the Leander McCormick 
observers for their NGC discoveries later observers were misled into believing 
that they were finding new objects.  The Leander McCormick position for NGC 7308 
was given as 22hr 31.2m -13 14'.6, whereas the Javelle coordinates are its true 
position.
The MCG, SIMBAD and PGC correctly equates IC 1448 with NGC 7308 (MCG -2-57-017).  
The MOL lists both identities as separate objects and makes no mention of any 
equivalency.  
The APL, NGC 2000, Steinicke, NED, and PGC correctly make the equivalency.   

IC 1450. 
POSS. O-778. 
Bigourdan #234.  22hr 35m 40.831s + 34 16' 30.745" (1950).
22hr 37m 58.345s + 34 32' 07.835" (2000). 
Equal to a double star :  Not listed in CGCG, UGC or MCG.  Listed as a "Star" in 
NGC 2000, MOL and by Carlson.  Steinicke and APL have (= *2).  NED has "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 1452.
POSS. O-800.
Bigourdan #235.  22hr 43m 29.392s + 10 36' 14.806" (1950).
22hr 45m 59.071s + 10 52' 03.758" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy : The CGCG identifies it only as ZWG 430.005 and the MCG only as 
+2-58-006  Dreyer incorrectly gives the declination as + 16 35'.2 (1950) or about 
6 degrees too large and this is copied by the declinations as given in the NGC 
2000 and MOL.  Steinicke and APL have the correct identity.  The PGC identifies 
this galaxy as MCG 2-58-6 = CGCG 430-5 and omits the IC identity.  NED has "There 
is no object with this name in NED," but does list the identity CGCG 
(ZWG. 430.005).  SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but lists it as MCG +02-
58-006.

IC 1457.
POSS. O-811.
Bigourdan #236.  22hr 52m 48.085s - 05 50' 33.144" (1950).
22hr 55m 23.740s - 05 34' 31.750" (2000).
Not found :  Unable to find any image at the given coordinates.  
Bigourdan published two observations of the immediate field.  The first in the 
COMPTES RENDUS in which he describes it as "Magnitude 13.5, appears to be a nebula 
close to BD -6 6097 which is at PA 140 degrees, distant 1 arcmin." however, I 
found nothing at this position.  His second published account is in his later work 
"OBSERVATIONS." in which he states, "Not able to see this object in any certain 
manner." therefore is it possible that as on other occasions he was referring to a 
"false image." ?
The NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson all identify it as being a star.  The PGC and MCG 
have no listing.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."  Steinicke has (Not found).  The APL has both equal to a 
star ? and Nothing here.

IC 1459.
(See IC 5265).

IC 1462.
POSS. O-821.
Bigourdan #237.  22hr 56m 06.028s + 08 10' 23.031" (1950).
22hr 58m 37.157s + 08 26' 28.388" (2000).
This is either a single or perhaps double star :  Here again Bigourdan states 
"Object of doubtful aspect and that perhaps it is simply a star."  Only modern 
listings are Steinicke (=*), APL (* or **). NED (Not found), SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).
NOTE:  Bigourdan identified his Prime reference star as BD +7.4995, however, it 
appears from his coordinates as given for his Secondary reference star (Anon-1) 
that the Primary star is actually BD +7.4955.

IC 1463.
POSS. O-826.
Engelhardt.  22hr 56m 43.735s - 10 48' 03.975" (1950).
22hr 59m 20.856s - 10 31' 57.830" (2000).
Not found. Possibly equal to a double star :
At the exact place indicated by Engelhardt's coordinates there are a pair of faint 
stars and the NGC 2000, APL and Steinicke have selected these to be what 
Engelhardt saw.  The only other listings I found were the MOL (May not exist). 
SIMBAD "Not present in the database." and NED (No object found).

IC 1465.
POSS. O-1161.
Bigourdan #238.  23hr 00m 24.624s + 16 18' 47.194" (1950).
23hr 02m 53.424s + 16 34' 57.310" (2000).
This is a double star :  Bigourdan made two observations of this object.  The 
first he described as "Taken for a nebula 13.4 Mv but might be a cluster based on 
2 stars the brightest being between 13.3 and 13.4 Mv.  After measuring there was 
found on the object lens some moisture "  
His second observation some 8 years later describes it as "Object stellar, 
accompanied perhaps by traces of nebulosity that is almost beyond seeing and whose 
existence is doubtful."  Listed in the NGC 2000 and MOL and both type it as "Open 
cluster."  Steinicke has (=*2).  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." APL has (***). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 1468.
POSS. O-811.
Javelle #482.  23hr 02m 33.078s - 03 28' 31.381" (1950).
23hr 05m 07.785s - 03 12' 18.773" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :Listed in the MCG only as "Anon." = MCG -1-58-019.  
Correctly identified in the NGC 2000 (Gx).  MOL (NSO).  RC3, Steinicke, 
NED, PGC, SIMBAD and APL.

IC 1477.
POSS. O-306.
Javelle #485.  23hr 14m 36.849s - 07 11' 04.455" (1950).
23hr 17m 12.188s - 06 54' 40.399" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 7596 (Leavenworth).
This is just one of a number of cases in which the extremely poor coordinates 
furnished for their NGC discoveries by the observers at the Leander McCormick 
Observatory later resulted in misleading other observers into thinking they had 
discovered previously unseen objects.
Leavenworth published coordinates for NGC 7596 which would have placed it at 23hr 
16.1m - 07 11'.4 or about 1.5 tmin following its correct RA and therefore it is 
quite obvious that Javelle would have considered his #485 to be an entirely 
different object.
IC 1477 fits well the description for NGC 7596 as given by Leavenworth "Pretty 
small, mag. 13.5, little elongated in PA 180, little brighter in the middle to a 
nucleus."
The MCG gives only the identity IC 1477.  The NGC 2000 (Gx) and MOL (NSO) both 
give the two identities as separate objects with declinations about 1 arcmin 
apart.  The PGC, APL, NED and Steinicke have the correct equivalency between IC 
1477 and NGC 7596. SIMBAD list both identities but does not indicate that they are 
equivalent identities.

IC 1478.
POSS. O-313.
Bigourdan #239.  23hr 15m 42.985s + 10 03' 05.461" (1950).
23hr 18m 14.505s + 10 19' 30.382" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 7594 (Common).  There is considerable confusion regarding a 
number of the identities in this group of galaxies and the major credit for 
sorting out the correct identifications belongs to Steve Gottlieb.
The confusion concerns the 4 brightest galaxies for which Dreyer assigned 5 
separate identities these being NGC 7549 (Common), IC 1478 (Bigourdan), IC 5305 
(Kobold), IC 5306 (Kobold) and IC 5307 (Kobold ).
To begin with Bigourdan mistakenly identifies NGC 7594 for what is actually IC 
5307.  This was due to Common's poor coordinates as published by Dreyer which 
suggested that NGC 7594 would be found at 23hr 15m 54s + 09 55'.3 and IC 5307 has 
coordinates of 23hr 15m 46s + 09 57'.5.  
The immediate question of course is "Why is this not NGC 7594 ?" and the answer 
was arrived at by Gottlieb who pointed out that although Common might have given 
poor coordinates for his NGC 7594 his published description ((Copernicus Vol 1, 
p.50) reads "F, R, f 3 stars in a line 90 degrees ; pointing to another fainter 
neb s." and this is not applicable to IC 5307, however, it completely matches the 
description for what Bigourdan thought was a nova (B. 239 = IC 1478) although the 
most northern of the 3 stars is actually the galaxy IC 5305.  Thus I am in 
complete agreement with Gottlieb (Personal correspondence) that IC 1478 is equal 
to NGC 7594.
This then poses a couple of interesting historical situations.  Having established 
that NGC 7594 is the same as IC 1478 then it follows that the "nebs" in Common's 
description is another IC galaxy identified as IC 5306 which was reported as a 
discovery by Kobold in 1897, however, from Common's description this galaxy was 
seen by him prior to the publication of the NGC in 1888 and therefore the credit 
for discovery really belongs to Common.  Also what Bigourdan had incorrectly taken 
to be NGC 7594 turns out to be IC 5307 (Kobold) and Bigourdan's observation was 
made in 1889, again predating Kobold's discovery date, therefore the credit for 
discovery of IC 5307, although based upon identity error, rightfully belongs to 
Bigourdan not Kobold.
The CGCG identifies its ZWG 431.038 only as IC 1478 omitting the equivalency with 
NGC 7594, this same omission occurs in the UGC.  The MCG incorrectly equates NGC 
7594 with IC 5307 and suggests that IC 1478 is equivalent with IC 5306 while the 
RC3 by placing its NGC 7594 at 5 arcmins south of its IC 1478 suggests that it has 
confused IC 5306 as being NGC 7594, these demonstrate the problems that can arise 
from not consulting all of the historical discovery data.
The NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO) both list IC 1478 and NGC 7594 as being separate 
objects.  Meanwhile the PGC is completely in error as they have NGC 7594 = IC 5306 
= IC 5307.  The RNGC incorrectly select what is IC 5307 as being RNGC 7594 and the 
DSFG is in error in stating that IC 1478 lies 4 arcmins north of NGC 7594.  The 
APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke correctly equate IC 1478 with NGC 7594. 

IC 1480.
POSS. O-313.
Bigourdan #240.  23hr 16m 27.963s + 11 03' 56.294" (1950).
23hr 18m 59.298s + 11 20' 21.835" (2000).
This is a double star :  Bigourdan described it as "Perhaps a small cluster in 
which can be distinguished 2 stars accompanied by nebulosity."  Only listings are 
Steinicke and APL (= *2),  NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (Open cluster) and MOL (Open cluster).

IC 1481.
POSS. O-316.
Spitaler N.34.  23hr 16m 52.718s + 05 37' 45.532" (1950).
23hr 19m 25.253s + 05 54' 11.409" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the UGC only as U12505.  
Correctly identified in the CGCG, Steinicke, RC3, PGC, APL, NED SIMBAD, NGC 2000 
(GX) and MOL (NSO).

IC 1482.
POSS. O-834.
Javelle #487.  23hr 18m 16.087s + 01 27' 54.969" (1950).
23hr 20m 49.519s + 01 44' 21.949" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The MCG has incorrectly made its +0-59-30 equal to IC 1482.  
This is the "Anon. ZWG 380.039."  The correct MCG identity should be +0-59-29.  
The PGC (Corrections) correctly reports this error.  Correctly identified in the 
CGCG, APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO).

IC 1483 GROUP OF GALAXIES.
POSS. O-313.
Javelle (See below for Numbers and coordinates).
Javelle #798 = IC 1483. 23hr 20m 02.171s + 11 03' 21.976" (1950).
23hr 22m 33.711s + 11 19' 50.223" (2000).
Javelle #799 = IC 1484. 23hr 20m 08.964s + 11 06' 41.478" (1950).
23hr 22m 40.500s + 11 23' 09.808" (2000).
Javelle #800 = IC 1485. 23hr 20m 16.826s + 11 05' 56.295" (1950).
23hr 22m 48.371s + 11 22' 24.721" (2000).
There is absolutely no doubt that these 3 galaxies exist exactly where Javelle 
placed them and they can be easily identified by offsetting his separation values 
from his reference star which is the 11.5 Mv star, AC #444813 at 23hr 22m 22.173s 
+ 11 21' 56.51" (2000).   
The first part of the problem is whether IC 1483 and IC 1485 are duplicate 
observations of NGC 7638 and NGC 7639 both credited to Common  by Dreyer based 
upon information Common gives in regards to another discovery NGC 7630.
In his published observations (NEW NEBULAE, Copernicus Vol. 1 P.50) Common after 
describing  No. 32 on his list which is equal to NGC 7630, remarks "There are 2 
similar nebulae within 30 arcmins south following No.32." and The IC 1483 
Group lie within this distance, the two brightest being IC 1483 and IC 1485.
Common gave no coordinate data to these 2 nebulae other than his remark and Dreyer 
when preparing the NGC just had to guess as to suitable positions so he gave a 
combined approximate coordinates to both NGC identities.
Because it is difficult to definitely establish that these are Common's two 
nebulae the equivalence with the IC identities is still debatable, however, at 
this time I am in favor of listing IC 1483 = NGC 7638 and IC 1485 = NGC 7639.
The CGCG identifies only two of the group and gives only the identities IC 1483 
and IC 1485. The MCG also lists only two IC identities , however, what 
they list as +2-59-32 = IC 1484 is actually IC 1485.  The APL and NED give the 
correct equivalent identities.  The MOL lists all 5 possible identities each with 
different coordinates based upon Dreyer's data as does the NGC 2000.
The PGC equates IC 1483 with NGC 7638 but then equates IC 1484 with NGC 7639 which 
I differ with as I believe that the correct equivalency would be IC 1485 = NGC 
7639.  Steinicke equates IC 1483 with NGC 7638 and IC 1485 with NGC 7639. SIMBAD 
correctly identifies the IC identities, but for the equivalents (NGC 7638 and NGC 
7639) it states "Not present in the database."

IC 1486.
POSS. O-316.
Bigourdan #241.  23hr 21m 22.088s + 09 22' 35.483" (1950).
23hr 23m 54.029s + 09 39' 04.891" (2000).
Equivalent to NGC 7648 (H 218-3).  Wm. Herschel gave a 1950 position for his H218-
3 of 23hr 21m 20s + 09 37' 02" and apparently this was one of Wm. Herschel's 
object that was not later re-observed by his son John and therefore his father's 
coordinates were copied directly into the GENERAL CATALOGUE (1864) as GC 4953.  
The next to observe what he surmised was H218-3 was D'Arrest who also questioned 
Herschel's declination value as he gives it as + 09 23'.6, or about 13 arcmin 
south.
Stephan in his List IX, #38. gives coordinates of 23hr 21m 21.3s + 09 23' 30", or 
essentially the same as D'Arrest.  Dreyer evidently agreed with D'Arrest as he 
gives exactly the same coordinates in his NGC, 23hr 21m 20s + 09 23'.6 but oddly 
enough never states anywhere in his 3 catalogues why he accepted this correction, 
however, in his NOTES TO SIR W. HERSCHEL'S FIRST CATALOGUE OF NEBULAE AND CLUSTERS 
(1912) he states. " 218 III. P.D. 14' too small.  Reductions correct, but probably 
an error was made in reading the scale.  If 81 be corrected to 91, the nebula 
would be 10.5 arcmin south of 58 Pegasi instead of 4 arcmin north."
In the COMPTES RENDUS for April 20th 1891 Bigourdan list as a discovery his B.241 
at coordinates of 23hr 21m 21s + 09 23'.6.  I can only assume that at the time he 
listed this as a Nova he was still debating whether H 218-3 was where both the 
Herschels had stated and that Dreyer was in error, however, by the time he 
published his OBSERVATIONS (1919) Bigourdan had changed his opinion and fully 
agreed that H 218-3 = NGC 7648 was indeed the same object as his B.241, now equal 
to IC 1486 and he states this fact in both the unsuccessful attempts he made to 
find GC 4953.
I am still a little puzzled that Dreyer did not query whether the two identities 
were for one object, however, there can be little doubt that IC 1486 is indeed 
equal to NGC 7648.
The CGCG gives only the identification NGC 7468, while the MOL gives both 
identities with different coordinates.  The UGC, Steinicke, APL, NGC 2000, NED, 
SIMBAD and the PGC correctly give the equivalency.

IC 1487.
POSS. O-313.
Swift List IX, #99.  23hr 22m 05.891s + 14 21' 50.962" (1950).
23hr 24m 36.904s + 14 38' 20.649" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :
To begin. Swift reported discovery of a nebula on Oct. 15th 1887 describing it as 
"eeeF, pS, iR, 8 mag. * follows, F* nr.nf, not 4659."  His position for this 
galaxy after precession by employing NED's Coordinate Calculator would be as shown 
above.
Dreyer in his NGC/IC, page 378, has a correction to Swift's description supplied 
by Howe which reads "For * 8 f read * 7 p 15s, 9' s".  Actually the original 
correction as given by Howe is " (IC 1487). The F * nf is of mag. 12, and is 
close to the nebula.  There is a star of mag. 11.5 at about the same distance 
south preceding.  The "* 8 F" must be a long way off, as I saw no such star in the 
vicinity.  There is a star of mag. 7, which precedes about 15 seconds, 9'.2 
south"  
Thus we have Howe reporting an observation of what he believes is Swift's #99 and 
examination of both the Palomar print and the DSS shows clearly Swift's #96 = NGC 
7649 (List VI, #96) and south following is the image of what Howe identifies as 
being Swift #99 = IC 1487. This can be definitely established by employing Howe's 
offsets to the 7 mag. star south preceding.
Swift had discovered NGC 7649 in 1886 and the NED Calculator precessed coordinates 
for Swift's given coordinates are 23hr 21m 45.920s + 14 22' 23.272" (1950) or 23hr 
24m 16.907s + 14 38' 52.750" (2000), this gives separation values between the two 
galaxies of 20.971 tsec RA and 33.310 arcsec Dec. (based upon the 1950 positions).
The NED precise position for NGC 7649 is 23hr 21m  49.128s + 14 22' 20.39" (1950) 
and when Swift's separation values are applied the resultant precise coordinates 
for his IC 1487 would be 23hr 22m 10.099s + 14 21' 47.08" (1950) and this is 
exactly where Howe's candidate for the identity IC 1487 is located, therefore I 
see no reason to consider that it is anything other than Swift's Object #99 = IC 
1487.
The CGCG, UGC (Notes to U12579 = NGC 7649) NGC 2000, MOL and DSFG all identify 
these two galaxies as being NGC 7649 and IC 1487 respectively, however, the MCG 
(+2-59-37), RC3 and apparently the PGC (#71356) have identified a galaxy 
having a declination about 2 arcmins NORTH of NGC 7649 as being IC 1487, while the 
APL, Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED equate IC 1487 with NGC 7649.
Dr. Harold Corwin again at my request examined the problem and through a series of 
e-mail presented to me his findings which suggest to him that IC 1487 is equal to 
NGC 7649.  The main points of his argument are
(1).  "Of the two stars close to Howe's galaxy, the brighter is the one to the 
south-west.  Yet the only star "near" the galaxy that Swift describes is north-
east.  Why does Swift not also comment on the brighter star?"  
(2).  "Howe was unable to find Swift's 8th mag star following the galaxy, but 
instead refers to the 7th magnitude star 9 arcmin west.  Swift does not mention 
this star in his description (though it might well have; it is closer to the 
galaxy than a star he does mention."
(3).  "There is a star just under 3 arcmin to the north -east of NGC 7649.  
Remembering that Swift was observing with a telescope/eyepiece combination that 
gave a field of 32 arcmin across, this star certainly qualifies as "near" 
the galaxy since it is less than 10 percent of the field diameter away."
(4).  "The 8th magnitude star Swift notes is about 10 arcmin east and 1.5 arcmin 
north of NGC 7649.  Again this is well within his field of view."  
I would disagree that the star Dr. Corwin refers to is of 8th mag.  It is GSC 
1168-1083 and has a Mp mag. of 10.702 in Tycho 2, or a Mp of 10.81 (NED), 
therefore I accept that it is more likely that Howe's 7th magnitude star is the 
one Swift mentions, only he has the direction reversed, something he has done on 
other occasions.
(5).  "The quality of Swift's positions is erratic, and I (Dr. Corwin) always give 
them lower weight than his descriptions and notes, especially where he mentions 
nearby field stars."
(6).  "Also, since Swift does not mention NGC 7649 in his observation of IC 1487, 
we may assume that he was not aware of it during the later observation."
Thus the authorities are divided as to the correct identity of IC 1487.  
I believe that the galaxy ZWG. 431-056, the one Howe identifies as being IC 1487 
is Swift's Object #99, List IX.

IC 1488.
POSS. O-313.
Javelle #801. 23hr 23m 07.880s + 15 04' 46.285" (1950).
23hr 25m 38.833s + 15 21' 16.661" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The entire credit for solving the identity of IC 1488 belongs 
to some outstanding investigations made by Dr. Harold Corwin who at my request 
examined the problem and unearthed the key clue to establish without doubt the 
valid independent identity of this galaxy.
Javelle obtained the position of his #801 by offsetting from a reference star he 
believed to be the 9th magnitude star DM +14 4992, measuring separations from his 
reference star of + 1 tmin 30.93 tsecs and + 0' 22".8 (corrected for NPD). which 
from the coordinates he gives for his reference star would place his object about 
2.5 arcmins directly north of NGC 7653.  At this position there is no nebular 
image visible and because of this the MCG, PGC, NGC 2000 (No Type), SIMBAD and NED 
have equated IC 1488 with NGC 7653 while the UGC gives IC 1488 = NGC 7653 ? even 
though in a footnote to his description Javelle states "Distinct from NGC 7653 which 
was measured." 
Because of this statement I was reluctant to accept the modern equivalent identity 
but was unable to offer a valid solution and it was now that Dr. Corwin found the 
answer to the problem which resulted from his checking on the supposed DM 
reference star.
By starting with the original 1855 coordinates for DM +14 4992 he found out 
through precession that from its 1950 position by applying Javelle's separation 
values IC 1488 would be at 23hr 25m 31s + 15 00' 17" which is not anywhere near to 
NGC 7653, therefore Javelle must have identified his reference star incorrectly.  
Next he found that there is a star, DM +14 4982 which would give better agreement 
with Javelle's stated position, however, this star has a magnitude of 11.4 which 
Javelle would not have mistaken for a 9th magnitude star such as he made his 
measurements from, therefore were there any other possibilities ?  
Corwin noticed that in the same field as NGC 7653, but not at the coordinates as 
given by Javelle, there were 2 elongated galaxies, one being UGC 12590 and a 
fainter uncatalogued one and when he applied Javelle's offsets to this fainter 
galaxy he was within 8-9 arcsec of a 9.4 magnitude star, DM + 14 4986 equal to AC 
#618377.  Furthermore, this galaxy is extended in a PA closely in keeping with 
Javelle's description which states, elongated in the direction of the meridian 
(north and south).
I think that there can be no doubt that Corwin has admirably demonstrated that 
Javelle mistakenly confused what is DM +14 4992 for what is actually DM +14 4986 
and that the extended galaxy pointed out by Corwin is what Javelle observed and 
identified as his # 801.  Therefore IC 1488 is an entirely separate galaxy from 
NGC 7653 and the above modern authorities are incorrect, while although the MOL 
shows IC 1488 at the incorrect Dreyer coordinates while also having a 
typographical error in that it identifies IC 1488 as IC 1788.
Steinicke has correctly identified IC 1488.
 
IC 1490.
POSS. O-306.
Swift List X, #52.  23hr 26m 28.353s - 04 24' 29.371" (1950).
23hr 29m 02.810s - 04 07' 56.715" (2000).
(See IC 1524).
 
IC 1495.
POSS. O-1152.  
Javelle #491.  23hr 28m 11.116s - 13 45' 40.135" (1950).
23hr 30m 47.024s - 13 29' 06.450" (2000).
This is equal to IC 5327 (Barnard) :  
Barnard gave coordinates of 23hr 27m 43s - 13 51'.5 for IC 5327, however, his 
description about the 11th magnitude star 1 arcmin following is a perfect match 
for IC 1495 and it was probably due to his poorly arrived at coordinates that made 
him think he had discovered a nova.
The MCG and NED give the single identity IC 1495 and NED has for IC 5327 "No Object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD correctly equates both identities.  The NGC 2000 and 
MOL both give the two identities as separate and also at the historical positions.  
The RC3, PGC, APL and Steinicke all have the correct equivalency.

IC 1497.
POSS. O-313.
Bigourdan #242.  23hr 26m 18.298s +11 42' 40.101" (1950).
23hr 28m 50.083s +11 59' 12.625" (2000).
Unable to confirm :  At the position as given by Bigourdan there is no nonstellar 
image.  Bigourdan employed as his reference star the 8.5 Mv  W1-424 which is equal 
to AC #445493 at 23hr 28m 40.709s +11 56' 43.99"  (2000).  His offsets are + 9.37 
tsec RA and +2 arcmin 28.4 arcsec Dec. which results in a position for his #242 of 
23hr 28m 50.079s +11 59' 12.39" (2000).
Only other listings found were APL and Steinicke (Not found), NGC 2000 (No type) and 
MOL NSO).
NOTE:  Bigourdan first published this object's discovery in COMPTES RENDUS.APRIL 
20TH 1891, in which he gives it coordinates of 23hr 28m 52.9s + 12 00' 45.178" 
(1950), which  are considerably different than those as given in his later 
OBSERVATIONS.  However, at neither nominal position is there the image of any 
nonstellar object. NED has "there is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."

IC 1499.
POSS. O-788.
Javelle #492.  23hr 29m 20.889s - 13 43' 06.779" (1950).
23hr 31m 56.709s - 13 26' 32.433" (2000).
Not found :  The closest image to Javelle's position is a faint double star and 
the NGC 2000, APL and Steinicke have each identified this double star as being IC 
1499 and this may very well be correct, however, I at this time withhold 
acceptance only due to Javelle's description which is "Pretty bright, Pretty 
large, Irregular figure," which to me does not sound like what Javelle would have 
stated if he was referring to the double star in question especially as he had 
just minutes previously discovered IC 1495 (measured from the same reference star) 
and described it as "F, S, lbM."
The only other modern listings found were MOL (NSO).  NED "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 1502.
POSS. O-1210. 
Swift List X,#56.  23hr 34m 13.647s + 75  22' 42.357" (1950).
23hr 36m 19.594s + 75 39' 18.832" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  The UGC incorrectly identifies its U12105, 22hr 34.2m + 75 
23'.0 as being IC 1502 while also correctly identifying its U12706, 23hr 34.1m + 
75 23'.0 as being IC 1502.  This error is pointed out in the PGC.  The CGCG, APL, 
PGC, Steinicke, RC3, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (Galaxy) and MOL (NSO) correctly identify 
IC 1502 while the DSFG has no listing.

IC 1508.
POSS. O-318.
Javelle #803.  23hr 43m 22.456s + 11 47' 03.017" (1950).
23hr 45m 55.273s + 12 03' 43.262" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in MCG only as + 2-60-16.  Correctly identified in 
CGCG, RC3, NED, SIMBAD, Steinieke, UGC, PGC, APL, NGC 2000 and MOL.

IC 1511. 
POSS. O-779. Bigourdan #243.  23hr 48m 28.154s + 26 47' 08.239" (1950).
23hr 51m 00.399s + 27 03' 49.682" (2000). 
It is the north following component of a coarse double star: Bigourdan employed 
the south preceding component as his reference star  (Anon.b2. Mv. 12.5 equal to 
GSC2.2 12323237).   CGCG, UGC, NGC 2000, MOL, Carlson, SIMBAD and PGC all equate IC 
1511 with NGC 7767, however, Bigourdan was not confusing NGC 7767 which he also 
observed and measured during the same observation.  He placed B.243 to be 6s 
following and 2' 8" south of NGC 7767.  Correctly identified in the APL and 
Steinicke as (=*).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."

IC 1512. 
POSS. O-779.
Bigourdan #244. 23hr 48m 29.386s + 26 44' 59.017"(1950).
23hr 51m 01.637s + 27 01' 40.465" (2000). 
Equal to a 13 mag. star :  Described as such by Bigourdan and that he thought that 
perhaps it had accompanying nebulosity.  CGCG, UGC MCG have no listing for this 
identity.  NGC 2000 gives no Type.  MOL lists as  (Nonstellar Object).  APL and 
Steinicke give (=*).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."
 
IC 1513.
POSS. O-318.
Javelle #804.  23hr 50m 56.237s +11 02' 21.139" (1950).
23hr 53m 29.548s + 11 19' 03.065" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the MCG only as + 2-60-24.  Correctly identified 
in the CGCG, UGC, APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, RC3, NGC 2000 (GX), MOL (NSO) 
and DSFG(Notes to NGC 7774).

IC 1514.
POSS. O-788.
Palisa.  23hr 51m 41.921s - 13 51' 57.788" (1950).
23hr 54m 16.169s - 13 35' 15.589" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 7776 (Stone).
Another of the Leander McCormick errors.  Stone's coordinates for NGC 7776 are 
23hr 47.1m and-13 40'.0 (+ or -), (1950), which are about as inaccurate as can be 
expected even from this source.  The only evidence to make the equivalency that I 
am aware of is that Stone gave NGC 7776 a major axis PA of 315 degrees and IC 1514 
has a similar PA.  This plus the expected inaccuracy of the Stone positional data 
pretty well establishes the equivalency.
The NGC 2000 gives both identities at their historical coordinates, typing IC 1514 
as (Gx) and NGC 7776 as (nonexistent?).  The MOL also gives the historical 
coordinates for both identities while making IC 1514 (NSO) and NGC 7776 (Non-
existing object).  The MCG identifies its -2-60-22 only as IC 1514 while equating 
NGC 7776 incorrectly with NGC 7761 = IC 5361 (which see).  The APL, PGC and 
Steinicke have the correct identities which equate IC 1514 with NGC 7776.  NED 
lists the identity IC 1514 and equates it with NGC 7776. SIMBAD gives the two 
identities for the same object, however, they do not indicate that they are 
equivalents.

IC 1523.
(See IC 5368).

IC 1524.
POSS. O-1198.
Safford #87.  23hr 56m 56.996s - 04 26' 10.661" (1950).
23hr 59m 30.786s - 04 09' 16.107" (2000).
Equal to IC 1490 (Swift List X, #52). :  Safford saw only one object in the field 
which is the northern of two galaxies having almost identical RA and separated by 
about 4 arcmin declination.  Unfortunately he omitted to give any description, 
however, the more northern of the pair is brighter by about 1.5 magnitude (MCG) 
and therefore the more likely candidate.
Swift gives his discovery a 1950 position of 23hr 26m 28.353s - 04 24' 29.371' 
which is an error in RA of roughly 30 tmin, which Dr. Corwin believes results from 
a typographical error in his published data and with which I am now in agreement.  
As Corwin points out Swift's description, "vF star close north, 6 pB stars of 
equal magnitude preceding," nails down the correct identity of IC 1490 and it is 
the same galaxy as Safford found, namely IC 1524.
The MCG lists both galaxies identifying its -1-1-012 as being IC 1524, however, 
this is the galaxy to the south, while the correct IC 1524 is actually MCG -1-1-
011, at about 4 arcmin north at coordinates of 23hr 56m 37.7s - 04 24' 18".  The 
RC3 and PGC both incorrectly make IC 1524 equal to the southern of the two 
galaxies and state that it is equal to MCG -1-1-012 , and the NGC 2000 gives the 
declination as -04 25'.7 and the MOL (NSO) as -04 25' 56" both being closer to the 
correct object.
The APL has the correct identity and coordinates. NED and SIMBAD appears to be the 
only one who not only has the correct coordinates but also points out correctly that 
IC 1524 is equal to MCG -1-1-011 and not MCG -1-10-012.  Steinicke has the correct 
IC 1524 (northern) galaxy but equates it with MCG -1-1-012. He correctly identifies 
IC 1490.
  
IC 1525. 
POSS. O- 839. 
Swift List IX,#100.  23hr 57m 27.870s + 46 35' 50.510" (1950).
01hr 00m 01.235s + 46 52' 32.809" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  Swift's RA off by about 44 tsec too large.  Incorrectly listed 
in MCG as + 8-1-17, should be + 8-1-16.  RC3 Notes make IC 1525 = MCG + 8-1-16.  
CGCG, UGC, APL, Steinicke, PGC, NGC 2000, MO, NED and PGC correct. SIMBAD 
incorrectly equates it with MCG+08-01-017.

IC 1528.
POSS. O-1198.
Safford #88.  00hr 02m 30.774s - 07 23' 46.344" (1950).
00hr 05m 04.382s - 07 07' 03.838" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy:  To begin with Dreyer in the IC I incorrectly gives the 1860 
declination for IC 1528 as - 03 53.8 (93 53'.8 NPD) but Safford in his published 
list gives the 1950 declination as - 07 23'.7 or 4 degrees farther south.  
Dreyer's error can be verified as in a Special Appendix to the NGC (pps 235-237) 
Dreyer correctly lists the 1860 declination as -07 53'.8.
Due to Dreyer's error the NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO) give it declination values 
based upon Dreyer's IC I. Steinicke has correct identity and gives the correct 
declination based on Safford's data.  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."  However, they do identify it 
as MCG -01-01-028 at 00hr 02m 31.744s - 07 22' 18.57 (1950).
The MCG identifies it as an "Anon.= -01-01-028 and PGC identifies it only as PGC 
000312 = MCG -01-01-028. APL has correct identity. SIMBAD has "Not present in the 
database," but identify the correct object as MCG-01-01-028.

IC 1530. POSS. O-1257. 
Bigourdan #357.  00hr 04m 44.785s + 32 19' 51.696" (1950).
00hr 07m 19.667s + 32 36' 33.687" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 7831  (Swift List II, #1) :   CGCG , UGC and MCG identify 
only as IC 1530.  NGC 2000 and MOL list both as separate galaxies.  The PGC, 
Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and APL correctly give the equivalency.  RC3 gives only NGC 
7831.
NOTE:  Bigourdan searched for NGC 7831 at Dreyer's and Swift's given coordinates 
and states that he was unsuccessful, adding that at 59 tsec following the NGC 
position for NGC 7831 was where his # 357 existed.

IC 1533.
POSS. O-1198.
Swift List XII, #2.  00hr 08m 03.368s - 07 41' 36.207" (1950).
00hr 10m 36.762s - 07 24' 54.519" (2000).
Not found :  Nothing in the vicinity.  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No 
Type), MOL (NSO), Steinicke and NED (Not found), SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database" and APL which states (Not found at nominal position. Possibly = MCG -1-1-
44?), however, it should be pointed out that the MCG gives this galaxy the position 
of 00hr 07.75m - 07 22'.0

IC 1537.
Swift List XI, #2.  00hr 13m 30.672s - 39 35' 31.202" (1950).
00hr 16m 00.889s - 39 18' 50.527" (2000).
This is a large bright region in the south following part of the large galaxy NGC 
55 (Dunlop).
As Swift evidently was unable to see the nebulous connection between his Nova and 
the bright central part of NGC 55 he must have concluded that his #2 was an 
entirely separate object.  Photographs of NGC 55 clearly show the object he is 
referring to and it lies within the following broad extension.
The NGC 2000 gives no type and the MOL gives NSO.  Neither mention any association 
as part of NGC 55.  The APL, Steinicke, ESO and DSFG correctly list it as a part 
of NGC 55.  The PGC equates it with ESO294-1.  NED types it as being a galaxy with 
a NOTE "Eastern portion of NGC 0055." SIMBAD types it as "Galaxy" in NGC 55

IC 1538. 
POSS. O-1257. 
Bigourdan #358.  00hr 15m 24.706s + 29 45' 09.565" (1950).
00hr 18m 01.266s + 30 01' 49.262" (2000).
Not found. :   No nebular image at the coordinates obtained by offsetting from 
Bigourdan's reference object (NGC 68).  Carlson in her 1940 paper lists it as 
being a star.  
The NGC 2000 Types it as  [?] while the MOL states  "May not exist."  The CGCG, 
MCG, UGC and RC3 correctly have no listing for this identity.  Steinicke has (Not 
found).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." APL has "Not found at 
nominal position". SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 1539. 
POSS. O-1257. 
Bigourdan #359.  00hr 15m 46.776s + 29 48' 29.460" (1950).
00hr 18m 23.404s + 30 05' 09.038" (2000). 
This is a duplicate observation of NGC 70 discovered by Lord Rosse :   Both the 
MCG and RC3 give only the identity NGC 70 without mentioning the equivalency.  The 
CGCG, Steinicke, APL, NGC 2000, MOL, NED, SIMBAD and UGC all show IC 1539 = NGC 70 
as do both Carlson and the PGC.

IC 1547. 
POSS. O-1188. 
Bigourdan #360.  00hr 18m 59.449s + 22 18' 48.564" (1950).
00hr 21m 35.688s + 22 35' 27.813" (2000).

IC 1547 Field:
North is up and Preceding right.

Possible identity:
For his Object #360 (IC 1547) his reference star is called "J" and it is equal to 
a 12th Rmag star listed in GSC 2.2 as being N3231023374 at 00hr 21m 39.668 + 22 32' 
55.23 (2000) which when precessed back to the year 1897, the discovery date for his 
Object #360, results in coordinates for the star of 00hr 16m 18.387s +21 58' 38.111"
From this position Bigourdan's estimated (not measured), offsets are - 4 tsec RA 
and - 2 arcmin 32 arcsec Dec. or coordinates of 00hr 16m 14.387s + 21 56' 06.111" 
(1897) or 00hr 21m 35.688 + 22 30' 23.23s (2000), at which position no image 
exists, however, if his declination offset sign is changed to + 2 arcmin 32 arcsec 
then the 1897 position for IC 1547 becomes 00hr 16m 14.387 +22 01' 10.111" or 00hr 
21m 35.664s + 22 35' 27.813" (2000) and these land just off the south following 
tip of an extended spiral listed in the MCG as +04-02-010 and in the PGC as 
#001384.  
NED gives this galaxy coordinates of 00h 21m 33.70s + 22 35' 35.2 (2000) and it is 
this galaxy that I believe is what Bigourdan may have seen and recorded as being 
Object #360 equal to IC 1547.  It is an 15.8 magnitude galaxy and thus just within 
the capabilities of Bigourdan's telescope.
Only listings for the identity IC 1547 are NGC 2000 (?).  MOL (May not exist).  
Carlson (Not found on Mt. Wilson plate), Steinicke and NED (Not found) and APL 
(Not found at nominal position).  The RNGC, PGC and Simbad have incorrectly 
identified the galaxy MCG +04-02-010 as being NGC 84, which is actually only a star.
 

 


IC 1554.
Stewart #110.  00hr 30m 22.255s - 32 18' 25.857" (1950).
00hr 32m 50.233s - 32 01' 52.649" (2000).
Not found at nominal position :  Stewart describes this as "vF, vS, eeE at 170-175 
degrees, sbM," however, at his position no such object exists.
The APL (GHD2) identifies IC 1554 as a galaxy at 00hr 30m 39.5s - 32 32' 04" and 
this same galaxy is also identified as being IC 1554 by the NGC 2000, PGC, MOL, 
NED, SIMBAD and the ESO who also equates it with the MCG "Anon." -5-2-015.  
Steinicke has (Not found).
In order for this to be Stewart's object it would require that he made an error of 
almost 14 arcmin, something that would be extremely unusual for him, also the 
galaxy identified as being IC 1554 by the above modern authorities does not 
resemble Stewart's description, especially as to the position angle of the major 
axis.
NOTE:  After examining the galaxy selected as being IC 1554 by the modern 
authorities I expressed my doubts of its validity to Dr. Harold Corwin and he has 
informed me that now he also doubts that it is what Stewart was describing and 
that he now also will list IC 1554 as being Not found.

IC 1556.
POSS. O-1203.
Swift List XI, #4.  00hr 32m 32.041s - 09 50' 27.081" (1950).
00hr 35m 04.114s - 09 33' 55.443" (2000).
Not found :  At the coordinates as given by Swift there is no nebular image, 
however, the APL has suggested a candidate at a declination of -09 38' 35" which 
is not excessively out of line when dealing with many of Swift's given positions.  
The only other modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist). Steinicke, 
SIMBAD and NED (Not found).

IC 1557.
POSS. O-314.
Howe List III, #1  00hr 33m 01.110s - 03 09' 09.366" (1950).
00hr 35m 34.337s - 02 52' 38.046" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The MCG, NGC 2000 and PGC incorrectly equate this identity 
with NGC 161 and the MCG additionally incorrectly makes its -1-2-36 = NGC 161 = IC 
1557 and its -1-2-37 = Anon., but it is this Anon. that is the correct IC 1557.  
The PGC also makes MCG -1-2-37 = Anon.
Howe describes IC 1557 as being in the same field as NGC 161 pointing out that it 
is "Attended by a star of mag. 14, a trifle south, and by another, which follows 
the nebula closely," and this is exactly what one  finds on the DSS for the galaxy 
MCG -1-2-37.
The MOL (NSO), APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke correctly show IC 1557 to be a 
separate galaxy from NGC 161.

IC 1559.
POSS. O-1188. 
Bigourdan #245.  00hr 34m 13.108s + 23 42' 33.600." (1950).
00hr 36m 51.431s + 23 59' 03.959" (2000). 
This galaxy makes up part of a double system with NGC 169  (D'Arrest & Rosse) :   
Dreyer in the IC II credits it to Lord Rosse, Bigourdan and Javelle  (J.819).  
Although it is identified only by its IC number there can be no doubt that 
it was first recorded by Rosse on September 18th, 1857 which means that it should 
have received a separate NGC identity, instead it will have to remain as an IC 
object, however, Dreyer later realizing this omission did at least credit Rosse in 
his IC II. 
The CGCG gives NGC 169 + IC 1559.  UCG lists as in contact with NGC 169 while the 
RC3 makes it a close pair with NGC 169.  MCG identifies it as 169 b and the DSFG 
"Notes" make it = 169 a.   NGC 2000 and MOL give correct identity.  APL, PGC, NED 
and Steinicke have correct identity. SIMBAD incorrectly equate it with NGC 169.
NOTE: Bigourdan gives his declination offset from what he describes as "Nucleus 
A", which is NGC 169, as + 0.21.9 arcsec, this should be changed to read - 0.21.9 
arcsec.

IC 1560.
POSS. O-591.
Bigourdan #361.  00hr 35m 04.514s + 02 23' 10.855" (1950).
00hr 37m 38.731s + 02 39' 40.792" (2000).
Not found :  Could not detect any nebular image at Bigourdan's nominal position.  
Bigourdan in his description queries whether it might be NGC 164, however, I think 
that this is unlikely.
Only listings are APL (Nothing here,possibly = NGC 164 ?)., Steinicke and NED (Not 
found), NGC 
2000 (No Type) = NGC164? and MOL (NSO). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 1567.
POSS. O-915.
Howe.  00hr 36m 59.767s + 06 20' 30.091" (1950).
00hr 39m 34.783s + 06 36' 58.624" (2000).
Unable to confirm :  At Howe's declination position no nebular image exists and 
Howe states that in an attempt to see it some 2 years later he was unsuccessful., 
however in a notation he adds that this object, with 3 others he lists, were not 
included in his regular list due to their positions not being very accurate.  Only 
modern listings are Steinicke who equates it with a faint galaxy (Leda 073395 at 
00hr 37m 01.69s + 06 23'26" Mp 15.0), (1950), or about 2.9 arcmin north of Howe's 
position and this certainly is a most viable candidate. The APL equates it with IC 
1565.  Only other listings are NED "There is no object with this name in NED." but 
they do list LEDA 073395.  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database."
NOTE: In Steinicke's latest update he now equates IC 1567 with IC 1565.

IC 1570.
POSS. O-915.
Javelle #824.  00hr 37m 58.944s + 06 28' 46.201" (1950).
00hr 40m 34.020s + 06 45' 14.023" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The MOL has a typographical error in its declination value 
giving it as + 09 28' 48".  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." 
while listing the correct object as LEDA 073426.   Only other listings are NGC 
2000 (No Type),SIMBAD "Not present in the database," but lists it as [D80]ACO7623. 
APL and Steinicke all at the correct coordinates.

IC 1572.
POSS. O-903.
Bigourdan #363.  00hr 38m 34.757s + 16 11' 42.194" (1950).
00hr 41m 11.906s + 16 28' 09.501"  (2000).
This is a star located just off the south following end of NGC 213 :
Bigourdan's reference star is equal to GSC2.2 #N3231111293 at 00hr 41m 09.345s + 
16 21' 11.57s (2000) and Bigourdan's offsets are given as + 2.5 tsec RA and - 6 
arcmin 58 arcsec Dec. at which position no image is found, however, by reversing 
the declination offset to read + 6 arcmin 58 arcsec the position lands on the star 
immediately off the south following end of NGC 213.
Bigourdan states in his observational description that his #363 lies a little in 
front of NGC 213, and this combined with the reversed declination offset sign 
suggests to me that he was confused as to the orientation of the field as the star 
is actually a little "behind" NGC 213, this being confirmed by the reduction 
figures working from his primary reference star (BD +15 101) through his secondary 
reference star (Anon. 2 equal to GSC2.2 #N3231111293), plus his offsets and the 
DSS photograph. 
Only modern listings are Steinicke (=*). APL and NED (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and MOL (NSO), also the MOL has a typographical error in the identity giving it 
incorrectly as IC 1872.  SIMBAD "Not present in the datacase."

IC 1577.
POSS. O-1206.
Barnard.  00hr 42m 04.356s - 08 24'40.980" (1950).
00hr 44m 36.269s - 08 08' 16.174" (2000). (Dreyer).
No nebular image at the nominal position :  There is a good possibility that this 
is equal to IC 48 which is also credited to Barnard and this equivalency is 
presented by Dr. Corwin in his IC CORRECTIONS (which see).  Steinicke also in his 
IC DATABASE FILES makes this same equivalency.  The PGC also equates IC 1577 with 
IC 48 as does NED.  Only other modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO) both giving the Dreyer based coordinates.  SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 1580. 
POSS.O-601. 
Bigourdan #364.  00hr 43m 40.169s + 29 40' 05.085" (1950).
00hr 46m 21.397s + 29 56' 28.171" (2000). 
This is a double star :
Bigourdan states that his reference star is BD +29 133 and gives it coordinates 
derived from the Bonner Durchmunsterung that would compute to 00hr 46m 20.079s +29 
53' 06.305 (2000), however, there is a 1 arcmin too large error in the declination 
which is reflected in Bigourdan's data.
When the field is examined BD +29 133 (equal to AC #860223 at 00hr 46m 20.566s + 
29 52' 01.45" (2000).), is easily found and when Bigourdan's offsets are applied 
(- 0.8 tsec RA and + 2 arcmin Dec) they land on a blank space, but there is 
another star (AC #860229 at 00hr 46m 22.183s + 29 54' 28.15 2000.)) of similar 
magnitude and when the same offsets are applied to this star they land on a double 
star.
The southern of the two stars is definitely BD +29 133 but I believe that 
Bigourdan was actually employing as his reference star the northern of the pair as 
he states in his description that the reference star has a companion of 9.5 Mv. 
Situated at - 2 tsec RA and -2,5 arcmin Dec. which clearly demonstrates that he is 
employing as his reference star the more northern star, which makes his #364 equal 
to the double star.    
NGC 2000 gives no Type while the MOL lists as  (Nonstellar Object).   It is not 
listed in any of the other catalogues other than the original IC II, Steinicke 
(= *2). SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL identifies it as **, but give a 
declination about 1 arcmin 13 arcsec too far south.

IC 1583.
POSS O-857.
Javelle #826.  00hr 44m 31.346s + 22 48'03.972" (1950).
00hr 47m 10.726s + 23 04' 26.371" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in MCG only as +4-3-1.  Correctly listed in CGCG, PGC, 
APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  Not listed in UGC.

IC 1589.
Swift List XI, #6.  00hr 49m 08.969s - 34 44' 09.624" (1950).
00hr 51m 32.675s - 34 27' 50.983" (2000).
This is a double star :  Swift gives a very interesting Note in his List XI 
concerning this discovery and another, his #27 (IC 1740, which see).  It reads 
"These are very singular nebulae, and are new experiences to me.  They resemble a 
pretty bright double star, each component being an exceedingly small nebulous 
disk, like an imaginary double nebulous Uranus, distant about 5 or 6 arcsec."
When Swift's coordinates are produced on the DSS they show only a blank space with 
a very faint star close, however, at about 26 tsec following and about 2.5 arcmin 
north there is a beautiful double star, easily visible whose components are almost 
touching and they are of similar magnitude and it is my belief that this is what 
Swift is referring to as his #6 = IC 1589.
It should be remembered that the latitude from which he was observing at this time 
he gives as - 34 20', which means that the area he was examining would be at a 
very low elevation and therefore it would not likely give the clearest of images 
and that such an effect could produce an image of this double star fitting his 
description.
The NGC 2000 lists IC 1589 as (No Type) and the MOL as (NSO).  The APL, Steinicke 
and ESO each correctly make IC 1589 = **.  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED."  SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 1591.
POSS. O-1199.
Stewart #123.  00hr 49m 39.668s - 22 56' 40.063" (1950).
00hr 52m 07.233s - 22 40' 22.069" (2000). 
This is a duplicate observation of NGC 276 (Muller II) :  Again this is an example 
of the poor positional data which shows that Muller's RA is in error by being 
about 01.1 tmin too small, thus misleading both Stewart and Dreyer.  The 
equivalency is correctly listed in the MCG, NGC 2000, PGC, APL, SIMBAD, NED, ESO and 
Steinicke.  The MOL gives no equivalency but does give the same coordinates to 
both identities.

IC 1593. 
POSS.O-601. 
Bigourdan #367.  00hr 51m 56.369s + 32 14' 54.895" (1950).
00hr 54m 39.894s + 32 31' 10.236" (2000). 
It is a double star whose components appear visually to be in contact :  Bigourdan 
describes it as between 13.4 and 13.5 Mv and that it is without detail, also 
describing the sky condition as bad, making the observation in poor conditions.
The NGC 2000 (No Type), APL and Steinicke = **.  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED." and the MOL has (Nonstellar Object).  SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."


IC 1601.
POSS. O-1199.
Stewart #129.  00hr 53m 08.780s - 24 25' 43.380" (1950).
00hr 55m 35.444s - 24 09' 28.829" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy ;  The MCG incorrectly places its IC 1601 (-4-03-032) as being 0.1 
m of RA preceding the companion galaxy (-4-03-033).  It should be following the 
companion. The APL,NED, SIMBAD, Steinicke, SIMBAD, RC3 and ESO have the correct 
data.

IC 1604.
POSS. O-906.
Swift List XII, #4.  00hr 55m 28,902s - 16 43' 45.784" ??? (1950).
00hr 57m 57.774s - 16 27' 33.758" ??? (2000).
Not found :  There would appear to be several differences of opinion on this 
identity.  At Swift's given coordinates there is no nebular image, however, 
Swift's description "pF, vS, 7.5 mag star north preceding, F * near south 
preceding" does give the investigator something with which to work.  Dr. Corwin in 
his APL states "Not found" and coordinates of 00hr 55.5m -16 30' (1950)    
Meanwhile the MCG gives -3-3-09 = IC 1604 ? at 00hr 55.0m - 16 47.0'  NED gives 00hr 
55m 30s -16 30.0' (1950) and a NOTE stating "Nominal position; no galaxy nearby 
matches IC description."   SIMBAD has IC 1604 GALAXY, and equates it with IRAS 
F00548-1646 and 1950 coordinates 00hr 54m 50s -16 46.9', however, there is no 
nonstellar image visible on the DSS.  The MOL gives (NSO) at 00hr 55m 29s -
16 31'.0  Steinicke and APL give (Not found), while Dreyer questions whether IC 1604 
might possibly be a duplicate observation of NGC 333 which he gives a position of 
00hr 56m 21s - 16 48'.8 

IC 1606.
POSS. O-1204.
Swift List XI, #7.  00hr 55m 52.119s - 12 26' 58.095" (1950).
O0hr 58m 22.270s - 12 10' 46.537" (2000).
Nothing found at nominal position :  Only modern listings are APL (Nominal 
Position, nothing here), Steinicke (Not found), NED "There is no object with this 
name in NED."  SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 1613.
POSS. O-1196.
Wolf (no number).  01hr 00m 37.282s + 01 41' 06.068 (1950). (Dreyer).
01hr 03m 11.597s + 01 57' 12.279" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  A very unusual looking galaxy due to it being a low surface 
brightness Irregular belonging to the Local Group.  It is very large and shows a 
large number of resolved stars, therefore it is difficult to give an exact 
position for it , the best is probably that as given in the APL which is 1hr 02m 
13.4s + 01 51'.00"  I can only assume that Dreyer obtained his coordinates from 
Wolf but they are off significantly, not landing on any part of the galaxy.
Correctly identified in the CGCG, MCG, UGC, PGC, APL, SIMBAD, Steinicke, NED, RC3, 
NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO).  The error only involving the Dreyer positional data.

IC 1627.
Stewart #140.  01hr 06m 01.848s - 46 31' 57.704" (1950).
01hr 08m 15.330s - 46 15' 57.571" (2000).
Not found :   At the nominal position no nebular image exists, the closest image 
is that of a 11th mag. star, however, the APL, PGC, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (Gx), 
Steinicke, NED and the ESO have each identified the galaxy ESO 243-G034 at 01hr 05m 
57s - 46 21'.6 as being IC 1627 and this galaxy does fit Stewart's description "veE, 
PA of major axis 135 degrees" and therefore is an excellent candidate.
Although Stewart's normal level of positional error would be much less than the 10 
arcmin required here it is conceivable that perhaps this is a typographical error.
The MOL has (NSO, at the historical coordinates).

IC 1639.
POSS. O-1259.
Javelle #840.  01hr 09m 13.153s - 00 55' 47.324" (1950).
01hr 11m 46.621s - 00 39' 51.875" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :   The MCG has incorrectly identified its 0-4-31 as being IC 
1640 but this is IC 1639.  This error pointed out in the Notes to U00750 in the UGC.  
Correctly identified in the CGCG, Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD, PGC, UGC, NGC 2000 
(Gx), MOL (Galaxy), and RC3.

IC 1640.
(See IC 1639).

IC 1642.
POSS. O-635.
Javelle #842.  01hr 09m 48.456s + 15 29' 06.426" (1950).
01hr 12m 27.916s + 15 45' 00.942" (2000).
This is equal to IC 1645 (Javelle #844) :  Javelle observed IC 1642 only once and 
that was on January 29th 1897 while for IC 1645 he has two observations, November 
24th and December 17th of 1897, or almost 1 year later.  
For IC 1642 he employed as a reference star DM +14 188, however, its position is 
not too accurate thus Javelle's position for his nova is also off.  DM +14 188 is 
equal to AC #453770 whose position for 1897, (the year of Javelle's discovery) 
would be 01hr 07m 43.243s + 15 12' 00.334" and when Javelle's offsets (-0 tmin 
43.370 tsec RA and 0 arcmin 10.600 arcsec north) are applied and the result then 
precessed to the year 1950 they land on the same galaxy as IC 1645 at 01hr 09m 
48.456s + 15 29' 06.426" 
For IC 1645 he used the star DM +14 175 and when his separation are applied for 
both observations of this object they also land on the same galaxy, therefore the 
equivalency is correct and historically speaking the correct identity by date of 
discovery would be IC 1642.  I also computed the difference between Javelle's data 
for his #845 = IC 1646 and his #844 = IC 1645 and measured this on the 
photographic plate and it also lands on IC 1642.
The CGCG, PGC and MCG give the single identity IC 1645.  The NGC 2000 and MOL list 
both identities as separate objects.  The APL correctly makes IC 1642 = IC 1645.  
Steinicke gives the equivalency.  Both NED and SIMBAD have "Not found for IC 1642 
and IC 1645 listwed with without the equivalency.

IC 1645.
(See IC 1642).

IC 1651.
POSS. O-1259.
Bigourdan #368.  01hr 10m 52.932s + 01 48' 12.425" (1950).
01hr 13m 27.380s + 02 04' 05.655" (2000).
It is the middle of 3 closely associated stars aligned almost directly north and 
south :
Bigourdan describes it as being a 13.4 star which appears to have nebulosity 
surrounding, brightest on the north following side.  He mentions the most southern 
of the 3 stars , a 13th mag star at a position angle of 195 , distant 0.2 arcmin 
but makes no mention of the 3rd or northernmost star which suggests to me that 
this is the "nebulosity" he is describing.
The APL lists as 3 stars, Steinicke has (=*) and NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED.".  SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  The NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and the MOL (NSO).

IC 1653. 
POSS..O-30. 
Javelle #849.  01hr 12m 20.134s + 33 06' 48.575" (1950).
01hr 15m 07.739s + 33 22' 39.436" (2000). 
Equal to NGC 443  (D'Arrest) :   Due to D'Arrest's error in declination, 9'.2 
Javelle was understandably misled into believing that he had discovered a 
different object.  Both the NGC 2000 and the MOL list each as separate identities.  
The CGCG, MCG and UGC give only the IC 1653 identity.  The DSFG lists as separate 
identities with the same coordinates.  The RC3 "Notes" and the PGC both correctly 
list IC 1653 = NGC 443 as does the APL, NED and Steinicke.  SIMBAD gives only the 
identity IC 1653.

IC 1656. 
POSS. O-30. 
Barnard.  01hr 12m 48s + 32 49'.7 
This is a duplicate observation of NGC 447 (D'Arrest) :   The MCG lists only NGC 
447.  The NGC 2000, MOL, APL, SIMBAD, Steinicke, NED and PGC correctly equate the 
two identities as does the "Notes" of the RC2, however both the CGCG and UGC 
incorrectly make it equal to NGC 449  (the UGC Notes stating that the MCG makes it 
NGC 447).

IC 1657.
Swift List XI, #14.  01hr 12m 05.407s - 32 55' 41.611" (1950).
01hr 14m 25.626s - 32 39' 49.657" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Equated with IC 1663 (Swift List XI, #15) by Steinicke, SIMBAD, 
NED and the APL (= ESO 352-G024) , NGC 2000 (Gx) and Steinicke.  The ESO list both 
identities but as separate entries without equivalency and listing for IC 1663 (ESO 
412-?022), only the given coordinates.  The PGC gives only the identity IC 1657.
Swift discovered IC 1657 on September 4th 1897 and IC 1663 on October 30th 1897 
and their descriptions are quite similar as to size, faintness and shape.  For IC 
1663 he gives coordinates of 01hr 13m 44s - 30 55'.5, which would imply a 
separation between the two objects of 01 tmin 39 tsec RA and 2 degrees 0.1 arcmin 
declination, which even for Swift are very large differences if they are 
equivalent identities.
Dreyer in the IC II description queries whether the declination value for IC 1663 
should be 30 arcmin farther south than as given by Swift, which would then place 
IC 1663 at a declination of - 31 25'.5 which still would be a difference in 
declination of 1 degree 30.1 arcmin from IC 1657.  
At both suggested coordinates for IC 1663 I could not find any suitable candidate 
and therefore at this time am listing IC 1657 as confirmed galaxy and IC 1663 as 
(Not found).

IC 1658. 
POSS. O-30. 
Javelle #851.  01hr 13m 03.269s + 30 48' 56.122" (1950).
01hr 15m 49.811s + 31 04' 46.015" (2000). 
Equal to NGC 444  (Lord Rosse) :   CGCG, UGC, NGC 2000, NED, SIMBAD, Steinicke, APL 
and MOL all correctly equate both identities.  The MCG gives only IC 1658 while 
theRC3 gives NGC 444 without comment as to any equivalency.  Both Carlson (quoting 
Reinmuth) and the PGC make IC 1658 = NGC 444.
IC 1661. 
POSS. O-30. 
Barnard.  01hr 13m 24.973s + 32 49' 14.656" (1950).
01hr 16m 12.615s + 33 05' 04.205" (2000). 
Equal to NGC 451 (Stephan List XII,#12) :   The MCG, MOL, NGC 2000, APL, 
Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and PGC all correctly identify IC 1661 = NGC 451.  The UGC 
does not list either identity, however, in its  "Notes" for U00804 it states that 
there is conflict between the CGCG and MCG concerning the NGC identity.  This is 
confirmed by the CGCG which incorrectly makes ZWG 502.19 = NGC 449.   ZWG 502.19 is 
NGC 1661 = NGC 451 while the correct NGC 449 is ZWG 502.18.  The RC3 gives only the 
single identity NGC 451.

IC 1663.
(See IC 1657).

IC 1664.
Stewart #150.  01hr 12m 42.362s - 70 04' 06.688" (1950).
01hr 14m 18.468s - 69 48' 15.000" (2000).
Not found. Possibly a faint star with a very faint companion off its preceding 
edge :  No nebular image at the given coordinates.  The NGC 2000 lists as (?) 
while the MOL gives (May not exist). The PGC, NED, SIMBAD and the ESO have suggested 
that this may be a galaxy (ESO 051-G025 at 01hr 12m 08s - 70 06'.7, however, its 
image on the DSS is of an extremely faint object (Steinicke gives its Mp as 17.8) 
and I doubt that it would be visible to Stewart, additionally this galaxy does not 
match Stewart's description, "2 faint stars invested in eeF neb."  Steinicke and APL 
have (*2).

IC 1665. 
POSS. O-1189. 
Javelle #853.  01hr 14m 56.235s + 34 26' 14.568" (1950).
01hr 17m 45.044s + 34 42' 01.745" (2000). 
This is a compact group of 3 faint stars :   The NGC 2000 gives no Type.  The MOL 
lists as  (Nonstellar Object).   Only other modern listing are Steinicke (= *3), 
NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Object of unknown nature," 
and the APL which states (=***).

IC 1666. 
POSS. O-30. 
Javelle #854.  01hr 17m 05.512s + 32 12' 14.905" (1950).
01hr 19m 53.472s + 32 27' 58.992" (2000). 
This is an existing galaxy but not at the position as given by Javelle and Dreyer:  
Due to a typographical error in which Javelle's RA separation sign from his 
reference star was reversed the IC II, NGC 2000 and MOL all give an incorrect RA 
position.  The correct RA should be 1hr 17m 05s and is to be found in the UGC, 
PGC, Steinicke, APL, SIMBAD, NED and RC3.  The CGCG (ZWG 502.030) and MCG (+05-04-
019) list the correct object only as "Anon."

IC 1667.
POSS. O-1194.
Swift List XI, #16.  01hr 15m 11969s - 17 22' 27.600" (1950).
01hr 17m 33.928s - 17 06' 40.251" (2000).
Not found at nominal position :  The MCG lists its -3-4-39 = IC 1667? at 01hr 
16.2m - 17 19'.0 and this would appear to be a very strong candidate based upon 
Swift's level of coordinate error.  Additionally this candidate has an 8th 
magnitude star north following as described by Swift.  The NGC 2000 (No Type) and 
MOL (NSO) give coordinates consistent with Swift's position.  The APL, NED, SIMBAD 
and Steinicke identify the MCG candidate as being IC 1667 while the PGC gives only 
the MCG identity.

IC 1671.
(See IC 93).

IC 1672.
(See IC 96).

IC 1674.
Stewart #151.  01hr 16m 54.793s - 50 54' 12.167" (1950).
01hr 19m 01.230s - 50 38' 26.750" (2000).
Not found :  No object visible at Stewart's position  The NGC 2000 lists it as (No 
Type) while the MOL gives (NSO).  The PGC, NED, SIMBAD and ESO have suggested that 
it may be the galaxy (ESO 196-G002 at 01hr 17m 13s - 51 13'.6) and this galaxy is 
bright enough for Stewart to have seen, however, I am concerned as to the difference 
in coordinates which would require Stewart to have an error of about 19.4 arcmin in 
declination, something unusual for him, therefore I am going to opt for a Not found.  
Steinicke has (Not found). APL (Probably a defect).

IC 1679. 
POSS. O-30. 
Javelle #862.  01hr 18m 56.087s + 33 13' 56.246" (1950).
01hr 21m 44.951s + 33 29' 37.587" (2000). 
Correctly identified but given wrong declination values by MCG (1'.8 too far 
south) and NGC 2000  (1'.5 too far south). CGCG, APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD 
and MOL have correct declination.  The RC3 does not list this galaxy.

IC 1684.
POSS. 0-30.
Javelle #867.  01hr 20m 04.086s +33 09' 11.806" (1950).
01hr 22m 53.108s + 33 24' 51.433" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Javelle's reference star BD +32 241 has a declination error of 
1 arcmin 41.2 arcsec too far south, therefore his declination for IC 1684 is off 
by this amount.  
BD + 32,241 is = AC #1110976 at 01hr 22m 31.030s +33 24' 01.74" (2000) and 
when Javelle's separation values (+ 21.93 tsec of RA and +50.8 arcsec of DEC. are 
applied to this star they land exactly on a galaxy which is IC 1684.
Not listed in CGCG, UGC, PGC or MCG.  NGC (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  Correctly 
identified in the APL and by Steinicke.  SIMBAD has "Not present in the database." 
But lists it as AGC 111082.  NED has "No Object with this name in NED," but lists it 
as MASX J01225306+3324491.

IC 1685.
POSS. 0-30.
Javelle #868.  01hr 20m 17.346s + 32 55' 46.286" (1950).
01hr 23m 06.277s + 33 11' 25.580" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Javelle's reference star is the 8.7 Mp DM +32 239 = AC 
#1110957 and when his offsets (+0 tmin 59.8 tsec RA and 02' 48".9 of arc south) 
are applied to this star they land exactly upon the galaxy north following NGC 
494.
Not listed in the CGCG, UGC, PGC or MCG.  The NGC 2000 gives both identities 
having the same coordinates, however, it identifies them as being separate 
objects.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." yet they list the 
correct object as 2MASX J01230660+3311212.  SIMBAD has "Not present in the 
database,"  The MOL (NSO), Steinicke and APL have the correct identities.

IC 1686. 
POSS. O-30. 
Javelle #869.  01hr 20m 22.549s + 33 11' 58.845" (1950).
01hr 23m 11.653s + 33 27' 38.001" (2000). 
This galaxy is equal to NGC 499 (W. Herschel,158-3):
Javelle based his coordinates for his reference star (DM +32,241) upon the data in 
the Bonner Durchmusterung which has an error in declination of about 1 arcmin 24.9 
arcsec too far south.  This is reflected in his coordinates as given above.
His reference star is also GSC 2296-542 and when his offsets are computed from its 
position they land on NGC 499.        
The equivalency is correctly noted in the CGCG, MCG, UGC, Steinicke, APL, SIMBAD, 
NED, NGC 2000, MOL, Carlson and PGC.  The RC3 gives only the identity NGC 499. 
 
IC 1693.
POSS. O-1259.
Howe List III, #2.  01hr 21m 29.821s - 01 54' 54.545" (1950).
01hr 24m 02.832s - 01 39' 16.690" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Ned has "There is no object with this name in Ned, but they do 
identify the correct object as LEDA 073940.
Correctly identified in the NGC 2000 (Gx), MOL (Galaxy), SIMBAD, APL and Steinicke.

IC 1696.
POSS. O-1259.
Howe List III, #3.  01hr 22m 18.829s - 01 52' 37.776" (1950).
01hr 24m 51.848s - 01 37' 01.189" (2000).
The MCG incorrectly equates its 0-4-122 with the identity NGC 530 = IC 1696. The 
correct NGC 530 is actually MCG 0-4-119 and is equivalent with the identity IC 
106.  The DSFG also makes this same mistake.  The UGC in its Notes to U00973 = 
IC 1696 points out the MCG error.  IC 1696 is correctly identified in the CGCG, PGC, 
NGC 2000 (Gx), MOL (Galaxy), RC3, APL, SIMBAD and Steinicke.  NED has the correct 
object.

IC 1699.
(See IC 107).

IC 1700.
(See IC 107.

IC 1703.
POSS. O-1259.
Bigourdan #369.  01hr 23m 52.399s - 01 53' 54.734" (1950).
01hr 26m 25.395s - 01 38' 20.587" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 557 (Swift List VI, #11) :  Swift's RA is too large by about 
46 tsec, also Swift states "B* f 15s and is north of it," this should be corrected 
to read that the star lies south following.  This is the 8.8 Mv BB VI, 215 the 
same star Bigourdan used as his reference star.
The MOL gives both identities as separate objects while the CGCG, MCG, UGC give 
only the single identity IC 1703.  The PGC, NGC 2000, APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke 
all correctly give the equivalency.

IC 1704 and IC 1706.
POSS. O-635.
Javelle #881.  01hr 24m 29.269s + 14 31 02.019" (1950).
01hr 27m 09.407s + 14 46' 34.985" (2000). (IC 1704).
and 01hr 24m 51.137s + 14 33' 40.308" (1950).
01hr 27m 31.324s + 14 49' 12.689" (2000). (IC 1706).
Confirmed galaxies :  These are a pair of associated galaxies but not at the 
coordinates as given by Javelle.  
Javelle identifies his reference star as the 9.5Mv star DM +13 214 and places IC 
1704 at a RA separation of -0m 12s and a declination of -1 arcmin, while for IC 
1706 the separation values from the same star are RA +0m 10s, Dec.+1.7 arcmins.  
The problem is that Javelle was not measuring from DM +13 214, but rather his 
reference star, AC #454820 at 01hr 27m 21.254s +14 47' 33.54 (2000), is one 
of similar magnitude which lies approximately 17s RA following and 3'.5 north of 
DM + 13 214, thus his coordinates for both IC 1704 and IC 1706 are too small by 
these same amounts and when these corrections are applied to the Palomar print his 
misidentified reference star and the two galaxies fall exactly into place. 
The CGCG, UGC and MCG all incorrectly identify as IC 1706 what is IC 1704 
(this is pointed out in the PGC), while having no listing for the correct IC 1706.  
The NGC 2000 and MOL both give the identities at coordinates based upon Javelle's 
incorrect positions.  The RC3, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and APL and Steinicke have the 
correct identities and correct coordinates.      

IC 1707. 
POSS. O-30. 
Bigourdan #370.  01hr 25m 08.289s + 36 51' 30.032" (1950).
01hr 28m 00.603s + 37 07' 01.643" (2000). (Observations). 
Not found :   There is considerable confusion regarding the correct declination 
for this galaxy.  
Dreyer in the IC II gives + 33 20'.2, ( the same as given by Bigourdan in his 
Comptes Rendus list), however, Bigourdan employed as his field reference star BD + 
36 256  (the same star he used to determine the coordinates for his observation of 
NGC 551) and this star according to Bigourdan has a declination of + 36 49' 36".   
Regardless I was unable to find any nebulous object at either declination.  
The CGCG, MCG, UGC and RC3 have no listing for this identity.  The NGC 2000 and 
MOL both list it at Dreyer's declination, the NGC 2000 not giving any Type, while 
the MOL describes it as (Nonstellar Object), Steinicke has (Not found) and the APL 
states (Not found. Declination 36 51'.5).  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED."  SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
NOTE:  Possible candidate.  Bigourdan's reference star is equal to AC #1289809 at 
01hr 27m 46.540s + 37 04' 24.89" (2000) and his offsets are given as + 0 tmin 
13.51 tsec RA and + 2 arcmin 37.5 arcsec Dec. which gives coordinates for his # 
370 after corrected precession of 01hr 28m 00.201s + 37 07' 01.664" (2000)."  
At this position there is only blank space, however, at about 12 tsec following 
and at the same declination there is a double star of Mp 13.68, the components in 
visual contact, north preceding south following.  This double star is identified 
as GSC 0230400561 at 01hr 25m 20.90s +36 51' 16.2" (1950) and Bigourdan's 
description reads "This object is a 13.2 to 13.3 Mv star near which is found 
diffuse nebulosity not easy to observe with precision. Requires a perfectly pure 
sky."
Now there is another interesting finding regarding this double star as the VizieR 
database classifies it under the GSC catalogue as being a nonstellar object (Class 
3), whereas having examined the image on all three DSS photographs, Generation I 
(Blue), Generation II (Blue and Red) I am convinced that both components are 
stars.

IC 1709.
Swift List XI, #21.  01hr 25m 51.003s - 36 01' 25.464" (1950).
01hr 28m 06.831s - 35 45' 54.060" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 568 (h 2414).  There are two galaxies visible in the field, 
NGC 568 and an "Anon." lying 16 tsec following and about 3 arcmin north and both 
John Herschel and Swift report only a single object which has to be NGC 568.
The ESO has suggested that the "Anon." (ESO 353-G004) might be IC 1709 and the PGC, 
SIMBAD and DSFG supports this identity.
Swift's position is south following NGC 568 and Dreyer gives NGC 568 an excellent 
set of coordinates (01hr 25m 42s - 35 58'.8), which would certainly have been 
available to Swift and therefore if he had been referring to the "Anon." as his 
Nova he would surely have been able to provide more accurate coordinates for it 
than what he gives.
The MOL lists both identities as separate objects with separate coordinates.  The 
APL has (= NGC 568. ESO ID. for IC 1709 wrong), and Steinicke and NED have (= NGC 
568).

IC 1710. 
POSS. O-1251. 
Javelle #883.  01hr 28m 03.320s + 21 10' 59.988" (1950).
01hr 30m 46.990s + 21 26' 27.043" (2000). 
This is a duplicate observation of NGC 575. (Stephan List VIII,#5):   The NGC 
2000, MOL, APL, Steinicke, Carlson, NED, SIMBAD and the PGC all list the 
equivalency.  The CGCG, MCG, and UGC each give only the identity IC 1710, while the 
RC3 gives only NGC 575.

IC 1712.
POSS. O-1272.
Barnard.  01hr 28m 50.850s - 07 07' 27.096" (1950).
01hr 31m 21.442s - 06 52' 00.901" (2000). (Dreyer).
This is equal to NGC 584 (H 100-1) :  Both Barnard and  Dreyer must have just 
overlooked this equivalency as Dreyer gives both identities exactly the same 
coordinates.  The RC 3 gives only the identity NGC 584.  The MCG, NGC 2000, MOL, 
PGC, Carlson, APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke all give the correct equivalency.

IC 1713. 
POSS. O-1189.
Bigourdan #247.  01hr 29m 51.720s + 35 04' 04.874" (1950).
01hr 32m 43.754s + 35 19' 28.712" (2000). 
This is a single star as was suspected by Bigourdan:  The CGCG, UGC, NED, SIMBAD and 
PGC incorrectly make it equal to NGC 587 but examination of Bigourdan's 
observational data clearly refutes this conclusion.
Bigourdan used the star BD + 34 268 = AC #1199008 to measure the 1900 coordinates 
of both NGC 587 and IC 1713, placing the former at a separation of - 33.95s RA and 
+ 3' 58.7" Dec., while for the latter his separation values are - 23.56s RA and + 
1' 59.7" Dec., both observations being made on the same night and establishing 
that he was not confusing NGC 587 for what he thought might be a nova.The NGC 
2000 lists IC 1713 but without any Type and the MOL makes it a (Nonstellar 
Object)  Both the MCG and RC3 do not list it.  Steinicke and APL have (= *).

IC 1714.
POSS. O-1207.
Swift List XII, #7.  01hr 30m 27.371s - 13 45' 20.772" (1950).
01hr 32m 54.806s - 13 29' 57.390" (2000).
Not found at Swift's position :  Corwin (APL) has identified IC 1714 as a galaxy 
lying about 28 arcmin north of Swift's declination and this candidate has an 8th 
magnitude star about 11 arcmin north preceding which certainly fits Swift's 
description "* 8 n," also the amount of positional error is well within that often 
encountered with Swift's data. This galaxy is identified in NED only as 
APMUKS(BJ)BO13025.54-131652.4 at 01hr 30m 25.54s -13 16' 52.4 (1950) or 01hr 32m 
53.22s - 13 01' 29.1"" (2000) and is given a Mp of 15.85  
Steinicke also identifies this galaxy as being IC 1714. Both the NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO) give the coordinates as stated by Swift's positions.  NED 
lists the identity IC 1714 as Not found. SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 1716.
POSS. O-1207.
Bigourdan #371.  01hr 30m 58.687s - 12 33' 49.639" (1950).
01hr 33m 26.660s - 12 18' 27.153" (2000).
This is a star :  Bigourdan described it as "Strongly stellar, fuzzy and which at 
moments appears nebulous."  Typed in the MOL as (NSO).  Correctly listed in the 
NGC 2000 (*), APL (=*) and Steinicke (=*).  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 1717.
Stewart #153.  01hr 31m 00.435s - 67 47' 34.481" (1950).
01hr 32m 30.810s - 67 32' 10.946" (2000).
Not found :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and the MOL as (NSO).
The ESO gives the identity IC 1717 listing it only as ESO 52-?005 (Not found) at 
the historical coordinates.  The APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke have it as (Not 
found).

IC 1723.
POSS. O-21.
Javelle #888.  01hr 40m 36.353s + 08 38' 09.240" (1950).
01hr 43m 14.530s + 08 53' 14.221" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  When the coordinates as given by Javelle are located on the 
Palomar print no nebular image remotely resembling Javelle's description is to be 
found, however, at about 1 tmin preceding and about 6 arcmin north there is a 
galaxy which fits his description very well and it is this galaxy that the APL, 
Steinicke, PGC, CGCG, UGC, RC3, NED, SIMMBAD and NGC 2000 each identify as being IC 
1723.
It should also be mentioned that when Javelle's separation values are reversed 
from this galaxy they give the position of a 9th magnitude star, GSC 622-968 = AC 
#211689, which is not the reference star that Javelle identifies as being his 
reference star (DM + 8 272), therefore it is pretty much confirmed that the star 
Javelle actually used was GSC 622-968, not DM +8 272.The MCG identifies only as 
+1-5-028.  The NGC and MOL record the coordinates for IC 1723 as given by Javelle 
and therefore need correcting.  

IC 1730. 
POSS. O-896. 
Javelle #891.  01hr 47m 12.512s + 21 45' 49.889" (1950).
01hr 49m 58.515s + 22 00' 41.843" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Listed in MCG as +4-5-15a. UGC has no listing.  The CGCG, 
DSFG (NOTES to NGC 678), MOL, APL, SIMBAD, Steinicke, PGC, NED and NGC 2000 
correctly identify IC 1730.
Javelle's error of 2 arcmin in declination, (Nominal Position) derives from the 
incorrect position of his reference star (DM +21, 245) as it appears in the Bonner 
Durchmusterung, which is what Javelle employed.

IC 1737.
POSS. O-1225.
Bigourdan #249.  01hr48m 45.550s +36 00' 10.709" (1950).
01hr 51m 41.863s + 36 14' 59.305" (2000).
Not found :  Nothing resembling Bigourdan's description "Trace of nebulosity with 
3 or 4 stars of 13th magnitude" is to be found at or close to his coordinates, the 
closest images being made up by 2 faint stars.  The APL and Steinicke list it as 
(2*). The PGC has identified a galaxy, (MCG + 06-5-021) at 01hr 48m 49.5s +35 53' 
15".8 as being IC 1737.  Only other listings are NGC 2000 (No type), MOL (NSO). 
SIMBAD "Not present in the database," and NED "No Object found."NOTE :  In my 
VERSION 4.0 of my survey I did not include this identity, believing 
it to be the MCG object which does resemble Bigourdan's description, however, 
recently I re-examined the problem and when I used Bigourdan's offsets from this 
existing galaxy I was unable to find his reference  9.2 Mv star even though I 
searched at all possible sign changes.  Upon informing Dr. Corwin of this he 
himself again examined the problem and determined that MCG +06 -5-021 was not IC 
1737 and that based upon Bigourdan's stated coordinates he now favors it being the 
2 stars located close to the original position.

IC 1738.
POSS. O-1207.
Swift XI, #26.  01hr 49m 13.178s -10 05' 06.975" (1950).
01hr 51m 41.480s - 09 50' 18.647" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Swift's coordinates are poor as was pointed out by Howe who 
gives 01hr 48m 38s - 10 02'.2 which are much superior.
Correctly identified in the MCG, PGC, NGC 2000 (Gx), MOL (Galaxy), RC3, APL, NED, 
SIMBAD and Steinicke.

IC 1740.
Swift List XI, #27.  01hr 49m 00.992s -30 11' 24.772" (1950).
01hr 51m 16.781s - 29 56' 35.632" (2000).
Not found :  This is a very interesting problem in that there is a diversity of 
opinion as to what IC 1740 actually is, or whether it exists.
This is the second of two Swift discoveries that are included in a detailed Note 
he added to his description, (See IC 1589).
Swift's description for IC 1740 is "pB, eS, lE, like double nebulous star See 
Note."
In Swift's Note he describes both these discoveries as "Resembles a pretty bright 
double star, each component being an exceedingly small nebulous disk like an 
imaginary double nebulous Uranus distant about 5 to 6 arcsec."
The APL lists IC 1740 as ( 1740? = ** at 01hr 49m 21.0s - 30 10' 10".  ESO ident. 
as = N749 probably wrong), however, this candidate consists of a 10.5 or 11.0 mag. 
star whose companion, which lies off the south following edge, is in my opinion 
far too faint to have been seen by Swift and described by him to be "Pretty 
bright."  It certainly does not in any manner resemble the double star candidate 
in the IC 1589 case. The APL also has a second candidate credited to HCds as "** 
at 01hr 46m 35.43s -30 20' 03.3", " but here again neither of these two stars seem 
to fit  Swift's description "Pretty bright."
Now as for the ESO, SIMBAD and NED.  They each list ESO 414-G011 as NGC 749 = IC 
1740 ? at 01hr 53m 26s - 30 10'.0   Swift's description does not at all fit the 
appearance of NGC 749.  Steve Gottlieb using a telescope comparable in size to 
Swift's and observing from a latitude further north than Swift describes NGC 749 as 
"Fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 WNN-ESE, 1'.5 x 0'.8 .  Fairly sharp 
concentration with a prominent core and faint extensions.  The core brightens to a 
very small but non-stellar nucleus.  A mag. 12 star lies 3.9 arcmin W of center."  
This plus the 4.4 tmin difference in the RA position of NGC 749 and Swift's RA 
convinces me that Swift was not confusing NGC 749 for his #27 = IC 1740.
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) both give the historical coordinates.  
Steinicke has (Not found).

IC 1741.
POSS. O-349.
Howe List III, #4.  01hr 49m 32.248s - 17 02' 01.672" (1950).
01hr 51m 56.552s - 16 47' 13.878" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Both Dreyer and NGC 2000 suggest that IC 1741 is equivalent 
with NGC 690 (Leavenworth) which is due to Leavenworth's poorly measured position 
(01hr 51.9m - 16 47'.0), however, the correct coordinates for NGC 690 are 01hr 45m 
23s - 16 58' 12" and this is an entirely separate object from IC 1741.
Correctly identified in the MOL (NSO), APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke.

IC 1743.
POSS. O-15.
Bigourdan #250.  01hr 50m 18.946s + 12 27' 43.927" (1950).
01hr 52m 59.677s + 12 42' 29.778" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 716 (Swift List IV, No.6.) :  Although Swift's declination is 
about 39 arcmins too small there can be little doubt that due to his description 
"eF; S; R; B * nr f." he is referring to Bigourdan's #250.
The CGCG, UGC. PGC and MCG each only give the identity IC 1743.  The NGC 2000 (GX 
= NGC716?).  The MOL gives the identity IC 1743 correctly but makes NGC 716 
"Nonexistent Object."  The APL, SIMBAD and NED give IC 1743 = NGC 716 as does 
Steinicke.

IC 1744.
POSS. O-1275.
Javelle #896.  01hr 50m 53.562s + 19 35' 43.180" (1950).
01hr 53m 38.583s + 19 50' 27.689" (2000).
Equal to NGC 719. (D'Arrest).  Javelle makes no mention of NGC 719 even though he 
should have been aware that D'Arrest had placed it only about 13s of RA from 
Javelle's #896.  Indeed Bigourdan had made two observations of NGC 719 seven years 
prior to Javelle's observation and stated that it was located 21 seconds of RA 
preceding the NGC value, or at 1hr 50m 44s +19 35' 11"
Both the NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO) list both NGC 719 and IC 1744 as separate 
objects.  The MCG gives the single identity IC 1744 while the RC3 gives only NGC 
719.  The CGCG, Steinicke, UGC, APL, NED, SIMBAD and PGC correctly give the 
equivalency.

IC 1751.
POSS. O-1282
Swift List XI, #28.  01hr 53m 21.556s + 05 25' 56.805" (1950).
01hr 55m 58.419s + 05 40' 36.422" (2000). 
HOWE  01hr 53m 44.539s + 05 23' 02.017" (1950).
01hr 56m 21.383s + 05 37' 40.829" (2000).
Equal to NGC 741 (H 272-2)  :  A very interesting problem.  At the nominal 
position as given by Swift no nonstellar object exists, however, based upon Howe's 
coordinates correction we find a field containing several galaxies the brightest 
being NGC 741 with its "attached" companion NGC 742.  
Howe places what he identifies as being  Swift #28 (= IC 1751), at a separation of 
+ 7 tsec and - 1.6 arcmin from a 9th magnitude star and Swift had described his 
#28 as "pF; pS; R; 9m * near np," the same star that Bigourdan had employed as a 
reference star when he observed NGC 741, giving separation values of + 7.4 tsec 
and -1.6 arcmin.  
There can be no doubt that what Howe identified as being Swift's object #28 is 
actually NGC 741 and if this is Swift's #28 then IC 1751 is equal to NGC 741.
Examination of the Palomar print reveals the image of another galaxy closely 
following the 9th magnitude star and both the CGCG and UGC have identified this as 
being IC 1751.  
In the NOTES for U01413 = NGC 741 the UGC states "01 53.7 + 05 25 = IC 1751 at 
1.5, 342." and "N 741 is not IC 1751 (as stated in BG)." however, there are two 
reasons why I reject this the first being that this galaxy is best described as 
following the star rather than being south following and secondly, it would seem 
to me that if this same object was Swift's #28 then he would surely have referred 
to the much brighter NGC 741 very close south following.
The original RC correctly equates both identities, however, the updated RC3 gives 
only the identity NGC 741.  The APL, Carlson, Steinicke, NED, NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and MOL each equate the two identities.  The MCG gives only the identity NGC 741.  
The PGC gives the single identity IC 1751 and equates it with MCG +01-06-06 and 
CGCG 413.006, as does SIMBAD.

IC 1754.
POSS. O-1282.
Javelle #902.  01hr 54m 13.697s + 03 46' 55.720" (1950).
01hr 56m 49.645s + 04 01' 33.515" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the CGCG only as ZWG 413.011 and in the UGC only 
as U01424.  The PGC and NED omit the IC identity and identify this galaxy using 
its UGC and CGCG identities.  The APL, Steinicke, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (Gx) and MOL 
(NSO) all have the correct identity.

IC 1756.
POSS. O-852.
Barnard.  01hr 54m 28.653s - 00 43' 03.737" (1950).
01hr 57m 02.050s - 00 28' 26.204" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The MCG has incorrectly identified its 0-6-005 as being IC 
1757 but this is actually IC 1756.  Comparison of the coordinates, brightness and 
descriptions clearly establish that it is the south preceding elongated galaxy 
that is being described by the MCG and this is IC 1756.
The MCG error is referred to in the UGC Notes to U01429 = IC 1756, also in the 
PGC.  Correct identity given by the CGCG, UGC, NGC 2000, MOL, RC3, APL, PGC, SIMBAD, 
NED and Steinicke.

IC 1759 and IC 1760.
Swift List XI, #29.  01hr 55m 16.587s - 33 16' 49.579" (1950).
01hr 57m 29.099s - 33 02' 13.343" (2000) (IC 1759)
Swift List XI, #30.  01hr 55m 18.397s - 32 15' 01.628" (1950).
01hr 57m 31.727s - 32 00' 25.476" (2000). (IC 1760).
Probably equivalent identities :  This is a very interesting problem with more 
than one possible solution.
The above coordinates are based upon those given in Swift's List XI as published 
in the ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN # 3517, however, in a different publication (THE 
ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL NO. 422) Swift list 25 objects discovered at the Lowe 
Observatory and his #8 in this list is given the same discovery date (November 
17th 1897) and same coordinates as his #30 in the A.N. List.
Dreyer, for some reason I have not been able to establish, suggests in his 
description for IC 1760 that the declination might be - 33 15'.0, if this 
suggestion is correct then it would clearly make IC 1759 and IC 1760 equivalent 
identities.
There is no doubt that IC 1759 exists close to the position as given by Swift and 
it is correctly identified as such in the ESO (ESO 354-G018 at 01hr 55m 43s - 33 
13'.8 = IC 1759).  The NGC 2000 (Gx), MOL (NSO), RC3, SIMBAD, PGC and Steinicke also 
correctly identify it as being IC 1759, however, the APL although identifying this 
same galaxy as being IC 1759 also equates it with IC 1760, which has to be based 
upon the Dreyer suggestion.
Now IC 1760 is identified as a separate galaxy in the ESO (IC 1760 ? ESO 414-G015 
at 01hr 55m 11s - 32 13'.8 and this is the same object identified by the NED and 
SIMBAD as being IC 1760, lying just north preceding the coordinates as given by 
Swift, however, after looking at the image of this galaxy on the DSS and taking into 
consideration how it would most likely appear from Swift's latitude I am very 
doubtful if it could have been seen with Swift's telescope.  He describes another 
galaxy he discovered , IC 1720, which would be about 3 degrees of declination 
farther north than ESO 414-G015, as being "eeF," yet IC 1720 is vastly brighter 
than the ESO candidate, therefore I favor the equivalency solution as proposed by 
Corwin.
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) identify IC 1760 at the coordinates as given 
by Swift.  Steinicke has (= IC 1759) and the APL has (= IC 1759). PGC has no 
listing for the identity IC 1760.

IC 1765. 
POSS. O-413. 
Barnard. 01hr 57m 43.899s + 31 36' 09.420" (1950).
02hr 00m 38.173s + 31 50' 38.804" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 783 (Stephan List VIII,#8) :  
The CGCG, UGC, NGC 2000, MOL, RC3, Carlson, Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD and PGC all 
correctly make IC 1765 = NGC 783. The DSFG gives only the NGC identity.  The MCG 
gives only the identity NGC 783.

IC 1766.
POSS. O-413.
Barnard. 01 58m 16.908s +31 32' 07.158" (1950).
02hr 01m 11.217s +31 46' 35.512" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 785 Stephan List VIII,#9) :
The CGCG, UGC, NGC 2000, MOL, RC3, Carlson, APL, NED, SIMBAD and PGC all make IC 
1766 equal to NGC 785.  The DSFG gives only the NGC identity.  The MCG and Steinicke 
have listed a very faint "Anon" equal to MCG +05-05-043 as being IC 1766. 

IC 1767.
POSS. O-1183.
Swift List XI, #32.  01hr 57m 32.042s - 11 21' 48.084" (1950).
01hr 59m 59.204s - 11 07' 17.172" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the MCG only as -2-6-012.  Correctly identified 
in the RC3, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), APL and Steinicke.  

IC 1768.
POSS. O-1185.
Swift List XI, #33.  01hr 58m 26.072s - 25 19' 26.864" (1950).
02hr 00m 44.138s - 25 04' 57.629" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The MCG identifies its -4-5-24 = IC 1768, or the south 
preceding of 2, the other being an "Anon." (-4-5-26), however, -4-5-26 is the 
brighter object and better fits Swift's description.  The PGC (Corrections) points 
out the MCG error and the NGC 2000, MOL, APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke each select 
-4-5-26 as being IC 1768.

IC 1773. 
POSS. O-413. 
Bigourdan #372.  02hr 01m 07.930s + 30 35' 36.828" (1950).
02hr 04m 01.913s + 30 49' 59.163" (2000)." 
This is equal to NGC 804 (Swift List II,#19) :   Bigourdan was evidently very 
confused regarding the objects he observed in this field.  
He noted what he considered to be two stellar-like nebulae about 19s of RA apart.  
The preceding he assumed to be NGC 804, however, from his measurements he appears 
to have mistaken a star for this object.  The following object he then assumed was 
a nova  (B.372) but this is the true NGC 804.   
The CGCG, UGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and PGC correctly list IC 1773 = NGC 804.   
Both the NGC 2000 and MOL list them as separate galaxies while the MCG gives the 
single identity IC 1773.  The RC3 gives only NGC 804.

IC 1778.
POSS. O-1282.
Javelle #912.  02hr 03m 38.688s + 08 59.25.533" (1950).
02hr 06m 17.990s + 09 13' 42.643" (2000).
This is equal to IC 199 (Javelle #555) :  There is no nebular image at the 
corrected nominal position as given by Javelle which would place IC 1778 just on 
the south preceding edge of IC 199.
The CGCG, UGC, MCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and PGC all correctly equate both 
identities.  The RC3 gives only the identity IC 199.  The NGC 2000 types IC 199 as 
(Gx) and IC 1778 as (No Type) giving both identities the same coordinates but 
without any comment as to equivalency, while the MOL types both as (NSO) and gives 
them both separate coordinates.

IC 1782.
POSS. O-1287.
Swift List XI, #34.  02hr 05m 11.968s - 25 43' 11.050" (1950).
02hr 07m 28.940s - 25 28' 56.915" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 823. (JH. 196=2460) :  Examination of the object in question 
leaves no doubt that Swift is describing John Herschel's object.
The MCG gives only the identity NGC 823.  The MOL lists both identities as 
separate objects with separate coordinates.  The PGC, APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke 
correctly give the equivalency.
NOTE:  The "Double star" effect as described by Swift is best seen on the Second 
Generation photograph of the DSS.

IC 1787.
(See IC 217).

IC 1788.
Swift List XI, #36.  02hr 13m 21.267s - 31 25' 18.078" (1950).
02hr 15m 32.510s - 31 11' 22.968" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The only errors here are to be found in the MOL which gives 
the declination as + 31 25' 56' and also incorrectly identifies IC 1488 as being 
IC 1788.
The NGC 2000, APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, ESO, RC3, MCG and DSFG correctly 
identify the galaxy.

IC 1794.
POSS. O-443.
Javelle #923.  02hr 18m 45.694s + 15 32' 01.917" (1950).
02hr 21m 30.187s + 15 45' 42.691" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Javelle's nominal position has a declination error of about 1 
arcmin 14 arcsec too far south caused by an error originating in the Bonner 
Durchmusterung.  
The above Corrected Nominal Position based upon the modern declination is correct, 
the reference star being AC #458425 at 02hr 22m 12.703s + 15 15' 51.57 " (2000).  
Both the NGC 2000 and MOL type this as being a "Nebula."  The CGCG, Steinicke, 
MCG, APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and RC3 correctly list it as a galaxy.

IC 1799.
POSS O-907. 
Bigourdan #251.  02hr 25m 31.181s + 45 44' 48.544" (1950).
02hr 28m 46.152s + 45 58' 11.258" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Identified in the MCG only as +8-5-12.  Correctly identified 
in CGCG, Steinicke, UGC, APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (GX.), MOL (NSO), DSFG 
(Notes to NGC 933) and RC3.
NOTE:  Bigourdan's reference star (Anon.2) for his 1891 positional data is equal 
to AC #1425525 at 02hr 21m 26.479s +45 29' 41.939" (1891) and his offsets (+ 0 
tmin 16.135 tsec - 0 arcmin 51.550 arcsec.) give an excellent position for his 
#251 of 02hr 25m 31.181s + 45 44' 48.544" (1950).

IC 1802.
POSS. O-858.
Barnard.  02hr 25m 49.956s + 22 53' 46.902" (1950).
02hr 28m 40.710s + 23 07' 09.542" (2000). (Dreyer)
Possible identity ? :  At the coordinates as given no nebular image exists, 
however, at approximately 30s of RA following and 2.2 arcmin south there is a 
galaxy (ZWG 483.067) which does fit Barnard's description "11 mag. star north 
preceding at 1 arcmin." and due to Barnard's description it is reasonable to 
consider that this might be Barnard's object ?   
Only modern listings for the identity IC 1802 are NED (Not found), APL has correct 
identity. Steinicke (= ZWG 483.067), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) based upon 
Dreyer's coordinates.  SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," however,
NOTE:  (See IC 1803 and IC 1804).

IC 1803 and IC 1804.
POSS.O-858.
Barnard.  02hr 26m 27.113s + 22 55' 44.050" (1950).
02hr 29m 18.004s + 23 09' 05.159" (2000). (Dreyer). IC 1803
02hr 26m 27.126s + 22 56' 14.049" (1950).
02hr 29m 17.974s + 23 09' 35.061" (2000). IC 1804.
Confirmed galaxies :   The entire credit for the correct identities belongs to Dr. 
Corwin (See his Files), my previous identities being wrong.  When the same 
corrections as applied to IC 1802 are applied to Barnard's coordinates as given 
above they not only land very close to the north preceding of two galaxies but 
also confirm the correct identity for Barnard's IC 1804, although it appears that 
Barnard has confused the order of declination.
The majority of the modern sources incorrectly list the identity IC 1803, instead 
the PGC, RC3, NED, SIMBAD and MCG incorrectly identify the galaxy IC 1802 as being 
IC 1803 and if they list the correct IC 1803 and IC 1804 they identify them as being 
"Anons."  According to NED the  ZWG 468.068 Anon. is IC 1804, although I find it 
difficult to determine whether this CGCG identity is for IC 1803 or IC 1804 as 
Zwicky's coordinates could be for either. Steinicke has the correct IC 1804, but an 
incorrect identity for IC 1803.
The modern catalogues appear to be all over the place regarding the identities for 
IC 1802, 1803 and 1804 and I believe that Dr. Corwin's corrections have solved the 
confusion.    

IC 1808.
POSS. O-1292.
Javelle #929.  02hr 28m 00.341s - 04 26' 15.012" (1950).
02hr 30m 31.016s - 04 12' 57.701" (2000).
Equal to NGC 963 (Leavenworth) :  This is another example of Javelle being misled 
by Leavenworth's poor RA for his NGC 963 as Leavenworth gave his discovery the 
coordinates 02hr 29m 18s - 04 26.9
The MOL gives both identities as separate with different coordinates.  The MCG and 
PGC gives the single identity IC 1808.  The NGC 2000, APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke 
have the correct equivalency.

IC 1811 and IC 1813.
Swift List XI, #38.  02hr 27m 51.105s - 34 28' 36.437" (1950).
02hr 29m 57.196s - 34 15' 17.954" (2000). (IC 1811). 
#39.  02hr 28m 06.070s - 34 28'19.090" (1950).
02hr 30m 12.126s - 34 15' 01.266" (2000). (IC 1813).
Confirmed galaxies :  The errors here are entirely historical.  
Swift describes his #38 as "eeeF, S, R, D* nearly preceeding," while for his #39 
the description is "eF, eS, R, F* near n, D* np, south following of 2."  These 
relative alignments are disputed by the coordinates he gives as according to them 
his #39 would be the north following of 2 and it is exactly this we find when the 
field is shown on the DSS.
Dreyer appears to have questioned the alignment as he adds (sic) at the end of 
each description in the IC II, also Swift's reference to the D* (Dreyer describes 
it as 2 stars),should be reversed for both identities.
All of the modern sources have the correct alignment.

IC 1814.
Swift List XI, #40.  02hr 28m 19.149s - 36 15' 31.702" (1950).
02hr 30m 23.276s - 36 02' 14.412" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 964 (h 2483) :  John Herschel gave his #2483 coordinates of 
02hr 29m 00.2s - 36 15' 23" and it would seem that because Swift's coordinates 
were so poorly given that Swift concluded that he had made a separate discovery of 
a different object.
The ESO, NED, SIMBAD and PGC have selected and identified as IC 1814 a galaxy, ESO 
355-G023, at 02hr 28m 47s - 36 13'.4, however, although this galaxy is closer to 
Swift's position than NGC 964 it does not match Swift's description, "pB, pS, vE." 
and furthermore, it appears to me to be too faint for Swift's telescope.
The MOL gives IC 1814 at Swift's coordinates and makes no equivalency while the 
RC3 lists only the identity NGC 964.  The APL, NGC 2000 and Steinicke correctly 
give the equivalency with NGC 964.

IC 1817.
POSS. O-1300.
Javelle #932.  02hr 31m 08.521s + 10 59' 02.460" (1950).
02hr 33m 50.352s + 11 12' 11.111" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The error involved is of only historical significance in that 
it concerns a typographical mistake in Part 2 of Javelle's catalogue in which he 
incorrectly gives the declination of separation from his reference star as placing 
his object to lie south when it should be north.  Thus the correct 1950 
coordinates would be 02hr 31m 08.521s + 10 59' 02.460"  Fortunately the correct 
declination is to be found in his Part 1, therefore neither Dreyer or any of the 
modern catalogues (CGCG, MCG, PGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 or MOL) 
which list this identity were misled.  

IC 1822.
POSS. O-886.
Bigourdan #252.
Equal to a faint star preceding the star GSC 5285-243 :  
Bigourdan published two different sets of coordinates for this one identity.  The 
first was in the COMPTES RENDUS in which he gives 02hr 33m 14.963s - 08 46' 
45.334" (1950) and here we find a 13 mag. star, however, this star lies about 10 
tsec preceding a 8.5 Mv star, not following as Bigourdan indicates in his 
OBSERVATIONS.  
Meanwhile in his 1919 OBSERVATIONS he places his nova at 02hr 33m 34.741s - 08 46' 
46.498" (1950) or a difference in RA from his COMPTES RENDUS position of about 22 
tsec and at this exact position there are no images visible.   Bigourdan describes 
his #252 as "Mag. 13.4 or 13.5, Strongly stellar, appearance a little nebulous."
Generally I would give greater importance to his OBSERVATIONS data, however, in 
this case his COMPTES RENDUS does come up with a 13 mag. star and therefore I 
would favor this data.
The NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), Steinicke and APL (=*) are all based upon the 
COMPTES RENDUS data.     NED has " There is no object with this name in NED."  
SIMBAD "Not present in the dtatbase."
NOTE:  Bigourdan's reference star is equal to AC #2116844 at 02hr 35 52.011 -08 
33' 56.13 (2000) and when his RA offset is reversed to read - 0 tmin 10.1 tsec 
instead of + 0 tmin 10.1 tsec and his Dec offset - 0 arcmin 13 arcsec, are applied 
to this star precessed to discovery year (1894), and again precessed to the year 
2000 it lands directly on top of the faint star.  

IC 1826.
OS-28.
Swift List XI, #42.  02hr 36m 14.605s - 27 39' 22.776" (1950).
02hr 38m 26.247s - 27 26' 27.228" (2000).
This is equal to IC 1830 (Stewart #162) :  At Swift's nominal position no 
nonstellar object exists, however, at about 39 tsec following there is a bright 
galaxy with a bright star close preceding and Swift's description for his #42 is 
"Pretty bright, Considerably small, Round, 8th mag. star near preceding.", 
however, this galaxy is IC 1830.
The MOL (NSO) places IC 1826 at the coordinates as given by Swift.  The MCG, NGC 
2000, PGC, APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke all correctly make it equal to IC 1830.

IC 1828.
POSS.O-443.
Javelle #939.  02hr 37m 40.705s + 19 04' 56.861" (1950).
02hr 40m 29.330s + 19 17' 47.290" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 1036 (H 475-3) :  There is no doubt that IC 1828 is a 
duplicate of NGC 1036 as there is only a single galaxy in the field and this is 
William Herschel's NGC 1036, however, the CGCG, UGC, SIMBAD and PGC all identify NGC 
1036 = IC 1828 = IC 1829 which is incorrect as IC 1829 is an entirely separate 
galaxy (See IC 1829).  The MCG, RC3 and DSFG give only the single identity NGC 1036, 
while the NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO) make no mention of any equivalency and give 
both IC 1828 and IC 1829 the coordinates as published by Dreyer in the NGC.  
Steinicke and NED have (= NGC 1036).The APL correctly gives IC 1828 = NGC 1036.
NOTE:  The Bonner Durchmusterung declination for Javelle's reference star DM +18 
333, is off by 2 arcmin therefore Javelle's Nominal Position is off by this amount 
in declination.  However, the Corrected Nominal Position as given above, based 
upon the modern position of the star, which is equal to AC #636817, lands on the 
correct galaxy.

IC 1829.
POSS. O-1300.
Javelle #940.  02hr 37m 48.303s + 14 05' 02.466" (1950).
02hr 40m 32.863s + 14 17' 52.684" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy with a declination error of 5.0 degrees :  The problem was 
created by a typographical error published in Part 1 of Javelle's Third Catalogue 
in which the North Polar Distance is given as 71 17'.5, (Epoch 1860) whereas the 
correct NPD is 76 17'.5 (1860) as given in Part 2 of the same catalogue where the 
separation values (+ 0 tmin 6.23 tsec RA and 3' 54.2" north in declination), are 
applied to Javelle's reference star DM +13 425 = GSC 645-1102  Unfortunately 
Dreyer in compiling the IC II relied only on the Javelle data as given in Part 1 
and this in turn led some of the modern cataloguers (CGCG, UGC, SIMBAD and PGC) to 
incorrectly identify NGC 1036 as equal to both IC 1828 and IC 1829 when the 
equivalency should concern only  NGC 1036 and IC 1828.
IC 1829 is an existing galaxy and is listed in the CGCG as "Anon." ZWG 439.026. at 
2hr 37.8m +14 05'.  The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) identify IC 1829 at the 
incorrect Dreyer declination.  Steinicke has the correct identity as does the APL.
For a more complete assessment of this problem see W.S.Q.J. #84, April 1991, pp 
36-38 "The Identification of IC 1829." M.J. Thomson.

IC 1830.
(See IC 1826).

IC 1837.
POSS. O-1453.
Javelle #945.  02hr 40m 56.894s + 00 05' 43.577" (1950).
02hr 43m 30.784s + 00 18 25.258" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 1072 (Stephan XII, No.24)  :
The APL, SIMBAD, Steinicke and PGC give the correct equivalency while the CGCG,  MCG 
and UGC give only the identity NGC 1072.  Javelle incorrectly gives his separation 
sign in NPD as + 5' 44".6, it should be - 5' 44".6 which when corrected would change 
the 1950 declination to read + 00 5' 43.577"
The NGC 2000 (No Type) gives the declination as + 00 07' (2000) while the MOL 
gives - 00 5' 57" (1950), which is incorrect while still equating it with NGC 1072 
which lies at + 00 5'.7

IC 1840.
POSS. O-911.
Howe III, #7.  02hr 41m 19.298s - 15 54' 54.651" (1950).
02hr 43m 40.715s - 15 42' 13.714" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy.  May be equal to NGC 1105 (Leavenworth) :  There is absolutely 
no doubt that Howe's object exists where he states it does and the MCG, PGC, NED, 
SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (Gx), MOL (NSO), DSFG (Notes to NGC 1081) all agree that 
this is a single identity (IC 1840), however, Dr. Corwin (APL) and Steinicke 
equates it with NGC 1105 (Leavenworth).
Leavenworth gives NGC 1105 coordinates of 02hr 45m 16.5s - 15 54'.8 (Dreyer) which 
is an excellent declination match with IC 1840 but would be about 03 tmin 58.5 
tsec greater than the RA of IC 1840.  This difference is not in itself excessive 
in Leavenworth's given positions and therefore the Corwin/Steinicke candidate has 
definite merit.

IC 1845.
Swift List XI, #44.  02hr 42m 45.343s -28 09' 52.958" (1950).
02hr 44m 55.729s - 27 57' 15.740" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This is equal to the ESO galaxy 416-G015 at 02hr 43m 26s - 28 
10'.2.  
At Swift's nominal position no nebular image is found, however, there are 
corroborating data that strongly supports this equivalency.
Swift discovered his #44 on the same night (December 22nd 1897), that he also 
discovered and gave positions for IC 1811, IC 1813 and IC 1814 and in all four 
cases his declination values are in good agreement with the modern declinations, 
but his RA's are in error by 41 tsec too small (IC 1811), 37 tsec too small (IC 
1813) and 44 tsec too small (IC 1814).
The difference in RA between Swift and ESO 416-G015 is 42 tsec which is in 
excellent agreement with the error rate for the other three objects he discovered 
on the same night and this plus the fact that ESO 416-G015 is certainly bright 
enough to have been visible to Swift convinces me that they are one and the same.
The MCG lists it only as - 5-7-18.  The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give the 
historical coordinates.  Correctly identified by Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED.  The PGC 
gives only the MCG and ESO identities.  The APL lists it as (**).

IC 1849.
POSS. O-1320.
Javelle #954.  02hr 45m 29.480s + 09 08' 57.345" (1950).
02hr 48m 10.464s + 09 21' 25.755" (2000).
Possible candidate :  There is no nebular image located at the Corrected Nominal 
Position as given by Javelle, 02hr 48m 10.464s + 09 21' 25.755" (2000).  
The CGCG, SIMBAD and MCG identify as IC 1849 a 15.5 Mp galaxy at the same 
declination but at a RA of 2hr 45'.1 or about 23 tsec preceding Javelle's RA.  The 
PGC, Steinicke, APL and NED also identifies this same galaxy as being IC 1849. 
I precessed Javelle's reference star, DM +8 294 to 1950 and found that the 
CGCG/MCG candidate lies at 21.4 tsec. following and 2 arcmin 54 arcsec arcmin 
north which does not conform with Javelle's RA separation of + 0m 47.3s  
(although the declination separation is excellent) and as Javelle's usual 
numerical values for his separations are very good (even though the direction of 
separation are sometimes in error).
As the CGCG/MCG galaxy is the only one in the immediate field and requires a 
Javelle correction for only the RA of 25.8 tsec I am accepting that this is what 
Javelle saw.  As for the difference in RA I am not able to account for it. 
Only other listings found are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) and both give the 
RA in accordance with Javelle's RA.

IC 1846 Field.
POSS. O-16.
Javelle (Coordinates below)..
This is a very complicated series of identities.  Javelle 
has 3 IC identities involved as follows.
Javelle #952 = IC 1846.  2hr 45m 00.416s + 13 02' 46.437" (1950).   
02hr 47m 44.523s + 13 15' 16.148" (2000).
Javelle #955 = IC 1850.  2hr 45m 56.122s + 13 03' 06.962" (1950).   
02hr 48m 40.281s + 13 15' 33.970" (2000).
Javelle #956 = IC 1852.  2hr 46m 15.639s + 13 00' 57.249" (1950).   
02hr 48m 59.784s + 13 13' 23.309" (2000).
All three represent confirmed galaxies visible on the Palomar print.
Marth was the first to examine the field and listed 7 
discoveries which were given the following NGC identities.
Marth#75 = NGC 1109.  2hr 46m 54s + 13 02'.8
Marth#76 = NGC 1111.  2hr 46m 58s + 13 01'.8
Marth#77 = NGC 1112.  2hr 47m 15s + 13 00'.8
Marth#78 = NGC 1113.  2hr 47m 23s + 13 05'.8
Marth#79 = NGC 1115.  2hr 47m 40s + 13 02'.6
Marth#80 = NGC 1116.  2hr 47m 50s + 13 07'.6
Marth#81 = NGC 1117.  2hr 47m 58s + 12 57'.6
Dr. Corwin in his APL has suggested the following 
equivalency
(1). IC 1846 = NGC 1109. This being dependent upon an almost 2 tmin error in 
Marth's RA and I am in agreement that this is a reasonable solution.  The PGC, 
SIMBAD and RC3 however have equated IC 1852 with NGC 1109.  I reject this on the 
basis that it requires Marth to have not only erred in his RA position, but also 
would place his NGC 1109 to follow in order of RA his NGC 1111.  The PGC also makes 
IC 1846 an entirely single identity, as does SIMBAD.  
(2). IC 1850 = NGC 1111. This being dependent upon an almost 1 tmin error in 
Marth's RA and again I find this a reasonable solution.
SIMBAD has IC 1850 "Not present in the database."
(3). IC 1852 = NGC 1112. This again reflecting an almost 1 tmin error by Marth and 
once more this appears to me to be a reasonable solution.  SIMBAD equates IC 1852 
with NGC 1109
It would thus be quite understandable why Javelle would have considered that 
according to the coordinates Marth had given the three IC identities represented 
additional objects.
The CGCG, UGC, and MCG give only the two IC identities IC 1846 and IC 1852 
without any equivalency   
The NGC 2000 and MOL list all the NGC and IC identities giving 
them separate coordinates and separate identities.  Steinicke and NED make the same 
equivalences as Dr. Corwin.

IC 1858 and IC 1859.
Swift List XI, #45.  02hr 46m 36.459s - 31 29' 58.080" (1950).
02hr 48m 42.948s - 31 17' 31.873" (2000). (IC 1858)  
#46  02hr 46m 38.560s - 31 23' 58.179" (1950).
02hr 48m 45.151s - 31 11' 32.077" (2000). (IC 1859).
Confirmed Galaxies :  Swift incorrectly describes IC 1858 as being the 1st of 3 
and IC 1859 as the 2nd of 3, however, the RA of IC 1859 is actually about 3 tsec 
preceeding IC 1858.  Due to this error the MOL has the incorrect order of RA for 
both identities.
The NGC 2000, APL, MCG, PGC, SIMBAD, ESO, RC3, NED and Steinicke each have the 
correct order of RA.

IC 1867.
POSS. O-1320.
Javelle #963.  02hr 53m 11.197s + 09 06' 36.219" (1950).
02hr 55m 52.414s + 09 18' 41.812" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Correctly identified in the CGCG, PGC, APL, Steinicke, SIOMBAD, 
NED, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO).  Both the UGC (Notes) and PGC state that the MCG 
confuses this identity making it IC 1868 and this appears to be the case.

IC 1868.
POSS. O-1320.
Javelle #964.  02hr 53m 24.399s + 09 10' 39.698" (1950).
02hr 56m 05.679s + 09 22' 44.624" (2000).
Probable candidate :  In its NOTES to IC 1867 (U02400), the 
UGC in addition to correcting the MCG error it states "IC 1868 is probably a 
double star at 2.3 arcmin north following IC 1867." and such a double star does 
lie reasonably close to the coordinates as given by Javelle, however, there is 
another candidate. 
Javelle's reference star for both IC 1867 and IC 1868 is a 9th magnitude star DM + 
8 452 and by applying Javelle's separation values for IC 1867 to this star they 
correctly point out IC 1867, however, there is another similar magnitude star (GSC 
641-411) at 02hr 56m 15.83s + 09 21' 01.5" (2000), or about 5 tsecs preceding and 
about 3 arcmin north of DM + 8 452 and I believe that Javelle mistook this north 
preceding star to be DM + 8 452 when he measured the separations for his IC 1868 
as when his separations (- 0m 10.25s RA and + 1'.41.3" dec.) are applied to this 
star they do fall upon a galaxy which I suggest is the true IC 1868 which would 
then have a 1950 position of about 2hr 53m 24.284s + 09 10' 38.297"
The only listings found are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO), both at the original 
Javelle position and the APL and Steinicke  both of whom give the correct position 
and identity. NED gives for IC 1868 "There is no object with this name in NED." 
however they do list the candidate as NPM1G +09.0089.  SIMBAD has "Not present in 
the database," but do list the candidate as Leda 3091399.

IC 1873.
POSS. O-1320.
Javelle #966.  03hr 01m 10.774s + 09 25' 10.206" (1950).
03hr 03m 52.521s + 09 36' 51.221" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Javelle not only misidentifies his reference star, calling it 
DM +9 261 when it actually is DM +9 390, but additionally he makes almost a 6 
arcmin error too small in its declination value.
When the correct reference star, equal to AC #221031 at 03hr 04m 01.113s + 09 39' 
56.41 (2000), is reduced to the year 1897, the offsets applied and the result 
precessed back to 2000 the coordinates for IC 1873 are given as 03hr 03m 52.521s + 
09 36' 51.221" at which position is the galaxy IC 1873.
The MCG and CGCG have the correct object and identifies it as IC 1873. Position 
given correctly in the APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke.  Only other listings 
found are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) and both have the incorrect declination 
value.

IC 1877.
Stewart #165.  03hr 01m 35.506s - 50 42' 13.778" (1950).
03hr 03m 11.095s - 50 30' 31.976" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This actually has no direct significance as to the identity of 
IC 1877, but rather is given here due to a most interesting mystery concerning a 
companion galaxy identified as ESO 199-G011.
Examination of the field on the DSS immediately shows IC 1877 very close to 
Stewart's coordinates and it can be established also by the fact that Stewart 
described it as being "eF, vS, E at 170 degrees, probably neb. suspected."  
The NGC 2000 (Gx.), MOL (NSO), APL, PGC, ESO, SIMBAD and Steinicke all correctly 
select this object and identify it as being IC 1877 and the NED gives it a magnitude 
of 16.3.
The mystery is that at about 0.2 tmin following and 1 arcmin north there is a 
larger and brighter galaxy (ESO 199-IG012), of magnitude 14.71 (NED), which 
Stewart makes no mention of in his Harvard paper (ANNALS OF HARVARD COLLEGE 
OBSERVATORY. VOL LX. No.VI. page157.).
My first reaction was that surely he was referring to this brighter companion as 
being his #165, however, the coordinates and PA of the major axis clearly identify 
the south preceeding object as being IC 1877.
I then contacted Dr. Corwin and solicited his opinion and his reply was that he 
likewise was mystified.
As I knew exactly the photographic plate number exposed by Stewart I decided to e-
mail Harvard and request them to see if it was still available in their archives 
as examination of the original plate would indicate if both images were visible 
and shortly later I was informed by Dr. Martha Hazen that they had indeed located 
it and that both galaxies were on the plate and that she would take Polaroid 
photographs to send to me.  She also stated that the Harvard people also could not 
come up with any definitive explanation as to why Stewart would have omitted it 
from his list.
Upon arrival of the photographs I examined them and confirmed the existence of the 
two images, although they were admittedly very faint (Dr. Hazen stated that they 
were more clearly visible on the original plate), and I then sent them off to Dr. 
Corwin who after examining them suggested that perhaps due to the rather unusual 
image of the companion that perhaps Stewart had decided that it was a photographic 
defect.
Dr. Hazen expressed great interest in the puzzle and very kindly searched and 
obtained Stewart's field logbook, however, she reported that it shed no additional 
light on the companion.
Thus, there does not appear to be any definite scientific explanation for the 
omission other than that as suggested by Dr. Corwin, or Stewart somehow just 
simply overlooked it.
NOTE (1) :  Shortly after investigating this problem I came across an almost 
similar situation regarding the identity IC 2022 which is Stewart's #258, Mp 16.5 
and is almost exactly at the coordinates as given by Stewart.  Here again, only 
this time at about 18 tsec following and 1 arcmin south, there is a larger and 
much brighter galaxy (IRAS F03580-5912 = PGC 014214. Mp 14.9) which is not 
indicated in Stewart's List.
One mystery might indeed be the result of photographic defect or oversight, but 
two mysteries certainly creates some doubt.
NOTE (2) :  I relayed this second case to Dr. Corwin and received his reply that 
obviously we cannot use the defect theory for this one.  He stated that it is most 
likely another example of being "missed" by Stewart or perhaps it results from 
mistaking a bright stellar nucleus for a star ?

IC 1881.
POSS. O-1307.
Bigourdan #253.  03hr 06m 04.359s + 38 27' 56.453" (1950).
03hr 09m 17.007s + 38 39' 21.036" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 1213 (Swift List1,#6).
Bigourdan mistook a star (actually a very close double star) for NGC 1213 and then 
proceeded to identify the true NGC 1213 as being a nova (#253), although it must 
be stated that he did point out in his description that this might be NGC 1213.
The CGCG, Steinicke, APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and UGC correctly give the equivalency.  
The RC3 and DSFG give only the identity NGC 1213.  The MCG identifies its +6-7-45 
only as IC 1881.  The MOL lists IC 1881 (NSO) with separate coordinates from NGC 
1213.

IC 1882.
POSS. O-363.
Javelle #968.  03hr 05m 13.200s + 02 57' 23.831" (1950).
03hr 07m 49.528s + 03 08' 52.249" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The only error here is a typographical one found in the UGC in 
which the identity is incorrectly given as IC 1182.

IC 1883.
POSS O-1168.
Barnard. 03hr 06m 25.402s + 40 42' 08.264" (1950).
03hr 09m 41.330s + 40 53' 31.745" (2000).  (Dreyer).
Confirmed galaxy :   It is possible that this is equal to NGC 1212  (Swift List 
1,#5.  03hr 05m 43s + 40 42' 15"), the difference in RA being 41s and in Dr H. 
Corwin's List of PRECISE POSITIONS FOR NGC AND IC OBJECTS (APL) he favours this 
equivalency.    
Swift describes  NGC 1212 as  "Small, Round, very, very faint. Right angled with 
two stars. In field with Algol," and at his coordinates there is no nebular image 
visible.  I find it very difficult to decide whether it was this faint star, or 
Barnard's IC 1883 that Swift actually was describing.  Certainly the 41s 
difference in RA is acceptable in reference to Swift's description pertaining to 
Algol as he generally employed an eyepiece having an unusually large field of view 
(32 arcmin), therefore, as to the equivalency I can only state that certainly it 
is a possibility.
Only listings found for IC 1883 are NED "There is no object with this name in 
NED."  SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (Galaxy) and MOL (NSO), 
neither refer to any equivalency, however, the APL does make it = NGC 1212.  
Steinicke equates IC 1883 with NGC 1212.
Note :  The RNGC 1212 has no validity based upon any historical data and it is 
certainly not Barnard's object.

IC 1884.
(See IC 290).

IC 1887.
(See IC 292).

IC 1888.
(See IC 293).

IC 1889.
(See IC 294, IC 295 and IC 296).

IC 1904.
Stewart #172.  03hr 12m 51.856s -30 52' 48.830" (1950).
03hr 14m 55.777s - 30 41' 44.017" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the MCG only as -5-8-24.  Correctly identified 
in the NGC 2000 (Gx), MOL (NSO), APL, PGC, RC3, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and the ESO.

IC 1905.
POSS. O-1618.
Bigourdan #374.  03hr 15m 27.29.256s + 41 10' 58.120" (1950).
03hr 18m 47.448s + 41 21' 51.934" (2000).
This is a very small group of stars without associated nebulosity :  Only modern 
listings are NGC 2000 (***), APL = ***, Steinicke (* 3), NED "There is no object 
with this name in NED,"  SIMBAD "Not present in the database." and MOL (Three 
stars).

IC 1907.
POSS. O-1618. 
Bigourdan #375.  03hr 16m 33.999s + 41 22' 06.146" (1950).
03hr 19m 52.663s + 41 32' 56.015" (2000). (Comptes Rendus).
In 1786 William Herschel discovered a nebula which he listed as H 603-2 giving it 
coordinates of 3hr 16m 21s + 41 20' 52" and describing it as  "pB, stellar or pcst 
with S, vF chevalure."    
The field was later examined by John Herschel who again reports only seeing and 
measuring the position of his father's nebula, H 603-2 which he placed at 3hr 16m 
27s + 41 19' 59", describing it to be  "pB, R, gbM, 40'' diam."  In addition to 
listing it as H 603-2 he gave it the identity h 293.
Next to examine the field was the Danish astronomer H. D'Arrest who recorded the 
discovery of 6 novae associated with H 603-2.  The first 5 of these novae by order 
of Right Ascension we know today as NGC 1267, NGC 1268, NGC 1270, NGC 1272 and NGC 
1273, however, when it comes to the last 2 nebulae he observed he was uncertain 
which of them was H 603-2 as he was confronted by what he describes as  "Double 
Nebula" and that one was of the Second Class (Faint nebula) while the other, which 
was 5.7 tsec RA following and 2'.75 to the north, was of the Third Class  (Very 
faint nebula).   
One would have thought that this would have made the brighter southern one the 
best choice for being Herschel's object, but for some reason D'Arrest in his 
published OBSERVATIONES HAVNIENSES decided to make the north following object H 
603-2 = h 293, although he did follow these identities with a question mark  (? ).
In 1864 John Herschel published his GENERAL CATALOGUE OF NEBULAE  (GC)  in which 
he listed all of the discovered nonstellar objects known to that time, giving each 
of them their original identities, listing their discoverers and adding by order 
of Right Ascension a GC identity.  He correctly identifies D'Arrest's 6th Nebula  
(the southern of the "Double Nebula") as being H 603-2 = h293 = GC 674, whereas 
D'Arrest had identified the northern of the pair as being H 603-2 = h293.  
Comparison of D'Arrest's positional data with J. Herschel's as published in the GC 
are in excellent agreement with the single exception of D'Arrest's 7th object (NGC 
1278).  D'Arrest gives it 3hr 16m 34s + 41 22'.7, which is reasonably accurate, 
while J. Herschel gives 3hr 16m 29s + 41 20' 3" thus placing it right on the north 
following edge of H 603-2.
L. Dreyer published in 1888 his great work the NGC and when faced with the obvious 
disagreement between the John Herschel and D'Arrest candidates for which object 
was H 603-2 unfortunately decided to go with D'Arrest  (NGC/IC. Page 214.).  
Having correctly noted that in the GC catalogue J. Herschel had made an error of 
about 2 arcmins. for the declination of D'Arrest's object # 7 he then incorrectly 
decided that GC 674 was the northern of D'Arrest's pair thus we have in the NGC 
the identities NGC 1278 = GC 674 = h 293 = H 603-2 when the correct identities 
should be NGC 1275 = GC 674 = h 293 = H 603-2 while GC 675 should be = NGC 1278.   
It should be pointed out quite clearly that the NGC identities themselves are not 
in error, it is only the equivalency with the earlier identities that are 
incorrectly listed in the NGC.  It should also be noted that these same pre- NGC 
identities are confused in the observational data contained and prepared by Dreyer 
in the Lord Rosse observations .
Now we come to these Rosse observations and according to the NGC three new objects 
in the field of NGC 1275 were discovered, NGC1274 =GC 5302, NGC 1276 = GC 5303 and 
NGC 1277 = GC 5304 = GC 5305.  
It is important to remember that all GC identities from 5080 to 6251 are not from 
J. Herschel's GC catalogue but rather are SUPPLEMENT IDENTITIES  provided by 
Dreyer  (NGC Page 5 ).
NGC 1276 = GC 5303 is included in the Birr Observations of Dec. 12th 1876, being 
measured from NGC 1278  (incorrectly identified as GC 674, should be GC 675). 
The separation places NGC 1276  3.5 tsec RA preceding and 4' 48" north, however, 
when these values are measured on the Palomar print O-1618 this turns out to be a 
double star.  
The RNGC lists its RNGC 1276 as being 0.1m of RA preceding and having the same 
declination as NGC 1278 and even if one uses the XY coordinates in the RNGC the 
difference in declination in millimeters is only 1mm. which hardly corresponds 
with 4' 48" of arc, therefore their candidate for the identity NGC 1276 has 
absolutely no historical support.  The RNGC also gives contradictory data 
regarding the declination values for RNGC 1276 in relation to RNGC 1277 as in its 
SKY COORDINATES it places RNGC 1276 to lie 1arcmin. south of RNGC 1277 while for 
it Rectangular Coordinates it places RNGC 1276 to lie 1mm. north of RNGC 1277.
Finally there is the puzzling case of IC 1907 = Bigourdan # 375.  Nowhere in 
Bigourdan's great 1919 publication  is there any positional data given to this 
identity other than in reference to NGC 1277, however, Bigourdan gives it a 
position of 3hr 16m 32s + 41 22'.2 in the Comptes Rendus List from which Dreyer in 
his IC II catalogue gives it coordinates of 3hr 16m 34s + 41 22'.1, thus placing 
it 2 tsec following and 1'.5 south of his position for NGC 1277 or 0'.5 south of 
his NGC 1278 and there is at almost exactly this position on the Palomar print the 
image of a very faint galaxy which is listed in Wolf and Kaiser's List of 124  
Nebulae in the Perseus Cluster in which it is identified as # 74. at 3hr 16m 
33.79s + 41 22' 9".8. and for a considerable time I was of the opinion that this 
must be IC 1907, however, I have now abandoned this as being tenable due to a 
number of factors which will not support this premise. namely, WK #74 has a Mp of 
16.7, also in the Webb Society Handbook Vol. 5 there are visual observations of 
NGC 1278 by R.G.Buta of the McDonald Observatory using the 36 inch reflector, 
myself using a 16.5 inch reflector and Dr. G. Whiston employing a 16 inch 
reflector, only Buta was able to see WK #74 close south preceding NGC 1278 and he 
described it as  "Very faint" and finally Bigourdan's own references in his NGC 
1277 observations made with a 12 inch refracting telescope.
Bigourdan only references for B.375 are in two of the four observations he made 
for NGC 1277.  
The first reference is in his October 21st 1884 observation in which he states 
that NGC 1277 is at a distance of 50 arcsec. from the nebula B.375.   The second 
is for December 2nd 1886 in which he describes NGC 1277 as being at a Position 
Angle of 320 and a distance of 1 arcmin. from B.375.  
Well this would indicate that his B.375 is equal to NGC 1278  (The UGC Notes place 
NGC 1277 at a PA of 321. Dist.0'.8 from NGC 1278), but why would Bigourdan not 
just have dispensed with even mentioning the identity B.375 and instead have made 
the same references using the identity NGC 1278?    
Bigourdan in this same 1919 work identifies and measures accurately the position 
for NGC 1278 on the same four dates he observed NGC 1277 so evidently he was well 
aware of their existence.  
I have now come to the belief that the reason for this confusion is that he 
considered that just possibly John Herschel's position for GC 675 = D'Arrest's 7th 
object = NGC 1278, placing it just off the north following edge of NGC 1275 was 
correct and because of this possibility, small as it might be, he was not yet 
ready to fully abandon his B.375 identity.  
There is no way to prove my assumption to be the right one, however, it does 
provide a reasonable explanation to the confusion involved.  Never-the-less, it 
appears to be certain that IC 1907 is equal to NGC 1278.
The CGCG and SIMBAD have incorrectly makes IC 1907 = NGC 1274, while the MCG, NED 
and PGC have wrongly made IC 1907 equal to a very faint galaxy listed as CR 32 
(Chincarini,G. & Rood. 1971.)  at 3hr 16m 18s + 41 24'.0.    
Both the NGC 2000 and MOL list IC 1907 as a separate galaxy without any 
equivalency to any other identity and giving it different coordinates from NGC 
1278.  The APL gives = NGC 1278.  Steinicke equates IC 1907 with NGC 1278.

IC 1910.
POSS. O-897.
Stewart #176.  03hr 15m 43.671s - 21 36' 57.913" (1950).
03hr 17m 57.448s - 21 26' 02.920" (2000).
Not found :  I was unable to find on the DSS any nebular image on or close to the 
given position.  Stewart described it as "2 extremely faint, extremely small 
nebulae suspected."
The NGC 2000 gives (No Type), the MOL (NSO) while the APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke 
have (Not found).

IC 1911.
POSS. O-1333.
Bigourdan #258  03hr 17m 35.998s + 35 06' 54.120" (1950). 03hr 20m 45.749s + 35 
17' 40.843" (2000). (Comptes Rendus).
Not found :  Bigourdan described it as "Glimpsed only, Sky less than normal."  
Only modern listings are Steinicke, APL and NED (Not found), SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).
NOTE: In Bigourdan's Appendix VIII, Page 11 he reports that he measured a position 
on 25th March 1887 from the star AG Leyde 1259 and when his offsets (+0m 5.10s RA +2' 
49" Dec) are applied it would give coordinates of 03hr 20m 47.38s + 35 19' 23.0 
(2000) for IC 1911.  Bigoudan then describes it as "Trace of nebulosity, only 
suspected."

IC 1917.
Stewart #182.  03hr 20m 48.542s - 53 22' 16.125" (1950).
03hr 22m 13.254s - 53 11' 36.479" (2000).
Possible candidate ?  At the nominal position there is definitely a galaxy which 
is faint and makes up a group with 4 very faint stellar images some of which may 
be extremely compact galaxies.  Whether this, or some combination of these images 
is what Stewart is referring to as "Elongated north to south" I am unable to say 
with any certainty 
The obvious galaxy in this group has the identity APM 032047.78 - 532145.2 with 
coordinates of 03hr 20m 48s - 53 21' 45" and has a Mp of 15.99 which is brighter 
than many of Stewart's other discoveries
Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type), the MOL as (NSO).  NED identifies the galaxy 
APM 032047.78 - 532145.2 but does not equate it with any IC identity.  The APL 
gives 6  entries all identified as  IC 1917, while the ESO has 155-?023 at 03hr 
20m 48s - 53 23'.0.  Steinicke lists IC 1917 the same as the ESO, as does SIMBAD.
NOTE :  Subsequent to my investigation I reported my findings to Dr. Corwin and 
he responded by affirming the equivalency between IC 1917 and APM 032047.78-
532145.2

IC 1920.
Stewart #183.  03hr 22m 49.249s - 52 53' 22.872" (1950).
03hr 24m 14.663s - 52 42' 50.050" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Stewart's coordinates land between two very small galaxies 
either of which might be his object and without seeing the original discovery 
plate it is virtually impossible to decide which image he is referring to as his 
#183.
The ESO has suggested that the preceeding of the pair is IC 1920 (ESO 155-G024), 
which according to NED has a Mp of 16.34 and this equivalency is supported by the 
APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke.  The following galaxy is APMBGC 155-041-118 at 
03hr 22m 58.9s - 52 53' 21", Mp 16.41 = Shap.324-5242.5 (Shapley, H. 1935. A 
CATALOGUE OF 7889 EXTERNAL GALAXIES IN HOROGIUM AND SURROUNDING REGIONS . Harvard 
Annals 88:107).
An interesting finding concerning the following of the pair is that Stewart's 
discovery plate is #3339 and this is the same plate he employed to measure 
positions for both IC 1924 and IC 1926 and in both these cases his RA is about 9.0 
tsec too small, while for IC 1920 his RA is about 10.9 tsec too small
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give the historical coordinates.
NOTE:  I informed Dr. Harold Corwin of my thoughts on the identity of IC 1920 and 
he agreed that my argument in support of the following of the pair being IC 1920 
was valid, furthermore, he calculated the mean surface brightness for both 
galaxies and found that ESO 155-G024 was = 14.33 and APMBGC 155-041-118 was = 
14.38, also the ESO candidate has a smaller and brighter core with less light in 
the spiral arms which would make its image on the original plate more stellar and 
less likely to appear nebulous to Stewart.
This then combined with the apparent systematic offset errors in RA would favour 
that IC 1920 is the galaxy APMBGC 155-041-118.

IC 1921.
Stewart #184.  03hr 23m 11.957s - 50 52' 24.018" (1950).
03hr 24m 42.045s - 50 41' 52.614" (2000).
Not found :  This is supposed to make up one of a pair with IC 1922 and according 
to Stewart's coordinates it would lie about 2 arcmin directly north of IC 1922, 
however, at the nominal position there is only a blank spot.  Possibly a defect on 
the discovery plate ?
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) list it at Stewart's position.  The ESO has 
(IC 1921 ? 200-?012 at 3hr 23m 12s - 50 53'.0).  Both the APL and Steinicke give 
(Not found, possibly = ESO candidate).  NED gives "There is no object with this 
name in NED."  SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 1925.
Stewart #188.  03hr 23m 46.517s - 51 26' 26.007" (1950).
03hr 25m 15.173s - 51 15' 56.522" (2000).
This is equal to IC 1929 (Stewart #191) :  Stewart measured coordinates for both 
identities making IC 1929 to follow IC 1925 by 0.2 tmin and both having the same 
declination.  He described IC 1925 as "E np to sf, stell." and IC 1929 as "E np to 
sf." and when the field is examined there is only a single galaxy that fits this 
description and it is at the coordinates as given by Stewart for his #191.
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give both identities as separate objects at 
the historical positions.  The APL has (= 1829 ?. Not found at nominal position).  
The ESO (200-?018 = IC 1925 = IC 1929 ? 03hr 23m 48s - 51 26'.0)  Steinicke has 
(Equal to IC 1929) and NED list as (Not found). The PGC gives the single identity 
IC 1929. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database."

IC 1927.
Stewart #190.  03hr 23m 45.418s - 51 54' 25.976" (1950).
03hr 25m 12.985s - 51 43' 56.396" (2000).
Not found. Possibly equal to 2 faint stars :  At the exact coordinates as given by 
Stewart there is no nebular image.  Stewart gives it the same RA as IC 1926 and 
places its declination as being 2 arcmin south and allowing for the 9 tsec error 
that he gives for the RA of IC 1926 there is at a position close to 2 arcmin 
directly south the images of 2 very faint stars and Steinicke equates these 2 
stars with the identity IC 1927 and also equates this with ESO 200 ?019.
The APL has (Not found at nominal position = ESO 200-?019).  The NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO) list IC 1927 at the historical coordinates.  NED gives "There 
is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 1929.
(See IC 1925).

IC 1934.
POSS. O-643.
Barnard.  03hr 27m 52.409s +42 37' 32.324" (1950).
03hr 31m 15.012s + 42 47' 44.095" (2000).(Dreyer).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in UGC, NED and PGC only as UGC 02769.  The APL, 
SIMBAD and Steinicke have the correct identification.  Only other listings are NGC 
2000 (Gx) and MOL (NSO).

IC 1939.
Stewart #199.  03hr 26m 16.406s - 51 14' 34.509" (1950).
03hr 27m 44.954s - 51 04' 13.567" (2000).
Not found :  Listed in the NGC as (No Type) and the MOL as (NSO).  The APL has 
(Not found at nominal position)   NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke (Not found).  Listed in 
the ESO as 200-?027.

IC 1941.POSS O- 441.
Stewart #202.  03hr 29m 15.250s + 24 15' 17.804" (1950).
03hr 32m 13.033s - 24 25' 25.432" (2000).
At the nominal position there is only a faint star :  
Only listings found are NGC 2000 (No Type), Steinicke (=*3), NED (Not found), APL 
"Line of 3 sts." and MOL (NSO).  SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 


IC 1943.
Swift List XI, #55.  03hr 28m 02.288s - 44 16' 40.161" (1950).
03hr 29m 44.656s - 44 06' 25.740" (2000).
Not found at nominal position.  Probably equal to NGC 1411 (h 2573).
Swift describes his nova as "pB, S, R." and there is no image anywhere close to 
his coordinates fitting this description, however, at 03hr 37m 05.8s - 44 15' 27" 
there is a galaxy fitting this description, NGC 1411.
The difference in RA is about 9 tmin, which at first seems excessive even for 
Swift, but on his same List XI the object listed immediately preceeding his #55 is 
IC 1919 and Dreyer in the IC II queries whether there is a 9 tmin error in its 
given RA.  This would seem to establish that IC 1943 could very well be equal to 
NGC 1411. The MOL (NSO) gives IC 1943 at the historical coordinates.  The ESO 
correctly gives NGC 1411 = 249-G011 at 03hr 37m 04s - 44 15'.7, and then lists IC 
1943 = 248-?016 at 03hr 28m 00s - 44 17'.0
The APL, NGC 2000, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke make the equivalency with NGC 1411.  
The PGC gives the single identity NGC 1411.

IC 1956.
POSS. O-1499.
Javelle #979.  03hr 32m 54.863s + 04 54' 24.409" (1950).
03hr 35m 32.291s + 05 04' 19.912" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The UGC identifies this galaxy only as U02795 and the MCG only 
as +1-10-001 The PCG (Corrections) notes the MCG omission.   Correctly identified 
in the CGCG, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO). 

IC 1963.
Swift List XI, #56.  03hr 32m 56.697s - 34 36' 50.744" (1950).
03hr 34m 53.469s - 34 26' 53.942" (2000).
This is equal to IC 335 (Swift List VII, #8)  :
Swift discovered IC 335 ten years prior to his observation for IC 1963 and he gave 
IC 335 coordinates of 03hr 33m 04s - 34 36' 44".  In both descriptions he 
describes them as being elongated east and west (90 degrees) and there is such a 
galaxy at the coordinates he gives.  The matching positions for both identities 
confirms the equivalency.
The MOL (NSO) gives both identities as separate objects.  The NGC 2000, APL, 
Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD the PGC and ESO correctly equate the two identities.

IC 1972 and IC 1973.
Stewart #226.  03hr 35.0m - 52 08'.0 (IC 1972) and 03hr 35.0m - 52 09'.0 (IC 
1973).
Confirmed galaxies :  The error here is in the declinations as given in the NGC 
2000 in which they make IC 1973 the northern of the pair when the reverse is 
correct.  The MOL, APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and ESO have the correct 
alignment.
IC 1979.
Stewart #231.  03hr 35m 36.773s - 58 06' 07.566" (1950).
03hr 36m 43.867s - 57 56' 18.601" (2000).
This is a faint double star :  Stewart found a galaxy (IC 1980) on Plate #4184 at 
03hr 35.8m - 58 08'.1, or 0.2 tmin following and 2 arcmin south of the position he 
gives for IC 1979.  At the position he gives for IC 1980 there is a galaxy as 
described by Stewart "eE at 25 degrees" and at the separation values he gives for 
1979 there is only the image of a faint double star which has a brighter star 
preceeding the northern component.  The components of this double star are also in 
agreement with the PA (20 degrees) given by Swift in his description for IC 1979.
The ESO, SIMBAD and  NED  equate the identities IC 1979 and IC 1980 which is 
incorrect, and the NGC 2000 and MOL list IC 1979 as (No Type) and (NSO).  The APL 
and Steinicke correctly make IC 1979 = ** and give IC 1980 as a galaxy.  The PGC has 
no listing for the identity IC 1979.

IC 1981.
POSS. SO-30.
Swift List XI, #58.  03hr 37m 45.910s - 27 01' 25.437" (1950).
03hr 39m 51.917s - 26 51' 46.060" (2000).
Not found at nominal position:  At the given position no nebular image exists, 
however, this is to be expected with Swift's coordinates.  The APL, NGC 2000, PGC, 
NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke have all equated this identity with NGC 1412 (H 248-3) and 
this is the most likely candidate.  It is so identified in the MCG but only as IC 
1981 without any mention of NGC 1412 and the MOL (NSO) gives the original Swift 
coordinates.

IC 1983.
POSS. O-908.
Swift list XI, #59.  03hr 38m 55.735s - 22 45'53.429" (1950).
03hr 41m 06.583s - 22 36' 18.407" (2000).
Unable to confirm :  At Swift's nominal position no nebular image is to be found.  
Swift describes it as "Very faint, pretty small, round; Not NGC 1426."  The PGC, 
SIMBAD, Steinicke and APL have equated this identity with NGC 1415 at 03hr 38m 
45.7s - 22 43' 19.30", Mp 12.77 (NED), which most likely means an even brighter 
visual magnitude, whereas as we see Swift described it as "Very faint." 
Also I checked Steve Gotttlieb's visual observation of NGC 1415 made with a 
telescope of comparable aperture to the one employed by Swift, observing from Lowe 
Mountain, California at a more southern latitude than Steve, and Steve describes 
NGC 1415 as being moderately bright in both a 17.5 and 13 inch reflector, while he 
also detected in both telescopes the elongated nature of NGC 1415 whereas Swift 
describes his object as "Round."
Certainly the difference in coordinates between the two identities (about 08.3tsec 
RA and 2.5 arcmin dec.) would be well within the normal error factor found with 
many of Swift's given positions, but there is visible on the DSS another field 
galaxy which is I believe better fits Swift's description, NGC 1416, Mp 14.30 at 
03hr 38m 52.154s - 22 52' 43.90 (1950).  Gottlieb describes this as "Faint, Small, 
Round." An excellent match for that given by Swift. Based only on its given 
magnitude it could have certainly been within the reach of Swift's telescope but 
of course this is no guarantee that this is what he saw, therefore, I am at this 
time listing the identity as "Unable to confirm."
The NGC 2000 lists both identities as separate galaxies with separate coordinates 
while the MOL states (May not exist).  The PGC also equates it with NGC 1415 while 
Carlson states "Not found. Mt. Wilson and Helwan plates."

IC 1988.
Swift List XI, #61.  03hr 40m 57.501s - 40 02' 43.366" (1950).
03hr 42m 45.085s - 39 53' 14.790" (2000).
Not found :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  The ESO has 302-
?002.  The APL, Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED have (Not found).

IC 1992.
Stewart #239.  03hr 43m 42.853s - 51 09' 35.962" (1950).
03hr 45m 07.869s - 51 00' 16.578" (2000).
Not found :  There is no nonstellar image at or close to Stewart's position.  The 
NGC 2000 lists as (No Type) and MOL as (NSO).  The ESO has 200-?057 while 
Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED list as Not found.  The APL also has Not found.

IC 2001.
Stewart #245.  03hr 49m 23.383s - 48 46' 56.510" (1950).
03hr 50m 52.902s - 48 37' 58.055" (2000).
Not found :  At Stewart's nominal position there is no nebular image only a very 
faint single star close following.  The NGC 2000 gives (No Type) and the MOL 
(NSO).  Steinicke has (*2).  The ESO has 201-?005 and NED has (Not found).
SIMBAD "Not present in the database." The APL lists it as ** at 03hr 49m 22.1s - 48 
44' 57" (1950) and this does lie close south of 3 stars as described by Stewart.  If 
this is IC 2201 then Stewart is off by about 2 arcmin too far south.
(See IC 2011).

IC 2002.
POSS. O-940.
Javelle #983.  03hr 51m 45.835s + 10 33' 38.841" (1950).
03hr 54m 30.245s + 10 42' 25.845" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy. Probably equal to NGC 1474 :
NGC 1474 is one of Marth's discoveries to which he gave coordinates of 3hr 51m 52s 
+ 10 25'.5 and at this position no object is found.  Dr. Corwin and Steinicke have 
suggested that NGC 1474 is equal to IC 2002 stating that on the same night that 
Marth observed his object he also claimed some additional novae and for a number 
of these his coordinates are in error by as much as 30 tsec RA and/or 30 arcmin. 
Dec.
The NGC 2000 and MOL lists both identities as separate objects and incorrectly 
give NGC 1474 the declination - 10 33'.0  The PGC, CGCG, MCG, UGC, SIMBAD and NED 
give the single identity IC 2002.

IC 2007.
Swift List XI, #64.  03hr 52m 43.074s - 28 17' 25.756" (1950).
03hr 54m 46.248s - 28 08' 40.857" (2000).
This is equal to IC 2008 (Swift List XI, #65) :  Swift discovered his #64 on 
December 26th 1897, describing it as "eF, S, R, F* in contact nf."
There is no nebular object at or in the vicinity of his given position.
He discovered his #65 on October 5th 1896, describing it as "eF, vS, eeeF * v 
close nf." and giving it coordinates of 03hr 53m 03s - 28 21'.4 and at a RA of 
03hr 53m 19s there is a galaxy which fits both of these descriptions, the faint 
star lying right on the galaxy's north following edge.
The MOL (NSO) gives both identities as separate objects with the historical 
coordinates. The MCG gives only the identity IC 2008 and questions the identity 
(?).  The NGC 2000, APL, ESO, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke all correctly make the 
equivalency.

IC 2008.
(See IC 2007).

IC 2011.
Stewart #248. 03hr 51m 28.238s - 57 38' 04.952" (1950).
03hr 52m 32.796s - 57 29' 13.431" (2000).
Not found at nominal position :  About 2 arcmin north of Stewart's position for IC 
2011 there is a double star whose component are aligned at 90 degrees and are 
almost in contact and Steinicke has selected this as being IC 2011 which has 
considerable merit because its image may appear somewhat nebulous on the early 
plates as employed by Stewart.  The APL has both Not found and = **, while the ESO 
lists it as Not found 117-?012.  Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) list it 
at the historical coordinates.  NED gives "There is no object with this name in 
NED."  SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
NOTE:  Is this a declination error similar to IC 2001 ?  I would have no 
hesitation in confirming this thought except for the fact that IC 2001 and IC 2011 
were discovered on different plates.

IC 2013.
POSS. O-1517.
Stewart #251.  03hr 54m 27.898s - 17 15' 13.848" (1950).
03hr 56m 43.934s - 17 06' 35.970" (2000).
Not found :  At Stewart's coordinates no nebular image is found, certainly nothing 
resembling his description "Considerably bright, considerably large, much 
elongated 170 degrees, considerably brighter in the middle, suspected."  There is 
at about 01.7 tmin preceding his position a very faint and very small galaxy but 
this hardly fits Stewart's description, also his positional error ratio is much 
smaller than this in RA.
Only modern listings found were NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), NED, SIMBAD, APL, and 
Steinicke (Not found).

IC 2026.
POSS. O-912.
Bigourdan #376.  04hr 01m 33.094s - 11 18' 54.415" (1950).
04hr 03m 55.233s - 11 10' 43.547" (2000).
Equal to NGC 1509 (Swift List V, #59 and O.Stone AJ 1 #122):
This is a very interesting puzzle in that it would seem that more than one 
authority is confused.  
Both Swift and Stone using larger telescopes than Bigourdan are credited with the 
discovery of a single object in the field, namely NGC 1509.  Swift's coordinates 
are 04hr 01m 43s - 11 18' 32" while Stone gives 04hr 01.8m - 11 17'.8 and for 
these two observers the coordinates are quite accurate.  
Swift's description (copied into the NGC by Dreyer) reads "Very faint, very small, 
little extended. Faint star near preceding."
Bigourdan in his 1919 OBSERVATIONS attempted twice to find NGC 1509.  The first 
time on December 14th 1890 when he was unsuccessful and the second time on 
December 16th 1897 when he measures an object from his reference star (BD -11 793) 
and gives it coordinates of 04hr 01m 37.8s - 11 18' 33".  He describes this object 
as "Very faint, appears to be a small nebula of 10 to 15 arcsec and demi-stellar 
without perceptible detail, the close star described in the NGC is the object 
measured as BIG 376."
Next Bigourdan measures and describes a Nova (his Big. #376), using the same 
reference star and giving its position as 04hr 01m 33.8s - 11 18' 17"  "Object 
13.2 to 13.3 Mag.  A little nebulous, quite stellar of 05 to 10 arcsec in size."
Now when the field is examined on the DSS we find 3 objects in line almost equally 
apart.  By order of RA they are a 15.5 Mp galaxy, a 14.5 Mp galaxy and a star of 
about 13th mag.
It is my believe that what Bigourdan thought was possibly NGC 1509 is the 13 mag. 
star and that he then decided that what is the brighter of the two galaxies was a 
nova and gave it the identity Big.#376 and as it appeared quite stellar to him he 
assumed that it was what Swift had described as "a star close preceding," whereas 
I also think that what Swift mistook as being a star close preceding his NGC 1509 
was an Anon. galaxy (the preceding or first of two visible in the immediate field, 
(the only other explanation for Swift's reference to an associated star would be 
if he has mis-stated the relative RA of the star to that of NGC 1509 and that he 
should have stated "star close following" not "close preceding," in which case it 
would be the 3rd object in the immediate field, the star Bigourdan mistakenly 
identified as being NGC 1509).
As both Swift and Stone only saw a single object it would have had to be the 
brightest which is the second by RA and it is this same galaxy that Bigourdan 
identifies as his Big.376.The MCG, PGC, SIMBAD and NED have incorrectly identified 
the preceding galaxy as being IC 2026 and correctly identified the following of 
two galaxies as being NGC 1509.  
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give separate identities and separate 
coordinates to the NGC and IC identities.
The only modern authorities to equate IC 2026 with NGC 1509 that I am aware of are 
the APL and Steinicke.

IC 2030.
POSS. O-1517.
Stewart #264.  04hr 02m 43.145s - 19 21' 44.991" (1950).
04hr 04m 56.420s - 19 13' 38.265" (2000).
Not found :  There exists a small galaxy (ESO 550.G004 =NPMIG -19.0173), at about 
2 arcmin south of and 04 tsec following Stewart's position, however, it does not 
fit Stewart's description "Considerably faint, very small, exceedingly elongated 
135 degrees, suspected."
The NGC 2000 gives (No Type) and the MOL (NSO), while NED and SIMBAD select and 
identify the faint galaxy NPMIG - 19.0173 as being IC 2030.  The APL has "Not found" 
Steinicke has (Not found).
NOTE:  Here again there is a 2 arcmin difference in declination between the 
nominal position and the suggested candidate as found in IC 2001 and IC 2011, 
although in this case the error would be in the opposite direction and again is on 
an entirely different photographic plate from the other two. 

IC 2031.
POSS. O-1518.
Barnard.  04hr 03m 25.844s - 05 45' 06.218"
04hr 05m 53.732s - 05 37' 02.636" (2000). (Dreyer).
Possible candidate :  At Barnard's coordinates no nebular image is found, however, 
at about 21 tsec following and 02 arcmin south there is a galaxy, (NPMIG - 05.0170 
Mp 16.03) at 04hr 06m 14.695s - 05 39' 06.87 (2000). that does fit his description 
"Exceedingly faint, very small, diffuse, little brighter in the middle, * 11th 
mag. north following 3 arcmin."
Both the NGC 2000 and MOL list IC 2031 at the Dreyer coordinates.  Steinicke and 
the APL has (= NPM1G - 05.0170)  Not listed in the PGC.  The GSC 2.2 identifies 
this object as S0212300152 Type 0 (star). NED has (Not found), but does list NPMIG 
- 5.0170 as a galaxy.  SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  They do however, l;ist 
NPMIG -5.0170.  
NOTE: The coordinates as given by Dreyer are only approximate, both RA and Dec 
having + or - signs.  

IC 2040.
Swift list XI, #67.  04hr 10m 25.543s - 32 42' 03.137" (1950).
04hr 12m 21.184s - 32 34' 25.454" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Swift's RA is about 46 tsec too small and this may account for 
Carlson (Not found, Helwan) and the MOL listing it as (May not exist).  The APL, 
RC3, MCG, PGC, DSFG, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and ESO have the correct identity.

IC 2041.
Swift List XI, #68.  04hr 10m 40.081s - 33 00' 04.091" (1950).
04hr 12m 35.260s - 32 52' 27.335" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Swift's declination is just over 3 arcmin too far south, 
however, IC 2041 is easily visible on the DSS and matches  Swift's description 
concerning being in the same field as NGC 1531-2.
Carlson in her paper lists IC 2041 as (Not found, Helwan) and this may have 
influenced the MOL which states "May not exist." The NGC 2000, RC3, PGC, 
DSFG, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and the ESO have the correct identity.
The APL equates it with IC 2048. Note: (See IC 2048).

IC 2042.
Innes.  04hr 10m 14.363s - 47 23' 17.273" (1950).
04hr 11m 43.617s - 47 15' 37.747" (2000).
This is equal to a single star :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and the MOL 
as (NSO).  The APL, Steinicke and the ESO correctly equate it with a single star.  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 2045.
POSS. O-912.
Howe III,#14.  04hr 12m 16.528s -13 17' 51.541" (1950).
04hr 14m 36.206s - 13 10' 22.016" (2000).
Possibly equal to NGC 1538 but unable to confirm :  
Listed in the PGC and NED as being equal to NGC 1538.  The APL gives IC 2045=?? 
NGC 1538.
Howe discovered IC 2045 on January 20th 1900 with the Chamberin Observatory's 20 
inch refractor.  He described it as "Exceedingly faint, extremely small, almost 
stellar; near NGC 1538."
When his coordinates are applied to the Palomar print they show a galaxy with a 
fainter companion close south preceding.  These two galaxies lie between 2 bright 
stars , the stars being aligned south preceding north following.  
The brighter of these two galaxies, (the north following of the pair) is Howe's IC 
2045. 
South following IC 2045 at about 20 tsec and 1.0 arcmin there is another galaxy 
with a faint companion just beyond its preceding edge, the brighter of this pair 
is Howe's other discovery, his #15 = IC 2047 to which he gave coordinates of 04hr 
12m 36.499s - 13 18' 52,837 (1950)
Howe states that both IC 2045 and IC 2047 are near NGC 1538.  His source for NGC 
1538 would have either been from its discoverer's data  (O. Stone. The 
Astronomical Journal No.146. November 24th 1886), in which it is listed as 
discovery #125, or from Dreyer's NGC (1888).
O. Stone (Leander McCormick Observatory) had discovered NGC 1538 while observing 
with the 26 inch refractor and had given it coordinates of 04hr 12m 47.313s - 13 
21' 51.153" (1950), while Dreyer gives 04hr 12m 45s - 13 21'.7 and these would 
have provided to Howe where NGC 1538 should be found and when these coordinates 
are examined on the Palomar print they land close to the south preceding of a pair 
of galaxies south following both IC 2045 and IC 2047.
Now lets examine the NED (NASA EXTRAGALCTIC DATABASE) identities.  All 1950 Epoch.
(1). NGC 1538 = NPMIG -13.0170. Mp 15.0  04hr 12m 16.3s - 13 17' 59"
(2). NPMIG.-13.0171. Mp 15.98  04hr 12m 36.4s - 13 18' 58"
(3). NPMIG -13.0172. Mp15.64  04hr 12m 45s - 13 21' 23".33
It is obvious from this that the NED also makes its NGC 1538 the same object 
listed by Howe as #14 = IC 2045 , thus being in agreement with the APL and PGC and 
that while not identifying NED's (2) as IC 2047 it is the same object discovered 
and listed by Howe as his #15 = IC 2047, while NED's (3) is the galaxy which as 
far as positional data would match the coordinates as given by O.Stone for his 
#125 = NGC 1538.
As the field contains only one galaxy which has a NGC identity the argument 
suggested by the APL, PGC and NED would have to be that it would most likely be 
the brightest field object, NED's (1), as certainly based upon the positional 
evidence the NGC identity would have to be for NED (3), which is according to NED 
about 0.6 of a magnitude fainter than their NGC 1538, however, when it comes to 
visually seeing faint galaxies listed Mps can be misleading as Howe, using a 
smaller telescope than Stone was able to see and record a galaxy listed by NED as 
Mp 15.98 (NED (2) = NPMIG -13.0171 which is Howe's #15 = IC 2047.
I have discussed this problem with Dr. Harold Corwin who has a copy of a field 
sketch made of the field by O.Stone, however, Dr. Corwin informs me that the 
sketch does not specify clearly which is the object Stone is referring to as being 
his NGC 1538, indeed Harold states that although logic suggests that Stone's 
object would be the brightest in the field, namely IC 2045, the sketch argues 
against this, however, Harold has decided to keep the equivalency with the 
addition of a question mark.
The MCG gives only the identity IC 2045 and due to their coordinates, 04hr 12.35m 
- 13 20'.0 it is difficult to clearly establish just which object they are 
identifying, however, I assume it is the brightest in the field.  
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give separate coordinates and identities to 
IC 2045 and NGC 1538.  Steinicke has identified NED's NPM1G -13.0171 as being NGC 
1538 and then selects  NPM1G -13.0170 Mp.15.41 at 04hr 12m 16.3s -13 17' 59.24" as 
being Howe's IC 2045. Thus it would appear that the majority of the modern sources 
have different conclusions as to the identities involved, each authority basing 
their conclusions on either the historical coordinates, the brightness factors or 
the historical description references, which makes this case a most complex one.

IC 2048.
Swift List XI, #69.  04hr 12m 26.546s - 33 14' 47.001" (1950).
04hr 14m 21.226s - 33 07' 17.153" (2000).
Not found :  At Swift's nominal position there is only a blank space.
Listed in the NGC 2000 as (?) and the MOL as (May not exist).   Listed as Not 
found by Carlson, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and the ESO.  The APL equates IC 2048 with 
IC 2041 and Dr. Corwin makes a good argument for this in his Files.
NOTE:  The only galaxy that I can find that fits Swift's description, "eeeF, eS, 
B* f, NGC 1532 p, 3 in field with D neb, ee diff," is his IC 2041 (which see), 
however, the coordinates he gives for IC 2041 are considerably different 
than those for IC 2048.  The fact that he describes NGC 1532 as being in the same 
field suggests that his nominal position is subject to major error.  
He discovered IC 2048 almost 21 months prior to discovering IC 2041.

IC 2053.
Stewart #279.  04hr 14m 23.540s - 49 29' 31.615" (1950).
04hr 15m 47.236s - 49 22' 08.278" (2000).
Not found :  This is a rather unusual case in that it has a connection with 
problems involving the following additional IC identities, IC 2055, 2069, 2072, 
2076 and 2084.
At the coordinates as given by Stewart for each of these identities there are no 
suitable nebular images to be found, either at or close to the stated positions.  
The NGC 2000 lists each as (No Type) and the MOL as (NSO).  The other modern 
authorities (APL, NED, SIMBAD, Steinicke and ESO) all list them as Not found.
These 6 identities are all from Stewart's Plate #4199 which had an exposure time 
of about 1 hour as opposed to many of the survey plates which were exposed for 3 
to 5 hours and they are the only objects he lists as being found on this plate.
As none of these 6 identities can be found on the DSS it would strongly suggest 
that Plate #4199 suffered from a defect problem which misled Stewart into the 
possibility that he was seeing nonstellar images, as it is he does state for all 6 
that they were only "suspected."
The NGC 2000 has (No Type).  The MOL (NSO). Steinicke has (Not found). The APL 
states "= ESO 201-?027 with 10 arcmin dec error in ESO."

IC 2055.
Stewart #280.  04hr 16m 24.343s - 49 02' 39.481" (1950).
04hr 17m 48.836s - 48 55' 24.092" (2000).
Not found :  This is one of the identities (IC 2053, IC 2069, 76 and 84), that 
were listed by Stewart on Plate #4199, none of which can be found at or close to 
the positions he gives and which I suspect may result from photographic defects.
Steinicke has (Not found).  The NGC 2000 gives (No Type).  The MOL (NSO).  The APL, 
SIMBAD and NED have (Not found).

IC 2059.
Swift List XI, #70.  04hr 18m 26.530s - 31 34'28.440" (1950).
04hr 20m 23.159s - 31 27' 22.277" (2000).
Not found at nominal position :  At Swift's coordinates no nonstellar object 
exists, however, at about 16 arcmin to the south there is a galaxy and the NGC 
2000, APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED and ESO (420-G017 = IC 2059 ?) have each suggested 
that this might be Swift's object, while the MCG identifies this same galaxy only 
as -5-11-007 and the MOL lists IC 2059 (NSO) at the historical coordinates.
Certainly a 16 arcmin error would not be out of line for many of Swift's 
positions, therefore this identity by a majority of the modern sources must be 
considered a good candidate.

IC 2061.
POSS O-1501.
Stewart #283.  04hr 21m 02.755s + 20 58' 05.254" (1950).
04hr 23m 59.892s - 21 04' 58.825" (2000).
Not found :  Only listings found were NGC 2000 (No Type), APL "Probably a plate 
defect." Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED (Not found) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2062.
POSS.O-866. 
Bigourdan #259.  04hr 26m 20.593s + 71 48' 47.114" (1950).
04hr 32m 02.553s + 71 55' 13.888" (2000). 
This is a single star :  Bigourdan measured positions for both NGC 1560 and B.259 
during the same observation employing as his reference star BD + 71 257.  
His separation values for NGC 1560 are + 1m 14 s RA and + 2' 36" Dec. while for 
B.259 they are + 27 s RA and + 4' 53" Dec. therefore B.259 = IC 2062 can hardly be 
a duplicate observation of NGC 1560 as indicated in the CGCG, UGC, PGC, SIMBAD, NGC 
2000 and MOL.  The MCG, RC3 and DSFG have no listing for this identity.  The APL and 
Steinicke correctly list it as = *.  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED."

IC 2063.
POSS. O-1476.
Howe List 1, #5.  04hr 20m 23.488s - 15 46' 41.483" (1950).
04hr 22m 40.115s - 15 39' 43.850" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This is not equal to NGC 1563.
NGC 1563 is one of 5 galaxies discovered by Leavenworth making up a loose group, 
the others being NGC 1561, 62, 64 and 65.
This is a typical example of the haphazard measurements published by the Leander 
McCormick group in the ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL No.146, indeed these are for the most 
part extremely poor, Leavenworth giving exactly the same RA for all 5 objects.  
The only identity which can be definitely established is for NGC 1561 due to 
Leavenworth's description regarding the 8th magnitude star 06 tsec preceding.  As 
for the RA values he gives they are all with the exceptions of NGC 1561 and NGC 
1564 very poor and the best match ups I have found are those given by Dr. Corwin 
in the APL which result in the following 1950 coordinates.
NGC 1561 :  04hr 20m 44.6s   - 15 57' 47"
NGC 1562 :  04hr 19m 31.09s  - 15 52' 21".1
NGC 1563 :  04hr 20m 37.3s   - 15 51' 00"  (Not equal to IC 2063).
NGC 1564 :  04hr 20m 44.2s   - 15 51' 23"
NGC 1565 :  04hr 21m 07.1s   - 15 51' 33"
IC  2063 :  04hr 20m 23.62s  - 15 46' 36".4
The MCG identifies its -03-12-05 as NGC 1563 at 04hr 20'.5 - 15 46'.0 but this is 
incorrect, as NGC 1563 is a galaxy at 04hr 20m 37.3s - 15 51'0" and makes up with 
NGC 1564 a companion system which agrees with Leavenworth's description in which 
he makes these two objects "Double."    
What the MCG is identifying as NGC 1563 is actually IC 2063.  The PGC also 
incorrectly equates MCG -03-12-05 with the identity NGC 1563, as does SIMBAD.
The NGC 2000 and the MOL both list IC 2063 as being separate from NGC 1563, 
however, their declination values suggest that NGC 1563 and IC 2063 are the same 
object.  The APL and Steinicke in my opinion have the correct identities 
which result in IC 2063 being an entirely separate galaxy.  NED gives "There is no 
object with this name in NED," but does list the identity MCG-03-12-005.     

IC 2069.
Stewart #287.  04hr 24m 30.972s - 48 19' 11.587" (1950).
04hr 25m 56.086s - 48 12' 28.453" (2000).
Not found :  There are no nebular images visible at, or close to the nominal 
position.  This is another of the Plate #4199 "missing objects."
Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and the MOL as (NSO).  The ESO  gives 202-
?016.  The APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke have (Not found).

IC 2072.
Stewart #289.  04hr 25m 30.434s - 48 29' 15.566" (1950).
04hr 26m 55.012s - 48 22' 36.389" (2000).
Not found :  Another of the missing objects on Plate #4199.  Listed in the NGC 
2000 as (No Type) and the MOL as (NSO).  The ESO has 202-?020.  The APL, NED, SIMBAD 
and Steinicke have Not found.

IC 2074.
POSS. O-887.
Bigourdan #377.  04hr 28m 41.274s + 07 35' 42.329" (1950).
04hr 31m 23.298s + 07 42' 05.825" (2000).
This is 3 stars :  Bigourdan described it as A small nebula in which there are at 
least 2 stars, perhaps only a small cluster, size about 25 arcsec.
Correctly listed in the APL as ***. and Steinicke as (* 3).  Only other modern 
listings are NGC 2000 (Open cluster), NED "There is no object with this name in 
NED,"  SIMBAD "Not present in the database," and MOL (Open cluster).

IC 2075.
POSS. O-918.
Bigourdan #260.  04hr 28m 24.440s - 05 54' 22.328" (1950).
04hr 30m 51.841s - 05 47' 57.192" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 1594 (Swift List V,#61).  Bigourdan in his 1919 OBSERVATIONS 
states that this object is probably NGC 1594 with a 20 tsec error. The MCG gives 
only the identity IC 2075 while both the NGC 2000 (Gx) and MOL (NSO) give both 
identities to separate objects.  The APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke correctly 
list the equivalency.

IC 2076.
Stewart #291.  04hr 26m 42.638s - 48 20' 20.380" (1950).
04hr 28m 07.418s - 48 13' 46.046" (2000).
Not found :  Again one of six claimed nebulae on Stewart's Plate # 4199 and which 
are not visible on the modern photographs.  The NGC 2000 gives (No Type) and the 
MOL (NSO).  The ESO has 202-?024.  The APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke have Not 
found.

IC 2077.
POSS. O-1524.
Javelle #988.  04hr 29m 32.017 + 00 27' 32.391" (1950).
04hr 32m 06.300s + 00 33' 52.750" (2000).
This is definitely equal to NGC 1608 (ROSSE) :   Dreyer in his NGC incorrectly 
places NGC 1608 north of NGC 1588, not where Rosse had stated in his observation 
in which he correctly puts it south of NGC 1588.  Due to this error Javelle 
understandably thought that his J 988 was a new discovery. 
Carlson,  NGC 2000 and MOL all correctly equate IC 2077 with NGC 1608 while the 
APL, NED, Steinicke and PGC give IC 2077 = NGC 1608 = NGC 1593  and Marth, the 
discoverer of NGC 1593, placed his object almost exactly 1 tmin of RA preceding 
NGC 1608/IC 2077 while having similar declinations, therefore there is excellent 
evidence to suggests that all three identities are equivalent.
CGCG, MCG and UGC give only the identity IC 2077.  SIMBAD correctly identifies IC 
2077 but does not equate it with any of the 2 NGC identities, even though it gives 
the identity NGC 1608 as having essentially the same coordinates.

IC 2078.
POSS. O-918.
Bigourdan #378.  04hr 29m 23.649s - 04 48' 14.857" (1950).
04hr 31m 52.240s - 04 41' 53.747" (2000).
This is a single star :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as No Type and in the MOL as NSO.  
NED and SIMBAD  have (Not found) while the APL and Steinicke have (=*).

IC 2080.
POSS. O-918.
Howe List III, #16.  04hr 29m 52.263s (+ or -)  - 05 51' 30.989" (1950).
04hr 32m 19.700s - 05 45' 11.779" (2000).
Not found at nominal position :  Howe generally gave very good coordinate 
positions for his discoveries but in this case he gave only an approximate RA.  
Dr. Corwin has selected a galaxy at only 26 tsec preceding Howe's position and I 
believe that this is Howe's #16.
Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give the erroneous historical RA.  The 
APL and Steinicke give the candidate at 04hr 29m 25s - 05 51'.4  The PGC lists 
this same candidate as "Anon." = PGC #15426.  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2084.
Stewart #297.  04hr 30m 41.998s - 48 23' 36.460" (1950).
04hr 32m 06.137s - 48 17' 18.213" (2000).
Not found :  The last by order of RA listed from Plate 4199 that Stewart claimed 
as being nebular and which are nonexistent.  The NGC 2000 lists as (No Type) and 
the MOL as (NSO).  The ESO has 202-?033.  The APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke have 
Not found.

IC 2090.
Swift List XI, #72.  04hr 42m 52.949s - 34 05' 07.273" (1950).
04hr 44m 43.996s - 33 59' 39.934" (2000).
Not found :  No suitable images near or at Swift's position.  The NGC 2000 has (No 
Type) and the MOL (NSO).  The ESO gives 361-?008.  The APL, NED, SIMBAD and 
Steinicke have Not found.

IC 2091.
POSS. O-1519.
Roberts.  04hr 44m 09.888s - 04 46' 21.317" (1950).
04hr 46m 38.365s - 04 41' 00.669" (2000).
Not found :  The closest object to the Roberts position is a small asterism 
consisting of 5 faint stars.  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (Ast.) and in the MOL as 
(Group of faint stars).  Carlson has (grp of F stars, Mt. Wilson), Steinicke (= 
star group) and the APL (= 4 stars).  NED has "There is no object with this name 
in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2092.
POSS. O-1519.
Roberts.  04hr 44m 19.344s - 05 02' 40.520" (1950).
04hr 46m 47.516s - 04 57' 20.518" (2000).
No nebular image at nominal position :  It is quite possible that what Robert's 
describes as "S, spiral, bright stell N, indication of star on south end" is the 
galaxy NGC 1659 at 04hr 44m 01.548s - 04 52' 41.12" (1950), which fits the 
description except that the star is on the north end.  Listed as a double star in 
the NGC 2000, MOL, Carlson. Steinicke and APL HAVE (*3).  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Double or multiple star."

IC 2093.
POSS. O-969.
Bigourdan #379.  04hr 45m 01.814s - 02 47' 48.070" (1950).
04hr 47m 32.494s - 02 42' 31.125" (2000).
This is a single star :  The CGCG has selected and identified a galaxy (ZWG 
394.007) as being IC 2093 at 04hr 44.0m - 02 46'.0 also equal to MCG 0-13-006 and 
this galaxy does have a star similar to Bigourdan's reference star, however, 
Bigourdan identifies his reference star as BD -2 890, 9th mag. and has separation 
values of - 0 tmin 18.3 tsec and -02' 15" which places his #379 north preceding 
his reference star whereas ZWG 394.007 lies about 34 tsec preceding and also lies 
south of its field star.
The MOL identifies IC 2093 as (NSO).  Steinicke gives (= *).  Identified in the 
NGC 2000 as (Double star) and in the APL as (=*).  The PGC, SIMBAD and NED identify 
the CGCG galaxy as being IC 2093.

IC 2096.
POSS. O-1519.
Roberts.  04hr 47m 09.247s - 05 04' 25.588" (1950).
04hr 49m 37.362s - 04 59' 17.350" (2000).
At the nominal position no object exists:  At 04hr 46m 14.955s - 05 03' 52.01" 
(1950), there is the spiral galaxy MCG -01-13-012 = PGC Anon. 016065 at 04hr 46m 
14.955s - 05 03' 52.01 which does match Roberts description "Small right hand 
spiral; with stellar nucleus; elongated; indications of condensations."  
Whether this is what Roberts saw I can not say for sure, however, it should be 
noted that for the 10 novae he lists in this paper (MNRAS, vol.lxiii. p.302) he 
states that the coordinates are only approximate.   
The MOL lists it as (NSO).  NGC 2000 (3 stars),  Steinicke (= 3 stars) and APL 
(Line of 3 stars).   NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."

IC 2099.
POSS. O-1519.
Roberts.  04hr 48m 21.411s - 04 59' 04.550" (1950).
04hr 50m 49.616s - 04 54' 01.326" (2000).
It is probably equal to NGC 1677 (Swift List V, #64):  Swift gives his object a 
position of 04hr 48m 52s - 04 52' 50" and another measurement of NGC 1677 by 
Bigourdan gives 04hr 48m 58.2s - 04 52' 09" but at both these positions there are 
only faint stars.  The difference between the coordinates as given by Roberts and 
Swift are about 31 tsec and 06 arcmin, which are not unusual with Swift's 
measurements, therefore the equivalency is probably correct and Roberts cannot be 
blamed for thinking that he had discovered a Nova.
The MCG gives only the identity IC 2099.  The NGC 2000 and MOL both give the 
separate identities at the historical positions.  The PGC and SIMBAD equate IC 2099 
with NGC 1677.  NED gives the identity IC 2099 without mention of the equivalent 
identity NGC 1677. The APL argues that it is not equal to NGC 1677 (See Corwin 
Files) and Steinicke also does not give the equivalency.

IC 2100.
POSS. O-1519.
Bigourdan #380.  04hr 48m 47.179s - 04 54' 52.367" (1950).
04hr 51m 15.472s - 04 49' 50.978" (2000).
This is a double star :  The MOL types it as (NSO).  The NGC 2000, Steinicke and 
APL correctly show it to be a double star.  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2107.
POSS. O-974.
Bigourdan #381.  04hr 55m 37.978s + 08 09' 48.744" (1950).
04hr 58 20.979s + 08 14' 20.912" (2000).
Equal to NGC 1707 (h 338) :  This is actually a small asterism made up of 4 or 5 
stars and only John Herschel considered it to possibly have associated nebulosity, 
"A resolved nebula, or a small, round group of very small stars, 30" in diameter."  
Bigourdan described it as "Small cluster, 30" in diameter, can distinguish only 4 
to 5 stars."
Correctly listed in the APL ( equal to NGC 1707 = 4 stars) and Steinicke (* 
Group).  Also listed in the NGC 2000 (?) and = NGC 1707, while the MOL lists NGC 
1707 as "Non existent object" and IC 2107 as "May not exist."  Carlson gives (= 
NGC 1707. Reinmuth).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2108.
POSS. O-1323.
Bigourdan #261.  04hr 55m 00.782s - 15 22' 19.797" (1950).
04hr 57m 16.871s - 15 17' 44.075" (2000). (Comptes Rendus). 
Equal to NGC 1710 (Leavenworth. #140) :  This is a somewhat complicated problem in 
that Bigourdan gives two separate sets of coordinates for what appears to be his 
#261.
To begin, in his published observations found in the COMPTES RENDUS (December 
1896) he gives his #261 as 04hr 55m 00s - 15 22'.2 describing it as "Mag. 13.3, 
round, 30 arcsec in diameter. more brighter towards the middle with a stellar 
concentration. A little diffuse, which is well seen.  A 9.5 mag. star is at a PA 
of 130 degrees, distant 1.3 arcmin."  Now when these coordinates are examined on 
the Palomar print they show a galaxy which matches this description.
Now in his 1919 OBSERVATIONS Bigourdan does not give any identity number to his 
observation but does employ a 10.5 reference star (Anon.2) and measures a position 
from this star in order to give coordinates for what he only identifies as "NOVA" 
and he gives it a 1950 position of 04hr 55m 56s -15 23' 53", which is almost 1 
tmin different than his CR coordinates and when these are applied to the 
photographic print they show only a single star at the required offsets from his 
reference star. 
His description for this Nova is "Appears as a small nebula but definitely 
granular, irregularly round of 30 arcsec diameter, appears to be a group of 3 or 4 
very faint stars difficult to perceive and accompanied by traces of nebulosity."   
He then adds a footnote which states "This nebula was at first taken to be 
Leavenworth #140 = NGC 1710, whose measurements are somewhat later (larger) 
suggesting that Leavenworth #140 = Big. 261."
As the identity IC 2108 was given to Big. #261 by Dreyer based upon the COMPTES 
RENDUS data it would seem that the galaxy that exists there is very likely also 
Leavenworth's NGC 1710 and therefore the equivalency would seem to be the best 
answer.
MCG gives only the identity IC 2108.  NGC 2000 (GX. with separate identity from 
NGC 1710).  MOL gives both identities as separate, IC 2108 = NSO and NGC 1710 = 
galaxy).  APL has (= NGC 1710) as does Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and PGC.

IC 2109.
POSS. O-969.
Bigourdan #382.  04hr 56m 26.066s - 00 22' 49.849" (1950).
04hr 58m 59.409s - 00 18' 20.700" (2000).
This is a star :  Listed in NGC 2000 as (No Type) and in the MOL as (NSO).  Listed 
in the APL and Steinicke as (=*).  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2110.
POSS. O-969.
Bigourdan #383.  04hr 56m 28.484s - 00 22' 38.401" (1950).
04hr 59m 01.831s - 00 18' 09.422" (2000).
This is a star :  It lies close north following the star listed by Bigourdan as 
#382 = IC 2109.  Listed in the NGC 2000 (No Type) and in the MOL (NSO).  Listed in 
the APL and Steinicke as (=*).  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2113.
POSS. O-1323.
Barnard.  04hr 57m 15.472s - 15 53' 48.871" (1950).
04hr 59m 30.875s - 15 49' 22.575" (2000).
Equal to NGC 1730 (Swift List V, #66 and O.Stone ) :
There is only one possible candidate in the immediate field and this is NGC 1730.  
Swift gave it coordinates of 04hr 57m 15s - 15 53' 36" while O. Stone has 04hr 
57.7m - 15 54'.3 which for both of them is almost precise.
The MCG gives only the identity NGC 1730.  The NGC 2000 gives two separate 
identities but both with the same coordinates.  The MOL also gives separate 
identities 1 arcmin apart in declination.  The PGC, Steinicke and APL correctly 
give the equivalency.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2119.
POSS. O-1322.
Swift List XI, #74.  05hr 04m 39.299s - 20 33' 13.745" (1950).
05hr 06m 48.707s - 20 29' 18.542" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Howe makes a correction to Swift's coordinates to read 05hr 
04m 40s - 20 24'.4.  Meanwhile Dreyer in his IC II has a declination error of 10 
degrees (Typo Error ?) and this has misled the MOL (NSO) 05hr 05m 03s - 10 25' 17  
The MCG identifies IC 2119 only as -3-13-073.  The PGC identifies IC 2119 only as 
MCG -03-13-073 and ESO 553-005.  The APL and Steinicke have the correct identity 
and coordinates.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED," but they do 
list the identity MCG -03-13-073. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but they 
do identify MCG-03-13-073.

IC 2120.
POSS. O-1315.
Bigourdan #262.  05hr 15m 45.321s + 38 08' 01.342" (1950).
05hr 19m 10.660s + 38 11' 06.238" (2000).
Not found :  Dr. Corwin in his APL lists it as = Comet Spitaler 1890 and then 
notes that Minkowski's planetary nebula which lies 39 arcmins south preceding 
Bigourdan's position is not IC 2120.  I am in complete agreement with him and am 
at a loss to understand why those modern catalogues which list IC 2120, [the NGC 
2000 (PN), MOL (PN) and DSFG (Bright Nebula), NED (PN), SIMBAD (Possible PN)] all 
have selected the Minkowski object as Bigourdan's IC 2120.  Steinicke correctly has 
(Not found).NOTE :  See W.S.Q.J. No.105. July 1996. "IC 2120 - The Final Chapter ?" 
H.C Corwin and B.A. Skiff.

IC 2121.
POSS. O-1462.
Swift List XI, #75.  05hr 17m 12.820s - 25 08 19.580" (1950).
05hr 19m 15.737s - 25 05' 17.853" (2000).
The correction here deals with the historical data as Howe made a correction 
stating that Swift's coordinates should be changed to read 05hr 17m 41.842s - 25 
06' 51.657" (1950) or 05hr 19m 44.781s - 25 03' 52.012" (2000), a correction in RA 
of 29 tsec  (The APL gives 05hr 17m 42s).
Secondly there is an excellent possibility that IC 2121 is a duplicate observation 
of Swift's IC 408 (which see). NED equates both identities. SIMBAD has "Equal to IC 
408?" Steinicke equates both identities.

IC 2123.
(See IC 412)

IC 2124.
(See IC 413).

IC 2129.
POSS. O-888.
Swift List XI, #78.  05hr 29m 10.390s - 23 05' 59.071" (1950).
05hr 31m 15.874s - 23 03' 49.133" (2000).
Not found at nominal position :  Swift describes this object as "Exceedingly 
exceedingly faint, pretty small, Round, 7th mag. star near south following."  
NED and SIMBAD identify IC 2129 = IC 2130 at 05hr 29m 45.128s - 23 10' 50.74" 
(1950), Mp 13.81 and this galaxy does have a fairly bright star south following 
which is GSC 6476-939 at 05hr 30m 04.95s - 23 13' 05.4" (1950), however, this star 
does not appear to be as bright as Mv 7.0 as Swift's description states.  
This same galaxy is also listed in NED as MCG -04-14-002 and PGC 17402, however, 
both the MCG and PGC give it the identity IC 2130 (which see).
The NGC 2000 lists as (No Type) and the MOL as (NSO).  The APL has(= IC 2130), 
and Steinicke gives (Not found).
NOTE:  Whether this is equivalent to IC 2130 I am unable to say.  Certainly 
Swift's descriptions for both identities are somewhat similar, both referring to a 
7th magnitude star.

IC 2130.
POSS. O-888.
Swift List XI, #79.  05hr 29m 35.237s - 23 12' 24.870" (1950).
05hr 31m 40.567s - 23 10' 16.722" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The ESO lists a galaxy 487-GO19 as IC 2130 = IC 2129?,  
the APL identifies IC 2130 at 05hr 29m 45s - 23 10'.8 = IC 2129    The MCG, PGC, 
NGC 2000 (Gx), MOL (NSO) and Steinicke each give the single identity IC 2130  Ned 
equates it with IC 2129, as does SIMBAD.

IC 2131.
(See IC 422).

IC 2133.
POSS. O-975. 
Bigourdan #385.  05hr 36m 34.368s + 69 21' 15.308" (1950).
05hr 42m 04.832s + 69 22' 45.572" (2000). 
Equal to NGC 1961 (H 747-3) :   Dreyer (1912) in his NOTES to Wm. Herschel's 
Second Catalogue details the positional errors concerning NGC 1961 as found in the 
NGC catalogue and shows that B.385 = IC 2133 is a duplicate of NGC 1961.  
Bigourdan stated that he was unable to locate NGC 1961, seeing only a 12 magnitude 
star at the original Dreyer position and his measured position for B.385 is only ~ 
30s RA and ~ 5' 44" Dec from this star. 
The CGCG, UGC, Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD and PGC correctly equate IC 2133 with NGC 
1961.  
Carlson states "IC 2133 not found (W)."  NGC 2000 types it as [?] while the MOL. 
states "May not exist.''  
The MCG lists {NGC 1961, IC 2133 ? } and the RC3 and DSFG give only the identity 
NGC 1961.

IC 2135 and IC 2136.
Swift List XI, #81.  05hr 31m 04.706s - 36 25' 55.074" (1950).
05hr 32m 49.492s - 36 23' 52.567" (2000). (IC 2135).  
Swift List XI, #82.  05hr 31m 35.610s - 26 28' 33.733" (1950).
05hr 33m 36.309s - 26 26' 34.097" (2000). (IC 2136).
Equivalent identities :  At the position Swift gives for his #82 (IC 2136) there 
is no nebular image.  He describes it as "eF, pS, eE, almost a ray, NGC 1963 
preceeds."  His description for #81 (IC 2135) is "eeeF, eeS, eeeE, ee diff. See 
note." and the Note reads "No. 81 at first view seems identical with #56 (NGC 
1963), but on a closer view the center seemed to have a very slight bulging in the 
middle."
Close to the position he gives for IC 2135 is a galaxy fitting his description and 
directly preceeding it is NGC 1963 (h2861) and this matches his description for IC 
2136 "NGC 1963 preceeds.'  Thus it appears certain that Swift published a 
declination for his #82 (IC 2136) that has a typographical error of 10 degrees too 
small, this correction making it equivalent to his #81 = IC 2135.
The MOL gives the two identities as separate objects at the historical 
coordinates.  The RC 3 lists IC 2135 but without any equivalency.  The PGC 
(Corrections) has correctly equated the two IC identities, but then makes the 
error of equating these with NGC 1963. NGC 1963 is an entirely separate object being 
a loosely grouped open star cluster, exactly fitting John Herschel's original 
description and directly preceeding IC 2135/36.
The NGC 2000, APL, ESO, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke have correctly equated the 
identities IC 2135 and IC 2136.

IC 2137 and IC 2138.
POSS. O-888.
Swift List XI, #83.  05hr 32m 04.694s - 23 34' 23.688" (1950).
05hr 34m 09.481s - 23 32' 26.332" (2000). (IC 2137). 
#84  05hr 32m 12.972s - 23 22' 12.276" (1950).
05hr 34m 18.036s - 23 20' 15.533" (2000). (IC 2138).
These are equivalent identities:
This is a very complicated case with conflicting opinions:
To begin, Swift discovered his #83 (IC 2137) on December 1st 1897 describing it in 
his List XI as "eeF, S, R; 7 mag. star close preceding; south following of NGC 
1980," however, in a later publication, (MNRAS LV111. March 1898) he changes the 7 
mag. star close preceding" to read "7 mag. star close following" and gives 
coordinates of 05hr 32m 12.175s - 23 34' 16.395" (1950).  
When these are applied to the DSS they come up with the correct IC 2137 showing 
the mentioned star (GSC 6476-1135, Mp 8.80 at 05hr 32m 25.76s - 23 33' 54.4" 
[1950]),correctly close following and NGC 1979 north preceding in the field, not 
as he indicates NGC 1980.
Swift must have confused the NGC identity because NGC 1980 lies at a declination 
of about 7 degrees south of the field he was examining and therefore it would have 
had to be that the NGC galaxy he saw was NGC 1979, the same one he correctly 
identifies in his description for IC 2138.
He discovered his #84 (IC 2138) on February 14th 1898 describing it as "eF, vS, R; 
8 mag. star follows 10 tsec; in field with NGC 1979."  He also later published it, 
(MNRAS LV111.March 1898), with coordinates of 05hr 32m 17.971s -23 22' 04.435" 
(1950) and these place it at a blank spot south following but much closer to NGC 
1979, but his reference to the 10 tmin separation from an 8th mag. star, (the same 
one referred to in his description for IC 2127), it would seem highly likely that 
both IC 2137 and IC 2138 must be the same object, thus equivalent identities.  
Swift's coordinates are given exactly as they appear in his List XI only precessed 
to 1950.  
Now look at how they appear in the IC II as given by Dreyer.
IC 2137  05hr 32m 12.9s - 23 22' 13.16 (1950).
IC 2138  05hr 32m 17.4s - 23 34' 07.78 (1950).
We can see that the declination values have been reversed from those given by 
Swift which is curious as Dreyer quotes his source as being Swift's List XI.
Swift stated that IC 2137 lies south following NGC 1979 and NGC 1979 was 
discovered by W. Herschel (H 240-3) who employed the star 12 Leporis as his 
reference star whose 1950 position is 05hr 40m 07.7s - 22 23' 48".  Herschel's 
separations are - 07 tmin 55 tsec and + (south) 59 arcmins which results in his 
coordinates for NGC 1979 being 05hr 32m 12.7s - 23 22' 48" (Dreyer gives 05hr 32m 
17s - 23 22'.2).
MCG, NGC 2000, SIMBAD and NED each equate IC 2137 with NGC 1979. APL, Steinicke and 
PGC equate IC 2137 with IC 2138. MOL gives all 3 identities as separate objects.
ESO has NGC 1979 = IC 2137? and IC 2137 = IC 2138? RC3 gives only the identities 
NGC 1979 and IC 2138 as separate objects.
Note :  As for the galaxy which does have the 8th mag. star closely following.  
There is no doubt that it was first seen by Bigourdan as all three of his 
observations are dated prior to Swift's first observation, Bigourdan's first 
observation being dated December 16th 1887 and his last observation on February 
11th 1888.

IC 2138.
(See IC 2137).

IC 2139.
POSS. O-1482.
Bigourdan #263.  05hr 33m 03.307s - 17 57' 58.185" (1950).
05hr 35m 15.517s - 17 56' 05.366" (2000).
This is composed of 3 stars without associated nebulosity :  Bigourdan described 
it as "Small cluster, somewhat nebulous, framed by a few close stars enveloped in 
a 12 arcsec diameter.  It appears to be surrounded by nebulosity 20 arcsec in 
diameter."
The NGC 2000, APL and Steinicke all correctly describe it as being 3 stars.  The 
MOL has (Open cluster).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2141.
Innes. 05hr 41m 08.137s - 51 03' 23.283" (1950).
05hr 42m 19.425s - 51 02' 03.167" (2000).
Equal to 3 stars :  The NGC 2000 lists as (No Type) and the MOL as (NSO).  The ESO 
gives 204-?029 and the APL (Triple star). NED (Not found). SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database."  Steinicke has (*3).

IC 2147.
Swift List XI, #86.  05hr 45m 54.332s - 30 30' 48.244" (1950).
05hr 47m 48.743s - 30 29' 50.694" (2000).
Not found at nominal position :  The ESO has a possible candidate, 424-G013 = IC 
2147? at 05hr 41m 34s - 30 31'.0 which would have been bright enough for Swift to 
have seen  and there are additionally several bright stars south following as 
required by Swift's description, however, I am not confident as to any "F* np." as 
also stated by Swift.  If this is what Swift was describing then the RA would have 
an error of about 4 tmin 20 tsec.
The APL and NED also suggests this same galaxy as being IC 2147 (See Corwin's IC 
Puzzle Solutions for a confirmatory account). The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) 
give the coordinates based upon the historical data.  Steinicke has (Not found) 
and the MCG identifies the ESO candidate only as -5-14-013. SIMBAD identifies the 
ESO candidate as being IC 2147.

IC 2152.
POSS. O-655.
Swift List XI, #89.  05hr 55m 05.029s - 23 11' 03.947" (1950).
05hr 57m 10.138s - 23 10' 46.984" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy but not at Swift's RA :  Howe examined and measured this object 
and published a correction for the RA which would place it at 05hr 55m 47s - 23 
10'.8 and Dreyer obviously employed Howe's correction as he gives it 05hr 55m 47s 
and due to this the MCG, NGC 2000, MOL, APL, ESO, RC3, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and 
Steinicke all have the correct position.

IC 2154.
POSS. O-655.
Swift List XI, #90.  05hr 58m 49.325s - 23 41' 20.317" (1950).
06hr 00m 53.727s - 23 41' 19.677" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 2139 (H. 264-2) :  In addition to Swift's coordinates being 
less than precise there are some additional historical inconsistencies which are 
of interest.
NGC 2139 was discovered by Wm. Herschel who employed as his reference star Canis 
25 whose coordinates for 1950 are 07hr 06m 21.5s - 26 18' 45".  Herschel's 
separations are - 01hr 07m 42s - 02 20' 00", certainly a very large offset in RA, 
and thus we would have a 1950 position for NGC 2139 of 05hr 58m 39.5s - 23 58' 
45".  When Dreyer published his NGC catalogue he gave NGC 2139 coordinates of 05hr 
58m 39s - 23 48'.9 which differ from Herschel's declination by almost 10 arcmin.
After Swift had claimed as a nova his List XI, #90 (IC 2154), Howe published in 
the MNRAS LVIII, 9. Page 517 a correction to Swift's object stating that its 
position is 05hr 59m 02s - 23 40'.2 and Dreyer selected Howe's correction for his 
positional data for IC 2154 and in his description stated "probably = H. 264 2 
(NGC 2139)."  Also Dreyer in his Notes NGC/IC page 369 states that "NGC 2139.  Not 
found twice by Howe.  Probably = IC 2154 , 23 tsec following, 09 arcmin north of 
H's place." and later in his 1919 SCIENTIFIC PAPERS OF SIR WILLIAM HERSCHEL he 
gives this very interesting Note:  "H264-2.  Note in sweep.  The AR (RA) cannot be 
above 10 or 15 tsec out; the roller went off the apparatus which occasions the 
uncertainty.  Auwers' place is wrong owing to a misprint in PT.  It is the only 
nebula in this sweep; 4m 18s following and 2 degrees 36' south is a star 6 mag. 
which is PV 327.  This gives the PD = 113 degrees 41'.0 (for 1860) and the nebula 
is = IC 2154 (Swift XI. 90), 23 tsec following 8'.5 north of the place of GC in 
which nothing has been found by Howe and Bigourdan."
Swift in his description for this object states that it lies between a star north 
following and a wide double star north preceding.  This should be changed to read 
"Star south following and a wide double star north preceding.
Carlson lists IC 2154 as (= ** Mt. Wilson) as does the MOL.  The MCG identifies it 
as = NGC 2139 ?  The NGC 2000, APL, Steinicke, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and the ESO 
correctly equate it with NGC 2139.

IC 2155.
Stewart #307.  05hr 59m 00.548s - 34 00' 51.710" (1950).
06hr 00m 49.163s - 34 00' 51.230" (2000).
Not found :  At Stewart's nominal position there is no nebular image.  Steinicke 
has (NF). The NGC 2000 gives (No Type) and the MOL (NSO).  The ESO, NED, SIMBAD and 
the APL have it as (Not found).

IC 2158.
POSS. O-51.
Swift List XI, #91.  06hr 03m 03.317s - 27 51' 57.048" (1950).
06hr 05m 01.708s - 27 52' 14.669" (2000).
The error here is only of historical significance in that Swift's description 
states "Star in contact north following."  This should be changed to read "Star in 
contact south following."

IC 2166.
POSS. O-1264. 
Barnard.  06hr 27m 36.746s + 59 06' 54.234" (1950).
06hr 32m 01.169s + 59 04' 44.193" (2000). (Dreyer).
Confirmed galaxy: 
There is an error of ~ 5m RA in the IC II as the CGCG, UGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, 
PGC, SIMBAD, DSFG, RC3 and NGC 2000 each place IC 2166 at 6hr 22.5m where there is a 
galaxy which completely fits Barnard's description " Neb; F* p 1 arcmin, D* f 3 
arcmin."  The MOL deriving its RA from Dreyer's data would also be incorrect.  
The MCG identifies this object only as +10-10-1.

IC 2170.
POSS O-696. 
Bigourdan #388.  06hr 30m 25.588s + 44 43' 38.318" (1950).
06hr 34m 04.804s + 44 41' 17.705" (2000). (March 1899 Observation). 
Not found :   Bigourdan's observations for B.388 suggest that he was somewhat 
confused regarding its identity.  
He first examined the field on January 1st. 1892 and reports only seeing a single 
object which he believed to be a Nova. (B.388).  For this observation he employed 
two reference stars, BD +44 1484 and BD +44 1485, giving separation values of -0m 
59s RA  + 3 arcmins. (+ or -) Dec. from the first star and -1m 16s RA  + 8arcmins. 
Dec. (+ or -) from the second star and these would result in coordinates of 6hr 
30m 26s + 44 50' 53" and 6hr 30m 25s + 44 50' 7" respectively.  
During the date of this observation he makes no mention of the planetary nebula 
NGC 2242 and it is not until February 20th.1892 that he makes his first of three 
separate observations of NGC 2242 when he again employed the reference star BD +44 
1484, measuring NGC 2242 to be - 59s RA + 1' 25" Dec. or coordinates of 6hr 30m 
26s + 44 49' 18".  
When comparison of the coordinates are made it strongly suggests that what 
Bigourdan observed and reported as a Nova on January 1st.1892 was actually NGC 
2242. and it is not until later, March 5th, 1899 (the same night he made his third 
and last observation of NGC 2242) that he again refers to B.388 and measures its 
coordinates from a 12.8 mag. star he calls ANON. (1). as 6hr 30m 23s + 44 43'16", 
a difference of about 7 arcmins from his first measurement in 1892, however, there 
is no visual evidence on the Palomar print of any nebulous object at this 
position. 
The only modern sources listing IC 2170 are NGC 2000 (No Type), APL = 3 sts. 
Steinicke and NED (Not found), SIMBAD "Not present in the database." and MOL (NSO).  
The CGCG incorrectly lists NGC 2242 as being a galaxy instead of its correct type 
which is planetary nebula.

IC 2171.
POSS. O-1343.
Barnard.  06hr 42m 59.025s ? - 17 37' 20.973" (1950).
06hr 45m 11.860s ? -17 40' 32.739" (2000). (Dreyer).
Not found :  At the coordinates as given above no nebular image is found.  The APL 
identifies IC 2171 ? = NGC 2283 at 06hr 43m 40.6s - 18 09' 24" also IC 2171 ?? = 
galaxy at 06hr 42m 15.4s - 17 52' 44" and is supported in this latter identity by 
the RC3, PGC, NGC 2000, MOL, NED, SIMBAD, DSFG and ESO.
If this is Barnard's object then his coordinates are off by about 45 tsec RA and 
15'.5 dec.
I am concerned as to this identity not only because of the difference in 
coordinates but additionally the APL candidate has a 7.0 to 7.5 mag. star only 
about 07 arcmin north of it which could not have escaped Barnard's attention yet 
he makes reference to only other fainter stars in his description.
Steinicke has ((Not found).
NOTE:  Dreyer's RA is given only to the nearest minute of time.

IC 2173.
POSS. O-1268.
Bigourdan #389.  06hr 47m 30.210s + 33 31' 01.870" (1950).
06hr 50m 47.140s + 33 27' 28.522" (2000).
This is a star, the south preceding of two faint stars close to NGC 2288:  I had 
originally thought that it might be NGC 2288, however, Bigourdan's reference star 
is equal to GSC 2440-727 and his offsets (0 tmin 11.76 tsec RA, + 4 arcmin 10.70 
arcsec Dec) land on the star. 
Both the NGC 2000 and MOL incorrectly equate IC 2173 with IC 2291 as does Carlson.  
Steinicke gives (= *). APL "This is a star."  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED."  
SIMBAD "Not present in thw database." No other modern listings.  Dreyer (IC II) 
incorrectly gives IC 2173 = B.339.
 
IC 2175.
POSS. O-889.
Bigourdan #265.  07hr 05m 20.642s + 35 21' 58.124" (1950).
07hr 08m 39.725s + 35 17' 09.184" (2000).
This is a double star :  Certainly at the position as given for his B.265 by 
Bigourdan there is no nebular image, however, according to Dreyer's IC II data the 
RA precessed to 1950 would be 6hr 56m 21s, or a difference of 8m 56s. ( Dreyer's 
coordinates are based upon Bigourdan's earlier data as given in the Comptes 
Rendus). 
As it turns out there is a galaxy close to the Dreyer position (ZWG 176.006 at 6hr 
56.5m + 35 31'.0) and the CGCG identifies this as IC 2175 as do the UGC, RC3, 
SIMBAD, NED, NGC 2000 and MOL. Additionally the PGC incorrectly states that MCG +6-
16-7 should be identified as IC 2175, however, this is the same Anon.
ZWG.176.006.  
Dr. Corwin is in agreement with me that IC 2175 is a double star at Bigourdan's 
coordinates and so identifies it in the APL.  Steinicke also has (=*2).

IC 2179.
POSS. O-686.
Bigourdan #267.  07hr 10m 43.057s + 65 02' 47.953 (1950). 07hr 15m 32.788s + 64 
57' 33.606" (2000) (COMPTES RENDUS).
7hr 10m 43.208s + 65 00' 53.970" (1950).
07hr 15m 32.815s + 64 55' 39.535" (2000). (OBSERVATIONS ETC.).
As one can see from the two sets of coordinates that this is not only a complex 
problem but it is open to more than one solution involving the other field galaxy 
NGC 2347 :
I must begin by stating that the credit for sorting out the ambiguities found in 
Bigourdan's data is entirely due to the excellence of Dr. Harold Corwin 
investigation and findings and that although I previously had arrived at a 
different conclusion I am now fully convinced of the conclusions he presents in 
his unpublished "NGC/IC BUGS LIST."
Wm. Herschel recorded the discovery of a nebula at 7hr 11m 54s + 65 05' 53."  
Later John Herschel in his GC publication (1864) changed this to 7hr 11m 32s + 64 
53'.8, the coordinates selected by Dreyer for the NGC, and apparently the field 
was not examined again until Bigourdan in 1894 and again in 1900.  
The initial publication of Bigourdan in which he refers to his examination of the 
field is in the 1896 COMPTES RENDUS, a journal in which he periodically reported 
his discoveries, giving only his discovery number, coordinates and brief 
description and it is here that he gives the position for his B.267 as shown 
above.  Unfortunately in this publication he does not state his reference star or 
refer to any other field object.
Bigourdan's second and more detailed data for his observations are to be found in 
his monumental publication OBSERVATIONS ETC. and it is here where the confusion 
begins.
He now gives coordinates to his B.267 of 7hr 11m 18s + 64 48' 18" listing as his 
reference star BD+65 562 stating that B.267 lies + 3 tsecs and - 4'12" of arc and 
there is a galaxy located at this position, however, this is the object identified 
in many of the modern catalogues as being Herschel's NGC 2347.  
Next Bigourdan gives coordinates for what he identifies as being NGC 2347, stating 
that he is again using the same reference star BD + 65 562, however, this is not 
his reference star on this occasion as Corwin has correctly deduced the star 
Bigourdan was actually employing now was another star, BD + 65 560, which is a 
little fainter than BD + 65 562, and lies about 10 arcmins north preceding BD + 65 
562 and when Bigourdan's offsets from this star are applied (+13 tsecs and +0' 2" 
of arc.) they land exactly on the galaxy identified in the majority of the modern 
sources as IC 2179 and are in excellent agreement with Bigourdan's original 
coordinates for his B. 267 = IC 2179 as published in the COMPTES RENDUS.
Thus it would appear that now the solution to the correct identities has been 
established and that in addition to Bigourdan having erred in his identification 
of his reference star as it applies to IC 2179 he additionally in his OBSERVATIONS  
mistakenly reversed the identities of the two galaxies as the majority of the 
modern catalogues identify the north preceding as IC 2179 and the south following 
object as being NGC 2347, however, Dr. Corwin poses the question Why did Bigourdan 
in his OBSERVATIONS identify the north preceding galaxy as being NGC 2347?  I was 
very intrigued by this remark and further research proved interesting.
Remember, Bigourdan's main purpose was to observe and measure accurate positions 
for NGC objects and Wm. Herschel's original coordinates for H 746-3 = NGC 2347 
were 7hr 11m 54s + 65 05' 53" placing it considerably closer to the north 
preceding galaxy than it does to the south following one (The ~ 1 tmin difference 
in RA when seen on the Palomar print at such a northern declination is in angular 
measurement quite small), therefore if Bigourdan was aware of Herschel's original 
coordinates he might have been influenced by this.  Also as Corwin points out the 
difference in magnitude between the two galaxies being small, the north preceding 
one has the higher surface brightness and its appearance would certainly fit 
Herschel's description.
Therefore the question is a very valid one and as Corwin asks, " Is the north 
preceding galaxy the one Herschel saw ?"
The NGC 2000 makes IC 2179 = NGC 2347? while the majority of the other modern 
catalogues (CGCG, UGC, MOL, DSFG, RC3, NED, SIMBAD, Steinicke, PGC and Uranometria 
2000) lists both identities as being separate galaxies, (the north-preceding one 
being in all cases identified as being IC 2179).  
An extra source I consulted was the DEEP SPACE CCD ATLAS : NORTH. (J. Vickers. 
1993) which gives the identity NGC 2347 = IC 2179?.  The MCG identifies the south 
following galaxy as being NGC 2347  while listing the north-preceding galaxy as an 
"Anon."  +11-9-38a.

IC 2183.
POSS. O-647.
Stewart.  07hr 14m 46.186ss - 20 19' 12.553" (1950).
07hr 15m 56.414s - 20 24' 34.212" (2000).
Not found :  At the position as given by Stewart no nebular image exists, nor are 
there any in the immediate vicinity.  The ESO  equates the identity IC 2183 with 
its ESO 559-?001 at 07hr 14m 48s - 20 19'.0 and this is noted in the APL.  Both 
the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give the historical coordinates. Steinicke, 
SIMBAD and NED have (Not found). 

IC 2184.
POSS. O-665. 
Bigourdan #390.  07hr 23m 38.541s + 72 13' 54.291" (1950).
07hr 29m 25.487s + 72 07' 44.794" (2000). 
A confirmed galaxy :  Bigourdan's reference star is equal to GSC 4368-774 and his 
offsets (+ 0 tmin 36.80 tsec RA, + 1 arcmin 20.8 arcsec Dec.) land on the correct 
galaxy.   The CGCG does not give its IC identity only listing it as ZWG 330.039.  
UGC, MCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, PGC, RC3 and NGC 2000 have the correct 
identity.  
The MOL. list it as "Nonstellar object'' however, as they have precessed their 
positional data upon that originally given by Dreyer they arrive at a 1950 
position of 7hr 24m 38s + 72 04'.0
NOTE :  Dreyer's IC II coordinates are based upon those given by Bigourdan in the 
COMPTES RENDUS and I have no explanation as to why Bigourdan should have changed 
them in his later publication so that the RA differs by more than 1 tmin.  I have 
accepted the later publication on the assumption that it represents a correction 
by Bigourdan.

IC 2186.
POSS O-1310.
Javelle #996.  07hr 19m 44.799s + 21 37' 47.551" (1950).
07hr 22m 43.327s + 21 31' 59.601" (2000).
Unable to confirm.  Possibly equal to IC 2188:  Based upon Javelle's data this 
should be the most northern and most preceding of a group of 3 closely associated 
galaxies, the other two being IC 2187 and IC 2188.
His reference star is equal to AC #696255 at 7hr 24m 08.866s +21 27' 29.0" (2000) 
and when his offsets are applied to this star for the identities IC 2187 and IC 
2188 they clearly establish the identities of these 2 galaxies on the DSS.  
However, when his offsets (-1 tmin 25.85 tsec RA and 4 arcmin 18.4 arcsec north) 
for the identity IC 2186 are applied to the same star reduced to the discovery 
year of 1896 and then precessed back to the year 2000 they land on a blank spot 
directly north of IC 2188 and very close to the same declination of a third field 
galaxy listed in the GSC-ACT as 1359-482, Mp 13.98, which oddly is classified as 
being a star, this later corrected in the GSC 2.2 to Nonstellar Object.
This galaxy is identified in NED as IC 2186 = NPM1G+21.0157 and it would require 
that Javelle's offset in RA would be incorrect by about 4 tsec too large.  
There is another possible solution that may have some merit and it is that IC 2186 
and IC 2188 are the same object.  
According to Javelle's catalogue data IC 2186 was discovered on February 11th 1896 
while his discovery date for IC 2188 is February 28th 1900 or four years later.  
Now if the NED candidate for IC 2186 is correct then why in 1896 did Javelle not 
also discover the larger and brighter IC 2188 ?, therefore are the two identities 
for only one object, namely what we call IC 2188, which poses the question. Is the 
correct identity for what is accepted as being IC 2188 actually IC 2186 by reason 
of date of discovery and the identity IC 2188 is a duplicate or equivalent 
identity?
The PGC and MCG equate the two identities while what the CGCG identifies as being 
IC 2186 is actually IC 2188.  The NGC 2000 and MOL list all 3 identities as 
separate objects.  Steinicke and APL make IC 2186 (=IC 2188).

IC 2187.
POSS O-1310.
Javelle #997.  07hr 19m 45.028s + 21 34' 43.731" (1950).
07hr 22m 43.492s + 21 28' 55.768" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG incorrectly identifies IC 2187 as being IC 2188, this 
error is correctly noted in the PCG.  It is correctly identified in the NGC 2000 
(No Type) and the MOL (NSO) also in the APL, MCG, NED and Steinicke.  Not listed 
in either the UGC or RC3.

IC 2188.
POSS O-1310.
Javelle #998. 07hr 19m 44.882s + 21 36' 36.662" (1950).
07hr 22m 43.385s + 21 30' 48.718" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  CGCG incorrectly identifies its ZWG 117.025 as being IC 2188. 
It should be IC 2187.  The PGC makes ZWG 117.026 equal to IC 2186 = IC 2188.   The 
MCG ALSO equates IC 2186 = IC 2188 (+4-18-11).  The NGC 2000 (No Type). APL, 
Steinicke, NED and MOL (NSO) have the correct (?) identity.  Not listed in the UGC 
or RC3.
NOTE: (See IC 2186).

IC 2195. 
Stewart #312.  07hr 27m 10.664" - 51 09' 09.511" (1950).
07hr 28m 27.268s - 51 15' 24.215" (2000).
Not found :  There are no suitable images at or close to Stewart's nominal 
position, certainly nothing that resembles his description "cB, S, R, bM, susp."
Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give the historical position.  The APL, 
Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and ESO have (Not found).

IC 2206.
Fleming #76.  07hr 43m 52.934s - 34 14' 58.067" (1950).
07hr 45m 45.714s - 34 22' 20.814" (2000).
This is a double star with a 9th magnitude primary :  
Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and in the MOL as (NSO). NED has (Not found) a   
Steinicke types it as (=*2). SIMBAD "Eclipsing Binary."

IC 2208.
POSS O-1344.
Javelle #1011.  07hr 49m 03.163s + 27 36' 44.806" (1950).
07hr 52m 07.777s + 27 28' 59.653" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Javelle's RA is about 20 tsec too large, due to the fact that 
he mistook his reference star, making it DM +27 1493 when it was actually DM +27 
1491 equal to AC #931910 at 07hr 51m 47.885s + 27 29' 56.36" (2000).
After proper precessing and application of Javelle's offsets the correct IC 2208 
is found at the above Corrected Nominal Position. 
The PGC and CGCG lists as an "Anon." ZWG 148.053 at RA 7hr 49.0m + 27 37'.0 and 
this is definitely Javelle's object as determined from his separation values from 
his reference star.  Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give the RA based 
upon the Javelle original coordinates.  
The MCG lists its +5-19-19 =IC 2208? which happens to be correct.  Not listed in 
the UGC or RC3.  The APL, SIMBAD and Steinicke have the correct identity and 
coordinates. NED incorrectly equates IC 2208 with CGCG 148-051 which is an entirely 
different galaxy at 07hr 48m 46.082s + 27 35' 18.02 (1950).

IC 2210. 
POSS. O-960. 
Bigourdan #391.  07hr 52m 53.573s + 56 48' 52.308" (1950).
07hr 56m 56.656s - 56 40' 50.535" (2000). 
This is a small double star lying between NGC 2462 and NGC 2463 :   Bigourdan 
correctly describes it as having a 12th mag. star 08 tsec preceding and 1.0 arcmin 
north
NGC 2000 lists its type as (Galaxy).  MOL as  (Nonstellar Object).  APL = 2 stars.  
Steinicke has (=*2). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2215.
Bigourdan #392.  07hr 56m 32.276s + 25 03' 58.048" (1950).
07hr 59m 33.129s + 24 55' 44.276" (2000).
Not found:  The nominal position lands on a blank spot of sky , close north 
following Bigourdan's reference star (= AC 2000, #93334).
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (Open cluster), MOL (Open cluster). APL "Nothing 
here," and Steinicke (=*2), SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2216.
POSS. O-27.
Bigourdan #393.  07hr 56m 50.997s + 05 45' 06.455" (1950).
07hr 59m 30.514s + 05 36' 52.156" (2000).
This is a double star :  Correctly identified in the APL (**).  Only other 
listings are Steinicke (= *2),  NED "There is no object with this name in NED."  
SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  The MOL 
also gives the declination incorrectly as + 08 45'.0

IC 2221.
POSS. O-989.
Javelle #1019.  08hr 01m 50.218s + 37 35' 32.497" (19500.
08hr 05m 07.993s  37 26' 58.171" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This is one of a group of galaxies in the same field , all of 
which are credited to Javelle.  IC 2221 is a faint galaxy at almost the 
coordinates as given by Javelle, the modern position being 08hr 01m 50.18s + 37 
35' 36.3" (APL).
The MCG list  06-18-10 = IC 2221 ? at 08hr 2.2m + 37 41.0', but this is the 
southern of a closely associated pair of galaxies lying to the north of the 
correct IC 2221.  NED also incorrectly makes this object equal to IC 2221, as does 
SIMBAD.  The CGCG, PGC and MOL have no listing.  The NGC 2000 gives (No Type) and 
the MOL (NSO).  The APL and Steinicke have the correct identity.
NOTE: NED identifies the correct IC 2221 as MASX J08050794+3727021, while SIMBAD 
hano listing for this object.

IC 2222.
POSS. O-989.
Javelle #1020.  08hr 01m 56.386s + 37 36' 57.672" (1950).
08hr 05m 14.187s + 37 28' 22.959" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Another of Javelle's faint galaxies in the same field.  Here 
again the MCG identifies its 06-18-11 as IC 2222 ? at 08hr 02.2m + 37 42'.0, which 
is the northern of the pair lying to the north of the correct IC 2222.
The CGCG, NED, SIMBAD and PGC correctly identify IC 2222 while the UGC has no 
listing.  
The NGC 2000 has (No Type) and the MOL (NSO).  Both the APL and Steinicke have the 
correct identification

IC 2223 and IC 2224.
POSS. O-989.
Javelle #1021.  08hr 02m 28.289s + 37 36' 22.155" (1950).
08hr 05m 46.013s + 37 27' 45.438" (2000). (IC 2223).  
#1022.  08hr 02m 32.300s + 37 36' 14.806" (1950).
08hr 05m 50.012s + 37 27' 37.851" (2000). (IC 2224).
At the coordinates as given by Javelle only one galaxy exists and the APL gives it 
coordinates of 08hr 02m 32.4s + 37 36' 25" and identifies is as being IC 2224, 
while listing IC 2223 as "Not found".
Dr. Corwin gives an argument in his IC BUGS LIST that these are not equivalent 
identities as suggested by DEEN, however, I find myself in disagreement with his 
conclusions and believe that the two identities represent the single existing 
galaxy.
I do not find the 4 tsec difference to be significant as such a small difference 
in visual observations is easily understandable, (even measured positions from 
photographs often differ by considerably larger amounts).  Also Javelle's 
observations for both identities were 4 years apart, which I feel supports the 
possibility that these are equivalent identities.
The PGC, CGCG and UGC have no listings for these identities.  The APL identifies 
the single existing galaxy as IC 2224 and makes the identity IC 2223 (Not found).  
Steinicke has same conclusion as APL. The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) show the 
two as separate identities with coordinates based upon the historical positions. NED 
has "No object with this name in NED," however, they do identity the galaxy in 
question as 2MASX JO8O55028+3727364, while SIMBAD has "Not present in the databas," 
but identifies this same object as LEDA 2001266.


IC 2224.
(See IC 2223).

IC 2225.
POSS. O-989.
Javelle #1023.  08hr 02m 12.817s + 36 05' 13.872" (1950).
08hr 05m 28.207s + 35 56' 38.168" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy : Dr. Harold Corwin is the person who arrived at the correct 
identity for IC 2225.
He noted that it is quite likely that Javelle in his List gave his RA separation 
from his reference star DM +36 1749 incorrectly as - 1 tmin 35 tsec when it should 
have been - 2 tmin 35 tsec.  When this correction of 1 tmin is applied to the star 
it lands upon the galaxy ZWG 178.026 at 08hr 02m 12.7s + 36 05' 23" which I 
believe is the correct IC 2225.
The CGCG, NED, SIMBAD and PGC have correctly identified ZWG 178.026 as being IC 
2225,  8hr 02.2m + 36 05', however, the MCG lists this same object only as +6-18-12.   
Not listed in the UGC or RC3.  The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) each give the 
coordinates based upon Javelle.  NED and Steinicke identify ZWG 178.026 as being IC 
2225,  

IC 2227.
POSS. O-989.
Javelle #1024.  08hr 03m 51.641s + 36 22' 45.763" (1950)
08hr 07m 07.294s + 36 14' 03.908" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy, but not at Javelle's position :  
Javelle gives his reference star as being DM +36 1749 Mv.8.6 and then applies 
separation values of - 41.30 tsec RA and - 0.7 arcmin declination which result in 
coordinates of 08hr 04m 05.017s + 36 10' 29.036" (1950).  
When these are applied to the DSS no nonstellar object is found while both the NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give it coordinates based upon the historical data.
I believe that Javelle incorrectly identified his reference star and that it 
actually was the 7.98 Mp star DM +36 1746 =  AC #1334193 at 08hr 07' 48.470" +36 
14' 37.65" (2000) and when his separation values are applied to this star they 
result in landing upon a 14.8 Mp galaxy listed in the CGCG as "Anon." ZWG 178.028 
at 08hr 03m 51s + 36 23' 20"
Not listed in either the UGC, PGC or MCG.  Both the APL and Steinicke have the 
correct identity.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED," but do list 
CGCG 178-028.  SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but list it as IRAS 
F08038+3622.

IC 2228.
POSS. O-27.
Bigourdan #394.  08hr 04m 23.369s + 08 10 15.486" (1950).
08hr 07m 05.214s + 08 01 32.701" (2000).
Equal to the middle star of a group of 3 faint stars :  Bigourdan not only gives 
separation values as measured from his reference star but also from a pair of 
double stars, the first being of 11.8 and 13.2 Mv, components at PA =  0 and 
distance equal to 15 arcsec.  He measured this double to lie at a PA of 5, 
distance 1.5 arcmin from his nova.  The second double he describes as 12.0 and 
12.5 Mv, components at PA 10 and distance 12arcsec. and measures the separation 
from his nova as being at PA 90 and distance 1.8arcmin.  Applying this data 
definitely places his nova at the position of 3 stars.
The CGCG incorrectly identifies its ZWG 31.048 as being IC 2228, as does the UGC 
(Notes to U04231 [Not U04320 as published] ).  NED and SIMBAD also identify ZWG 
31.048 as being IC 2228.  The MCG (+1-21-13), PGC #22786, RC3, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL 
(NSO) have all incorrectly identified the galaxy Kara 72.154B as being IC 2228.  The 
APL and Steinicke have (=*).

IC 2229.
(See IC 496.)

IC 2231.
POSS. O-27.
Swift List XI, No.92. 08hr 08m 13.919s + 05 14' 00.955s (1950).
08hr 10m 52.745s + 05 05' 03.992" (2000).  
Javelle #1027. 08hr 08m 23.504s + 05 14' 09.285" (1950).
08hr 11m 02.324s + 05 05' 11.642" (2000).   
Confirmed galaxy :  This is not an error as such, rather I list it only in order 
to establish the correct original discoverer who in this case is Swift as his 
discovery date is March 23rd 1895, whereas Javelle's is February 12th 1898.

IC 2232.
POSS. O-989.
Javelle #1028.  08hr 09m 42.581s + 36 24' 16.189" (1950).
08hr 12m 57.603s + 36 15' 12.686" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 2543 (H 719-2) :  CGCG, UGC, PGC, MOL, APL, Steinicke, NED, 
SIMBAD and MCG give the correct equivalency.  RC3 and DSFG give only the identity 
NGC 2543.

IC 2235. 
POSS O-1364.
Wolf List I, No.1.  08hr 10m 35.657s + 24 12' 46.341" (1950).
08hr 13m 34.524s + 24 04' 40.021" (2000).
This is a close double star :  Only listings are APL (=**), Steinicke (= *2), NGC 
2000 (No Type), NED "There is no object with this name in NED,"
SIMBAD "Not present in the database" and MOL (NSO).
NOTE :  This is the first entry in Professor's Wolf's FIRST LIST OF NEBULAE 
compiled from examination of Plate #137 taken with the Bruce 16 inch Astrographic 
Telescope.  This list has 154 entries considered by Wolf to be nonstellar objects, 
7 of which he identifies as NGC objects while an 8th object (#42) is Javelle's IC 
501, which evidently Dreyer must have concluded as he never gave Object #42 any IC 
II identity.  Of the remaining 146 identities claimed by Wolf as being nonstellar 
I was only able to confirm 36 as being other than Not found, a single star or 
multiple stars.  I can only assume that the image quality on this particular 
Heidelberg plate contained a large number of photographic defects and because of 
this Wolf was badly misled.  
H.D.Curtis in his paper, (DESCRIPTIONS OF 762 NEBULAE AND CLUSTERS. Publ. Lick 
Observatory, Vol.XIII, Part 1, p.25. 1918), states that he examined the area very 
carefully and was unable to identify any object making up the 17 he subjected to 
spectroscopy as having any bright-line spectrum and that they were small, faint 
stars.  Dr. Harold Corwin in his NGC/IC Bug List also has  commented upon Wolf's 
List 1 and the extremely large number of errors it contains.   
Whatever the reason for this problem it would appear that the plates employed by 
Wolf for his other lists did not suffer from anything approaching the scale of 
Plate #137 as the percentage of error in his succeeding lists is considerably 
lower.

IC 2236.
POSS O-1364.
Wolf List I, No.2.  08hr 10m 38.899s + 24 12' 02.038" (1950).
08hr 13m 37.729s + 24 02' 55.520" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), APL = **, Steinicke 
(= *3) and MOL (NSO).  NED (No object found). SIMBAD Not present in the database."

IC 2237.
POSS O-1364.
Wolf List I, No.3.  08hr 11m 08.379s + 24 49' 52.360" (1950).
08hr 14m 07.915s + 24 40' 44.026" (2000). APL (=*), and NED "Not 
found." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." Steinicke (=*) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2238.
POSS.O-1364.
Wolf List I, No.4.  08hr 11m 09.147s + 24 48' 51.287" (1950).
08hr 14m 08.662s + 24 39' 42.907" (2000).
Equal to a faint star :  Only listings found were NGC 2000 (No Type). NED 
"Not found." SIMBAD "Not found in the database." Steinicke and APL (=*) and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 2240.
POSS O-1364.
Wolf List I, No.6.  08hr 11m 48.427s + 24 37' 10.638" (1950).
08hr 14m 47.665s + 24 27' 59.870" (2000).
This is a faint star :  Only listings are NGC 2000 (N0 Type), NED, SIMBAD and 
Steinicke "Not found." APL (=*) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2241.
POSS O-1364.
Wolf List I, No.7.  08hr 12m 10.088s + 24 16' 59.610" (1950).
08hr 15m 08.905s + 24 07' 47.533" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), Steinicke (=*), 
however, it is a different star than I select. NED (Not found), SIMBAD "Not present 
in the database." APL = * (or defect + *?) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2242. 
POSS O-1364.
Wolf List I, No.8.  08hr 12m 12.889s + 24 17' 11.352" (1950).
08hr 15m 11.706s + 24 07' 59.104" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), NED and SIMBAD (Not 
found), APL  = * (or defect + *?).  Steinicke (=*) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2243.
POSS O-1364.
Wolf List I, No.9.  08hr 12m 19.874s + 24 06' 58.693" (1950).
08hr 15m 18.484s + 23 57' 46.025" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only listings are NED and SIMBAD (Not found),  NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).  Steinicke and APL (=*).

IC 2244.
POSS O-1364.
Wolf List I, No.10.  08hr 12m 23..406s + 24 41' 55.415" (1950).
08hr 15m 22.694s + 24 32' 42.517" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), NED and SIMBAD (Not 
found), Steinicke and APL (= *) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2245.
POSS O-1364.
Wolf List I, No.11. 08hr 12m 29.680s + 24 41' 23.836" (1950).
08hr 15m 28.949s + 24 32' 10.557" (2000).
This is a single star : At precisely Wolf's position there is only the image of a 
faint star.  Only listings found were NGC 2000 (No Type), NED (Not found), SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database." Steinicke and APL (= *) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2246.
POSS O-1364.
Wolf List I, No.12.  08hr 13m 02.700s +24 00' 13.736" (1950).
08hr 16m 01.128s - 23 50' 58.471" (2000).
This is equal to a very faint  star : Only listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), NED 
(Not found), SIMBAD "Not present in the database." Steinicke (Not found), APL = * 
and MOL (NSO).

IC 2247.
POSS O-1364.
Wolf List I, No.13.  08hr 13m 01.658s + 23 21' 12.780" (1950).
08hr 15m 59.335s + 23 11' 57.595" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Dreyer's declination as given in the IC II is 1 degree too far 
north and this error is carried on in the NGC 2000 (No Type), and MOL (NSO).  
Due also to this error the majority of the modern catalogues all make the correct 
IC 2247 equal to an "Anon." (CGCG. ZWG 119.020, UGC 04299, MCG +4-20-8, and RC3 = 
U 04299, PGC #23169).  The APL and Steinicke have the correct identity and 
declination.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED," however, they do 
list UGC 04299. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but they do list UGC 4299.

IC 2251.
POSS.O-1364.
Wolf List 1, No.17.  08hr 13m 40.610s + 24 06' 13.257" (1950).
08hr 16m 39.108s + 23 56' 55.691" (2000).
This is a double star :   Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type),  NED "There 
is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
Steinicke and APL = ** and MOL (NSO).

IC 2252.
POSS.O-1364.
Wolf List 1, No.18.  08hr 13m 42.733s +24 50' 57.122" (1950).
08hr 16m 42.098s + 24 41' 37.410" (2000).
This is a single star :   Only modern listings are NED and SIMBAD (Not found), NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  Steinicke and APL (=*).

IC 2255
POSS.O-1364.
Wolf List 1, No.19. 08hr 13m 45.033s + 23 36' 34.810" (1950).
08hr 16m 42.954s + 23 27' 16.991" (2000).
Equal to 2 faint stars :  Listed in NGC 2000 (No Type), APL = ** and MOL (NSO).  
Steinicke (* group), but his given declination is 1 degree too far north.  NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in he database."

IC 2257.
POSS.O-1364. 
Wolf List 1, No.21.  08hr 14m 12.327s + 23 48' 15.519" (1950).
08hr 17m 10.440s + 23 38' 55.843" (2000).
Equal to two faint stars :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), NED (Not 
found), SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL has (= **), Steinicke (=*2) and 
MOL (NSO).
IC 2258.
POSS.O-1364.
Wolf List 1, No.22.  08hr 14m 18.192s + 23 43' 58.775" (1950).
08hr 17m 16.216s + 23 34' 38.947" (2000).
This is a faint star :  
Only modern listings found were NED (Not found), SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database." Steinicke (= *2), although his coordinates are correct the only double 
star lies north preceding Wolf's position NGC 2000 (No Type), and MOL (NSO). APL has 
* or **?

IC 2259
POSS.O-1364.
Wolf List 1, No.23.  08hr 14m 20.063s + 23 43' 06.603" (1950).
08hr 17m 18.068s + 23 33' 46.661" (2000).
Equal to a single star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), Steinicke 
and NED (Not found), SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2260.
POSS.O-1364.
Wolf List1, No.24.  08hr 14m 28.512s + 24 49' 42.917" (1950).
08hr 17m 27.796s + 24 40' 22.437" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), Steinicke 
(=*), NED (Not found), SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (= *) and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 2261.
POSS.O-1364.
Wolf List 1, No.25.  08hr 14m 35.651s + 23 40' 11.169" (1950).
08hr 17m 33.581s + 23 30' 50.287" (2000).
This consists of two stars aligned south preceding north following :  Wolf 
describes it as being oriented at 45 degrees.  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 
(No Type), APL = wide **, Steinicke (= *), NED "There is no object with this name 
in NED." and MOL (NSO). SIMBAD has "Not present in the database."

IC 2262.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.26.  08hr 14m 30.606s + 18 36' 36.240" (1950).
08hr 17m 22.921s + 18 27' 15.779" (2000).
This is a star :  Listed in both the NGC 2000 (?) and MOL (May not exist).  
Carlson in her Table 1b quotes Curtis as Not found.  APL = * as does Steinicke.  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 2263.
POSS.O-1364.
Wolf List 1, No.27.  08hr 14m 42.754s + 23 44' 09.523" (1950).
08hr 17m 40.752s + 23 34' 48.211" (2000).
Not found :  At the nominal position there is an extremely faint star which might 
be what Wolf listed.  
Listed in NGC 2000 as (No Type), APL (*), Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED (Not found) 
and MOL (NSO).

IC 2264.
POSS.O-1364.
Wolf List 1, No.28.  08hr 14m 46.885s + 23 52' 17.156" (1950).
08hr 17m 45.034s + 23 42' 55.590" (2000).
This is equal to a single star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), 
Steinicke (= *), APL = * and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2265.
POSS.O-1364.
Wolf List 1, No.29.  08hr 14m 51.720s + 24 21' 00.751" (1950).
08hr 17m 50.417s + 24 11' 38.882" (2000).  
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), Steinicke 
(=*).  NED and SIMBAD (Not found), APL (= *) and MOL (NSO).
IC 2266.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.30.  08hr 14m 46.315s + 18 34' 00.798" (1950).
08hr 17m 38.569s + 18 24' 39.389" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist) and 
Carlson (Curtis. Not found).  APL = *, Steinicke (=*) and NED (Not found). SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2268.
POSS.O-1364.
Javelle #1032.  08hr 15m 07.405s + 24 57' 09.269" (1950).
08hr 18m 06.783s + 24 47' 46.495" (2000). (Javelle).
08hr 15m 07.661s + 24 57' 08.340" (1950).
08hr 18m 07.040s + 24 47' 45.494" (2000). (Wolf List 1, N0.33).
Confirmed galaxy :   Original discoverer was Javelle.  
The only error involved is a very minor one in that there is what appears to be a 
typographical error in the IC II which gives the Javelle identity as J.1302 when 
it should be J.1032.
Correctly identified in the modern sources.

IC 2270.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.35.  08hr 15m 08.109s + 19 15' 07.854" (1950).
08hr 18m 01.081s + 19 05' 45.110" (2000).
A double star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist) and 
Carlson (Curtis. Not found).  APL = **.  Steinicke (= *2).  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2272.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.37.  08hr 15m 14.507s + 18 53' 28.241" (1950).
08hr 18m 07.084s + 18 44' 05.121" (2000).
A very faint double star whose components are aligned at almost 70 degrees :  Only 
modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist), Steinicke (= *2), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 
APL = ** and Carlson (Curtis. Not found).

IC 2273.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.38.  08hr 15m 20.954s + 18 33' 27.627" (1950).
08hr 18m 13.166s + 18 24' 04.130" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist), 
Steinicke (= *), APL = * and Carlson (Curtis. Not found).  NED "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2274.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.39.  08hr 15m 21.984s + 18 49' 19.552" (1950).
08hr 18m 14.479s + 18 39' 55.984" (2000).
This is a triple star whose components on the DSS (Second Generation) appear to be 
in contact :
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (3 stars), MOL (Three stars), Steinicke (= *3), 
APL = *** and Carlson (Curtis. Not found).  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2275.
POSS. O-236
Wolf List 1, No.40.  08hr 15m 21.869s + 18 34' 04.544" (1950).
08hr 18m 14.092s + 18 24' 40.991" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist), APL 
(= *), Steinicke (= *) and Carlson (Curtis. Not found).  NED has "There 
is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2276.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.41.  08hr 15m 37.058s + 18 38' 04.161" (1950).
08hr 18m 29.337s + 18 28' 39.691" (2000). 
Not found :  It might possibly have been a photographic defect on the original 
plate ?  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist), APL (defect), 
Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED (Not found) and Carlson (Curtis. Not found).

IC 2277.
POSS.O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.43.  08hr 15m 40.535s + 18 48' 26.856" (1950).
08hr 18m 32.997s + 18 39' 02.170" (2000).
Equal to a faint double star:  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not 
exist), Carlson (Curtis. Not found), NED and SIMBAD (Not found), Steinicke and APL = 
* . 

IC 2278.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.44.  08hr 15m 42.125s + 18 37' 06.696" (1950).
08hr 18m 34.383s + 18 27' 41.922" (2000).
Not found :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist), Carlson 
(Curtis. Not found), Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED (Not found) and APL( = defect). 

IC 2279.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.45.  08hr 15m 43.696s + 18 43' 30.561" (1950).
08hr 18m 36.067s + 18 34' 05.688" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist), 
Steinicke (= *), APL = * and Carlson (Curtis. Not found).  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2280.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.46.  08hr 15m 46.501s + 18 36' 28.296" (1950).
08hr 18m 38.744s + 18 27' 03.258" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist), 
Steinicke has (=*) and NED (Not found), SIMBAD "Not present in the datatbase." APL 
(= *) and Carlson (Curtis. Not found).
NOTE:  Wolf describes IC 2276, IC 2278 and IC 2280 as being remarkable and 
connected to each other which suggests that on his photographic plate there was a 
spurious defect within which there were a few stars and this misled him into 
taking them to be individual bright regions within a single nebula.

IC 2281.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.47.  08hr 16m 01.828s + 19 03' 55.931" (1950).
08hr 18m 54.548s + 18 54' 29.956" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Actually Wolf describes this as being a star attached to his 
#51 (= IC 2285).  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist) and 
Carlson (Curtis. Not found).  The APL gives  (= *).  Steinicke (=*).  NED has (Not 
found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2282.
(See IC 2283).

IC 2283.
POSS.O-1364.
Wolf List 1, No.50.  08hr 16m 18.315s + 24 56' 36.882" (1950).  08hr 19m 17.593s + 
24 47' 09.785" (2000). 
Javelle #1033. 08hr 16m 16.316s + 24 57' 04.812" (1950).
08hr 19m 15.604s + 24 47' 37.891" (2000).
Wolf's List 1, No.50 equal to IC 2283 is a single star located between IC 2282 and 
Javelle's reference star DM + 25 1897 and is not equal to Javelle's #1033 = IC 
2282:
IC 2282 (Wolf List 1, No.48) is an existing galaxy exactly where Wolf placed it at 
08hr 16m 17.1s + 24 57' 10" and his description "L, pF, dif. * sf 135 degrees" 
clearly establishes the galaxy visible on the DSS and Palomar print.
Javelle's reference star DM +25 1897 = GSC 1932-1644, from which he measured 
offsets to his #1033 of - 0 tmin 04.57 tsec and + 0' 35 " of arc (north), also 
clearly establish that his #1033 is equal to Wolf's No. 48 = IC 2282, not Wolf's  
No. 50 = IC 2283 as published by Dreyer in the IC II. 
Examination of the Palomar print and DSS shows the identity of Wolf's No. 50 = IC 
2283 to be a star lying almost midway between IC 2282 and the reference star DM + 
25 1897  
The CGCG, NED, SIMBAD, PGC and MCG incorrectly equate IC 2282 and IC 2283.  The RC3 
lists the existing galaxy as being IC 2283 which is incorrect, this galaxy is IC 
2282.  
Not listed in UGC or DSFG.  Listed in NGC 2000 without Type and in the MOL as 
(NSO).  The APL and Steinicke correctly list IC 2282 as an existing galaxy and IC 
2283 as  = *.
NOTE:  Javelle's coordinates are slightly off due to the positional error in the 
given coordinates for his reference star DM + 25, 1897.  When his offsets from the 
correct position for the star, (08hr 19m 19.50s + 24 47' 08.2" epoch 2000) are 
applied they land directly on IC 2282.

IC 2284.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.49.  08hr 16m 06.829s + 18 45' 50.452" (1950).
08hr 18m 59.219s + 18 36' 24.186" (2000).
This is a star :  It is the north preceding of 4 closely associated stars forming 
the letter Y.  
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist), Steinicke (= *), APL = 
* and Carlson (Curtis. Not found).  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2285.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.51.  08hr 16m 10.925s + 19 04' 16.101" (1950).
08hr 19m 03.642s + 18 54' 49.579" (2000).
Equal to a very faint, closely associated group of 4-5 stars whose 2 brightest 
components point towards the star identified as IC 2281 :
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  The APL gives (= **). 
Steinicke (= *2).   NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."
NOTE:  Wolf's description reads "! Curved N, Ch into *47," and this suggests to me 
that he is referring to the grouping of stars rather than just the two brightest 
which are aligned east and west.

IC 2286.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.52.  08hr 16m 11.492s + 19 06' 46.052" (1950).
08hr 19m 04.253s + 18 57' 19.496" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke (=*), NED (Not 
found), SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2287.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.53.  08hr 16m 14.916s + 19 33' 24.773" (1950).
08hr 19m 08.154s + 19 25' 58.000" (2000).
This is a very faint star :  The APL types it as = *.  Only other modern listings 
are Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2289.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.55. 08hr 16m 15.540s + 18 39' 20.649" (1950).
08hr 19m 07.807s + 18 29' 53.863" (2000). 
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist), APL 
= *, Steinicke (= *) and Carlson (Curtis. Not found).  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2290.
POSS. O-236.
Wolf List 1, No.56.  08hr 16m 23.064s + 19 28' 16.024" (1950).
08hr 19m 16.200s + 19 18' 48.763" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Correctly identified in the CGCG, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, 
APL and RC3.  Carlson in her Table 1b states that Curtis could not find it which is 
somewhat strange as its image on the Palomar print is easily visible.  Both the 
NGC 2000 (?) and MOL (May not exist) also are in error.

IC 2291.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.57.  08hr 16m 25.942s + 18 39' 54.701" (1950).
08hr 19m 18.209s + 18 30' 27.290" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (?), MOL (May not exist), APL 
and Steinicke =* and Carlson (Curtis. Not found).  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2292.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.58.  08hr 16m 28.957s + 19 43' 17.504" (1950).
08hr 19m 22.370s + 19 33' 49.883" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL (= *), Steinicke (=*), NED (Not 
found), SIMAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).
IC 2294.
POSS. O-1311
Wolf List 1, No.59.  08hr 16m 33.411s + 19 08' 35,956" (1950).
08hr 19m 26.185s + 18 59' 07.182" (2000).
Equal to an extremely faint star :  Only modern listings are APL (= *), Steinicke
(=*). SIMBAD and NED (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2295.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.60.  08hr 16m 34.878s + 18 34' 18.880" (1950).
08hr 19m 27.037s + 18 24' 50.935" (2000).
Equal to a double star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), 
Steinicke (=*) and the APL (= **).  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 

IC 2296.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.61.  08hr 16m 35.666s + 19 03' 21.844" (1950).
08hr 19m 28.343s + 18 53' 53.836" (2000).
This is a faint star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke (= *), NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2297.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.62.  08hr 17m 13.077s + 18 32' 29.400" (1950).
08hr 20m 05.168s + 18 22' 59.165" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED has "There 
is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2298.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.63.  08hr 17m 15.207s + 18 33' 42.208" (1950).
08hr 20m 07.318s + 18 24' 11.844" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."

IC 2299.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.64.  08hr 17m 17.428s + 19 29' 47.075" (1950).
08hr 20m 10.539s + 19 20' 16.552" (2000).
Equal to two very faint stars:  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL 
(NSO) and APL and Steinicke = ** (PA is correct).  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2300.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.65.  08hr 17m 20.827s + 18 34' 42.698" (1950).
08hr 20m 12.950s + 18 25' 11.997" (2000).
Equal to a star:  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2301.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.66.  08hr 17m 21.943s + 18 35' 22.798" (1950).
08hr 20m 14.078s + 18 25' 52.029" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2302.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.67.  08hr 17m 24.549s + 19 30' 56.429" (1950).
08hr 20m 17.674s + 19 21' 25.479" (2000).
Equal to a star : Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), Steinicke (=*), MOL 
(NSO) and APL (= *) .  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2303.
POSS. O- 1311.
Wolf List 1, No.68.  08hr 17m 26.845s + 19 34' 34.225" (1950).
08hr 20m 20.033s + 19 25' 03.136" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), 
Steinicke and APL (= *).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2304.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.69.  08hr 17m 42.362s + 19 35' 58.817" (1950).
08hr 20m 35.559s + 19 26' 26.799" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), 
Steinicke (= *2), NED "There is no object with this name in NED" and APL (= **).
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2305.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.70.  08hr 17m 47.176s + 19 36' 44.381" (1950).
08hr 20m 40.382s + 19 27' 12.074" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), 
Steinicke and APL (= *).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the datbase."

IC 2306.
POSS. O- 1311.
Wolf List 1, No.71.  08hr 17m 46.815s + 19 16' 09.388" (1950).
8hr 20m 39.652s + 19 06' 37.111" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke (=*), NED (Not 
found), SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2310.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.75.  08hr 17m 54.354s + 18 37' 23.656" (1950).
08hr 20m 46.493s + 18 27' 50.947" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2313.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.77.  08hr 18m 02.526s +18 40' 27.918" (1950).
08hr 20m 54.712s + 18 30' 54.718" (2000).
This is a single star :  At first I had thought that this was the compact galaxy 
immediately off the north following edge of IC 2312, however, after a second 
examination and comparison of Wolf's separation values between his IC 2312 and IC 
2313 (1.4 tsec and 25 arcsecs), it better suggests that it is the star located 
north following the compact.  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 
2000 (No Type), NED "There is no object with this name in NED" and MOL (NSO). SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2314.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.78.   08hr 18m 11.016s + 18 55' 20.166" (1950).
08hr 21m 03.458s + 18 45' 46.451" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), 
Steinicke (=*2), NED (Not found) and APL = **. SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2315.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.79.  08hr 18m 18.253s + 19 04' 27.521" (1950).
08hr 21m 10.851s + 18 54' 53.369" (2000).
This is a very faint star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke and NED (Not 
found), NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO) and APL = *. SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 2316.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.80.  08hr 18m 22.425s + 19 55' 03.205" (1950).
08hr 21m 15.926s + 19 45' 28.784" (2000).
This is equal to two stars :  Only modern listings are APL (probably a double star), 
Steinicke (= *2), 
NED "There is no object with this name in NED."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2317.
POSS. O-1311. 
Wolf List 1, No.81.  08hr 18m 29.122s + 19 00' 10.531" (1950).
08hr 21m 21.633s + 18 50' 35.731" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke (= *), NGC 2000 No Type), 
MOL (NSO), NED "There is no object with this name in NED." and APL (= *). SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2318.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.83.  08hr 18m 40.847s + 18 46' 55.452" (1950).
08hr 21m 33.112s + 18 37' 19.960" (2000).
This is a star in a group of three :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke 
(=*), NED (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 2319.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.84.  08hr 18m 40.110s + 18 38' 08.418" (1950).
08hr 21m 33.219s + 18 28' 32.915" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."

IC 2320.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.85.  08hr 18m 43.021s + 18 49' 47.259" (2000).
08hr 21m 35.335s + 18 40' 11.636" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO) Steinicke 
(=*), NED (Not found) and APL (= *). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2321.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.86.  08hr 18m 47.192s + 18 37' 45.867" (1950).
08hr 21m 39.288s + 18 28' 10.001" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2322.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.87.  08hr 18m 47.414s + 18 38' 35.847" (1950).
08hr 21m 39.525s + 18 28' 59.968" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO). SIMBAD "Not present in the database.

IC 2323.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.88.  08hr 18m 49.021s + 18 46' 22.711" (1950).
08hr 21m 41.268s + 18 36' 46.732" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke (=*), NED (Not 
found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2324.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.89.  08hr 19m 06.042s + 19 21' 17.214" (1950).
08hr 21m 58.893s + 19 11' 40.204" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL (= *),Steinicke (=*), NED and 
SIMBAD (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2325.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.90.  08hr 19m 16.169s + 19 04' 21.277" (1950).
08hr 22m 08.709s + 18 54' 43.671" (2000).
At Wolf's nominal position no image exists, not even a star.  Dr. Corwin examined 
an original plate of this field and goes into detail in his Puzzle Solution Files 
stating that he has compared it with the corresponding Palomar Survey print and 
that there is visible on the original plate a photographic defect with the image 
of an associated star.  I have looked at the DSS field, employing all 3 
generations and am unable to see any star at the nominal position, therefore the 
associated star would have to be some other one in close proximity which would 
require Wolf's given coordinates to be in greater error than normal.    Only 
modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type),  MOL (NSO), Steinicke (NF), NED (Not 
found) SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (* + defect).  

IC 2326.
POSS. O-1311. 
Wolf List 1, No.91.  08hr 19m 19.426s + 19 10' 20.990" (1950).
08hr 22m 12.070s + 19 00' 43.188" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL (= defect+defect), Steinicke (=*), 
NED and SIMBAD (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2328.
POSS. O-1311. 
Wolf List 1, No.92.  08hr 19m 24.005s + 19 46' 37.621" (1950).
08hr 22m 17.292s + 19 36' 59.532" (2000).
Not found :  Only modern listings are APL (= defect or asteroid trail?), Steinicke 
and NED and SIMBAD (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2330.
POSS. O-1311. 
Wolf List 1, No.94.  08hr 19m 31.053s + 19 00' 50.928" (1950).
08hr 22m 23.516s + 18 51' 12.437" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2331.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.95.  08hr 19m 42.384s + 19 50' 30.965" (1950).
08hr 22m 35.722s + 19 40' 51.781" (2000).
Not found :  At the nominal position there is only the image of an extremely faint 
star.  Wolf's description reads "vF, pL, R, dif-chief of a group,"  which does not 
match the appearance of the star.  Only modern listings are APL (=**), Steinicke 
and NED and SIMBAD (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2332.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.96.  08hr 19m 46.274s + 20 05' 01.632" (1950).
08hr 22m 39.868s + 19 55' 22.211" (2000).
This is the northern comes of a double star:  Wolf describes it as "pB, vS, R, 
stel N, F* att south." Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There 
is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2333.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.97.  08hr 20m 08.170s + 19 14' 32.595" (1950).
08hr 23m 00.840s + 19 04' 51.891" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "Name does 
not exist or no object found." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2334.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.98.  08hr 20m 07.916s + 18 46' 31.584" (1950).
08hr 23m 00.090s + 18 36' 50.905" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not preseent in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2336.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.100.  08hr 20m 27.163s + 18 41' 50.843" (1950).
08hr 23m 19.237s + 18 32' 09.028" (2000).
This is a star just off the preceding edge of IC 2337 :  The CGCG, NED, SIMBAD and 
PGC incorrectly equate the identities IC 2336 and IC 2337.  IC 2337 is a confirmed 
galaxy and Wolf's separation values for IC 2336 from IC 2337 (-1.3s of RA and + 5 
arcsecs in declination) confirm the identity of the star. Correctly identified in 
the APL.  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and in the MOL as (NSO).  Steinicke 
gives (=*).

IC 2337.
(See IC 2336).

IC 2338.
POSS. O-1364.
Javelle #1036,   08hr 20m 36.936s + 21 30' 25.524" (1950).
08hr 23m 32.023s + 21 20' 43.012" (2000).
The preceding companion of a double system with IC 2339:
The RC3 and PGC list IC 2339 the preceding of the pair which is incorrect as 
Javelle definitely places J.1036 = IC 2338 to precede J.I037 = IC 2339 by 2s of 
RA.  CGCG and UGC give the identities IC 2338 + IC 2339.  The APL, Steinicke, NED, 
SIMBAD and MCG give the correct identities. NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) have 
correct identities.  No listing in DSFG.

IC 2340.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.102.  08hr 20m 37.992s + 18 54' 38.883" (1950).
08hr 23m 30.281s + 18 44' 56.419" (2000).   
Javelle #1038.  08hr 20m 35.047s + 18 53'12.249" (1950).
08hr 23m 27.314s + 18 43' 29.902" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the CGCG only as ZWG 89. 011, (this noted in the PGC 
Corrections).  Only other modern listings are APL, NED, SIMBAD, Steinicke, NGC 2000 
(GX.) and MOL (NSO).which are all correct.
NOTE : For historical precedence Javelle was the first to record this galaxy, 
almost a year prior to Wolf.

IC 2342.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.103.  08hr 20m 40.316s + 18 44' 28.662" (1950).
08hr 23m 32.423s + 18 34' 46.065" (2000).
This is a faint star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO ).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." 
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2343.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.104.  08hr 21m 01.703s + 19 11' 11.770" (1950).
08hr 23m 54.261s + 19 01' 27.893" (2000).
Equal to a faint star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2344.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.105.  08hr 21m 03.011s + 18 49' 13.626" (1950).
08hr 23m 55.180s + 18 39' 29.681" (2000).
This is a single star :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and MOL as (NSO).  
The APL and Steinicke give (= *).  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
 
IC 2345. 
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.106.   08hr 21m 14.892s + 20 06'55.652" (1950).
08hr 24m 08.429s + 19 57' 10.972" (2000).
Not found :  No nebular image visible.  The closest image is of a faint star.  
Only modern listings are APL (=*), however, Wolf describes it as "attached B* p" 
which does not agree with the APL (*).  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED (Not found), NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2346.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.107.  08hr 21m 17.587s + 19 52' 08.391" (1950).
08hr 24m 10.856s + 19 42' 23.559" (2000).
Equal to 2 very faint stars :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke 
(=*2), NED and SIMBAD (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2347.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.108.  08hr 21m 22.170s + 18 56' 09.912" (1950).
08hr 24m 14.443s + 18 46' 24.829" (2000).
This is a faint star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*),Steinicke (=*), SIMBAD and 
NED (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2349.
POSS. O-1311. 
Wolf List 1, No.110.   08hr 21m 24.541s + 19 10' 05.716" (1950).
08hr 24m 17.057s + 19 00' 20.487" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2350.
POSS. O-1311. 
Wolf List 1, No.111.  08hr 21m 35.209s + 19 42' 52.797" (1950).
08hr 24m 28.296s + 19 33' 06.925" (2000).
Not found :  Only modern listings are APL (Nothing at this position), Steinicke, 
SIMBAD and NED (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2351.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.112.  08hr 21m 38.049s + 18 45' 01.473" (1950).
08hr 24m 30.110s + 18 35' 15.457" (2000).
This is a star located on the south preceding edge of the galaxy NGC 2581 :  Wolf 
evidently thought that it was a nonstellar image as he described it as "pF, pS, 
iF, p dif, F stell N, att No. 113 (NGC 2581)." and his positional data confirms 
that it is the star.
The CGCG (ZWG 89.019) incorrectly identifies the galaxy as IC 2351 as does the UGC 
SIMBAD and MCG.  The NGC 2000 and MOL show them as being separate galaxies.  The APL 
correctly identifies IC 2351 as * 25 arcsecs ssp NGC 2581.  Steinicke has (=*).  The 
PGC correctly identifies NGC 2581 and has no listing for IC 2351.  NED has "There is 
no object with this name in NED."

IC 2352.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.114.  08hr 21m 46.875s + 19 45' 56.754" (1950).
08hr 24m 40.004s + 19 36' 10.191" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
Steinicke and APL (=*).

IC 2353.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.115.  08hr 21m 45.848s + 18 49' 06.778" (1950).
08hr 24m 17.973s + 18 39' 20.299" (2000).
Equal to a single star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), 
Steinicke(=* ), APL (*), NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."

IC 2354.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.116.  08hr 21m 48.560s + 18 49' 42.534" (1950).
08hr 24m 40.693s + 18 39' 55.895" (2000).
This is a very close double star whose components on the Palomar print are in 
visual contact :
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), NED "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  Steinicke (=* ). APL 
(**)  

IC 2355.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.117.  08hr 21m 58.063s + 20 37' 34.813" (1950).
08 24m 52.103s + 20 27' 47.569
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), APL (= **) 
Steinicke (=**), NED and SIMBAD (Not found) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2356.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.118.  08hr 22m 08.072s + 19 39' 36.845" (1950).
08hr 25m 01.068s + 19 29' 49.033" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database. 
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2357.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.119.  08hr 22m 11.386s + 19 40' 17.549" (1950).
08hr 25m 04.390s + 19 30' 29.541" (2000).
This is a star and also equal to the identity IC 2358:  Only modern listings are 
APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2358.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.120.  08hr 22m 12.163s + 19 39' 29.478" (1950).
08hr 25m 05.152s + 19 29' 41.425" (2000).
Equal to a single star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke (=*), NED and 
SIMBAD (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2359.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.121.  08hr 22m 18.220s + 20 29' 50.997" (1950).
08hr 25m 12.100s + 20 20' 02.566" (2000).
Equal to NGC 2582 (H 753-3) :  It is difficult to ascertain just why Dreyer would 
assign any IC identity to this galaxy as Wolf in his List 1 definitely identifies 
his No.121 as being NGC 2582.  CGCG, MCG, PGC, NGC 2000, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD 
and UGC correctly list the equivalency.  The RC3 and DSFG give the single identity 
NGC 2582.  The MOL (NSO) list both identities at separate coordinates.

IC 2360.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.122.  08hr 22m 22.189s + 19 37' 17.577" (1950).
08hr 25m 15.128s + 19 27' 28.933" (2000).
Nothing found at the nominal position:  Only modern listings are APL (=* at a 
declination of + 19 40' 47".  3.5 arcmin error in Wolf's declination).  Steinicke 
(=*), SIMBAD and NED (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2361.
POSS. O-1351.
Javelle #1040.  08hr 22m 42.067s + 28 02' 15.871" (1950).
08hr 25m 44.476s + 27 52' 25.910" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Dreyer in the IC II gives the annual rate of precession in RA 
as 3.47s which is incorrect and would result in IC 2361 having a 1950 RA of 8hr 
22m 25s.  The correct rate of precession is 3.66s. The CGCG lists IC 2361 only as 
ZWG 149.023.  The UGC, MCG, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, APL, RC3, PGC, NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO) all have the correct identity.

IC 2362.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.123.  08hr 22m 47.935s + 20 06' 19.308" (1950).
08hr 25m 41.363s + 19 56' 29.135" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (**), NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database. 

IC 2364.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.125.  08hr 22m 58.223s + 19 55' 23.375" (1950).
08hr 25 51.337s + 19 45' 32.600" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=**), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2365.
POSS. O-1351.
Javelle #1041.  08hr 23m 15.586s + 28 02 46.237" (1950).
08hr 26m 17.955s + 27 52' 54.291" (2000).
IC 2365 and IC 2366 are equivalent identities:
Javelle claimed discovery of his #1041 = IC 2365 some 14 months prior to his #1042 
= IC 2366 and his descriptions for both objects are almost identical, "pB, vS, R, 
stell." for IC 2365 and "pB, vS, R, bMN." For IC 2366.
There is only one possible candidate in the immediate field, "Pretty bright," (the 
other close field galaxy being ~ 17 Mp) and this single candidate is at the 
coordinates given by Javelle for his J.1042 = IC 2366 at 8hr 23m 15.633s + 28 00' 
16.618" (1950), or 0.047 tsec RA and 2 arcmin 29.619 arcsec different from his 
measurement for IC 2365.
The fact that the difference in RA coordinates is negligible and that those for 
declination are almost exactly 2.5 arcmin I would say strongly supports the 
equivalency.
Additionally, if Javelle, for whatever reason, thought that he was correctly 
measuring a position for his #1041 in 1896 then it is my belief that he could not 
have missed seeing at that same time his #1042 = IC 2366, yet it was not until 
1897 that he reported finding IC 2366.    
The CGCG, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, UGC, MCG and RC3 all identify the galaxy as IC 2365 
(however, they are all referring to J.1042 = IC 2366.  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO) list both identities with separate coordinates.  
Not listed in DSFG.  APL equates both identities.  Steinicke equates IC 2365 and 
IC 2366.
NOTE:  If IC 2365 and IC 2366 are indeed equivalent identities then historically 
Javelle's #1041 = IC 2365 would be the correct identity as his single observation 
for his #1041 was made more than one year prior to the first of two observations 
he made for his #1042 = IC 2366.
 
IC 2366.
(See IC 2365).

IC 2368.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.126.  08hr 23m 07.913s + 20 02' 56.518" (1950).
08hr 26m 01.260s + 19 53' 05.170" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke (=*), NED and SIMBAD 
(Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2369.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.127.  08hr 23m 22.655s + 20 23' 47.226" (1950).
08hr 26m 16.358s + 20 13' 55.003" (2000).
This is an existing galaxy :   The CGCG (ZWG 089.027), PGC, NED, SIMBAD and RC3 have 
each identified as IC 2369 a galaxy with coordinates at 08hr 23m 27.91s + 20 26' 
05.9 (1950 NED), however, I have difficulty accepting this as being Wolf's No.127 as 
the difference in RA is ~ 5 tsec while the difference in Declination is almost 2 
arcmin.  Corwin has stated (Precise Positions Catalogue) that the mean error of 
Wolf's positional data in his List 1 is between 3-5 arcsecs.  
Additionally in this same source Corwin gives the position consistent with Wolf's, 
concluding that it is a "star." and from my own examination of the positional data 
in this list I find it hard to believe that such an error in measurement as 
required to accept ZWG 089.27 as being Wolf's No.127 was made by Wolf.
In my earlier versions of my survey I incorrectly listed this as being only a 
star, however, the Second Generation DSS photos, Red and especially Blue leave 
absolutely no doubt as to the existence of a spiral galaxy with the foreground 
star superposed upon its northern edge.  
Corwin states that there is the image of a very faint galaxy on the POSS1 at 
Wolf's position, however, he adds that it is not visible on the copy of the 
original photograph that he examined.  Of course such a faint image might have been 
lost in the copying of the original plate. 
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL ( NSO) each list IC 2369 giving  coordinates in 
agreement with Wolf's.  Not listed in UGC, MCG or DSFG.  The APL lists it at the 
correct coordinates and types it as (= *).  Steinicke has (=*).

IC 2370.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.128.  08hr 23m 29.780s + 19 48' 09.547" (1950).
08hr 26m 22.843s + 19 38' 16.919" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only listings are APL (=*), Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2371.
POSS. O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.129.  08hr 23m 43.919s + 19 57' 48.297" (1950).
08hr 26m 37.138s + 19 47' 54.835" (2000).
This is a faint star :  At the position as given by Wolf there is found only the 
image of a star   
APL gives (=*) as does Steinicke.  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2372. 
Wolf List 1, No.130.  08hr 23m 47.250s + 20 02' 52.006" (1950).
08hr 26m 40.555s + 19 52' 58.346" (2000).
This is a star :  An additional error is found in Wolf's (and Dreyer's) 
descriptions pertaining to the "Bright star south following.  This should be 
corrected to read Bright star south preceding.  
Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 2374 Group of Galaxies.
POSS. O-1351.
Javelle # 1043, #1044, #1045 and #1046
All are existing galaxies :  I am entirely obligated to the excellent explanation 
given in the NGC/IC Bug List by Dr. Corwin for bringing to my attention that the 
CGCG has confused the identities of two of these galaxies and I have to admit that 
I overlooked this in my own investigation. 
There are four Javelle galaxies in the immediate field, IC 2374, IC 2376, IC 2378 
and IC 2380 and following are the coordinates based upon Javelle's measurement.
#1043 = IC 2374 :  8hr 25m 16.358s + 30 36' 41.349" (1950)
08hr 28m 21.689s + 30 26' 42.245" (2000).
#1044 = IC 2376 :  8hr 25m 20.781s + 30 34' 27.372" (1950).
08hr 28m 26.057s + 30 24' 28.012" (2000).
#1045 = IC 2378 :  8hr 25m 26.054s + 30 35' 54.999" (1950).
08hr 28m 31.352s + 30 25' 55.331" (2000).
#1046 = IC 2380 :  8hr 25m 38.546s + 30 34' 17.181" (1950).
08hr 28m 43.788s + 30 24' 16.785" (2000).
Thus Javelle gives the order by declination from north to south as IC 2374, IC 
2378, IC 2376 and IC 2380.   
There are no problems involving the order of the RA values, however, this is not 
true when it comes to the declinations involved.  
The CGCG identifies only three as being IC objects, (IC 2374, IC 2378 and IC 2380) 
making its IC 2378 the most northerly while giving its IC 2374 and IC 2380 the 
same declination value 1 arcmin south of IC 2378.  However, the CGCG also lists an 
"Anon" ZWG 149. 027 at a declination value 1 arcmin north of its IC 2378 and it is 
this galaxy that is the correct IC 2374  while what the CGCG identifies as IC 2374 
(ZWG 149.029) is actually IC 2376.  Meanwhile the MCG and PGC list all four IC 
identities again in correct order of RA but in order of declination from north to 
south they makes IC 2378 the most northerly then give IC 2374 and IC 2380 a 
declination value 2 arcmin south of IC 2378 and finally place IC 2376 2 arcmins 
south of IC 2374 and IC 2380 which obviously is in considerable conflict with the 
Javelle's identities and order of declination.
The NGC 2000 also places their IC 2376 1 arcmin south of IC 2380 which is 
incorrect, while the MOL, basing its coordinates upon Dreyer's correct reporting 
of Javelle's coordinates, has all the identites and their order of RA and 
declination correct.  The APL, Steinicke and NED have the correct identities and 
coordinates.  SIMBAD incorrectly identifies IC 2374, as the galaxy it selects is 
actually IC 2376, while it also identifies as IC 2376 an anonymous galaxy (2MASX 
J08282365+3022513).

IC 2381.
POSS O-1311.
Wolf List 1, No.132.  08hr 25m 28.649s + 19 57' 27.980" (1950).
08hr 28m 21.752s + 19 47' 28.385" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=**), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).     

IC 2386.
POSS. O-364.
Bigourdan #395.  08hr 31m 45.303s + 25 58' 37.685" (1950).
08hr 34m 44.492s + 25 48' 16.275" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), APL (= *), 
Steinicke (=*), NED and SIMBAD (Not found) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2390.
POSS. O-1311.
Barnard.  08hr 38m 57.999s + 19 53' 05.999" (1950). 
08hr 41m 50.134s +19 42' 20.517" (2000).
This is an interesting problem in that the PGC, SIMBAD, NED and APL equate IC 2390 
with Marth's NGC 2643, the CGCG and Steinicke give the single identity IC 2390, the 
MOL and NGC 2000 lists both identities as being separate objects, while the other 
authorities, UGC, MCG and RC3 have no listings for either identity.
To begin with Marth listed 3 nebulae in the immediate field, NGC 2637, NGC 2643 
and NGC 2647 all three being "discovered" on the same night.  Marth's coordinates 
for these three are
NGC 2637 = Marth #130.  8hr 38m 26s + 19 44'.3
NGC 2643 = Marth #131.  8hr 39m 17s + 19 42'.1
NGC 2647 = Marth #132.  8hr 39m 51s + 19 49'.1
Thus according to Marth NGC 2637 and NGC 2643 have declinations south of that 
given to NGC 2647.
I was able to confirm the existence of NGC 2647 at the coordinates as given by 
Marth, however, at Marth's coordinates for the other two no nebular images were 
found.  This then requires that if IC 2390 is a duplicate observation of NGC 2643 
then Marth's declination measurement for NGC 2643 is in error by about 11 arcmins 
and means that NGC 2643 would lie at a declination north not south of NGC 2647, 
while Marth's RA measurement for NGC 2643 would have an error of 19 seconds.
Now as Marth's measured coordinates for NGC 2647 are so good, the APL gives 8hr 
39m 51.07s + 19 49' 49.9," I find it difficult to accept that Marth then would 
have so poorly measured coordinates for NGC 2643 if Barnard's IC 2390 is Marth's 
NGC 2643, therefore I would at this time conclude that IC 2390 is a separate 
identity and not equivalent to NGC 2643.
NOTE :  The RNGC has selected as its RNGC 2637 a galaxy at 8hr 38.3m + 19 52'.2 
which again would be about 7.9 arcmins north of Marth's declination and would 
again place it north not south of NGC 2647, however, the RNGC often assigns 
questionable identities by selecting the closest nonstellar image regardless of 
any historical data.

IC 2396.
POSS. O-62.
Wolf List 1, No.134.  08hr 43m 51.384s + 17 49' 55.955" (1950).
08hr 46m 41.182s + 17 38' 55.009" (2000).
This is a single faint star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000, MOL both making 
it a double star.  The APL  gives (=*).  Steinicke has (= *2), which is for a 
faint pair north following the star I select.  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2397.
POSS. O-62.
Wolf List 1, No.135.  08hr 43m 51.999s + 17 50' 35.905" (1950).
08hr 46' 41.807s + 17 39' 33.925" (2000).
This is a double star, the companion component, (PA 90 degrees), being extremely 
faint :  Not listed in the CGCG, UGC, MCG or RC3.  The NGC 2000 gives (?) while 
the MOL states (May not exist).  The APL lists it as (=**) as does Steinicke.  NED 
has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD :Not present in the 
database."

IC 2399.
POSS. O-62.
Wolf List 1, No.137.  08hr 43m 59.051s + 19 05' 57.395" (1950).
08hr 46m 50.073s + 18 54' 54.997" (2000).
Not found at Wolf's nominal position :  The CGCG (ZWG 90.010), PGC, SIMBAD, NED, NGC 
2000  and MOL all identify a galaxy at about 8hr 45.0m as being IC 2399 suggesting 
that Wolf's RA is about 1 minute in error.  As Wolf was obviously employing stars on 
the plate with accurately known coordinates from which to obtain his positional data 
(in fact he lists 32 reference field stars for his List 1) plus the fact that his 
measuring abilities were of a very high standard I am reluctant to accept the 
selection of the above authorities.
The APL gives (Nothing in this position) and (IC 2399 = CGCG 090-010).  Steinicke 
has (Not found).

IC 2408.
POSS. O-62.
Wolf List 1, No.140.  08hr 45m 29.286s + 19 13' 19.91" (1950).
08hr 48m 20.326s + 19 02' 12.591" (2000).
This is a single star :  The only modern listings are NGC 2000, MOL and APL and 
Steinicke and all list it as being a star.  NED "There is no object with this name 
in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2410.
POSS. O-62.
Wolf List 1, No.142.  08hr 45m 36.448s + 19 12' 16.317" (1950).
08hr 48m 27.463s + 19 01' 08.608" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 2667 (D'Arrest) :  Both the CGCG and MCG give only the 
identity IC 2410 while the MOL lists both identities as separate galaxies.  The 
APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 and Carlson correctly make IC 2410 = NGC 
2667.

IC 2411.
POSS. O-62.
Wolf List 1, No.143.  08hr 45m 39.779s + 19 13' 46.043" (1950).
08hr 48m 30.815s + 19 02' 38.152" (2000).
This is a confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the MCG only as + 3-23-9 this being noted 
in the PGC.  Correctly identified in the CGCG, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 
(GX) and DSFG.  The APL equates it with NGC 2667B while the MOL lists both IC 2411 
and RNGC 2667B as separate identities at different coordinates.

IC 2412.
POSS. O-62.
Wolf List 1, No.146.  08hr 46m 33.351s + 18 43' 44.588" (1950).
08hr 49m 23.841s + 18 32' 33.802" (2000).
This is equal to a faint star that makes up a double with a star close north 
preceding :  Wolf describes his object as having a 14 mag. star north preceding 
and this is the brighter of the two components  visible on the DSS.:  Only modern 
listings are NGC 2000 (Double star), MOL (Two stars), Steinicke and APL (= *) and 
NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database.

IC 2413.
POSS. O-62.
Wolf List 1, No.147.  08hr 46m 41.531s + 18 55' 41.926" (1950).
08hr 49m 32.205s + 18 44' 30.692" (2000).
Equal to a double star :  NGC 2000 (Double star), MOL (Two stars), Steinicke (= *2) 
and APL = **.   Carlson lists as = * on Mt. Wilson plate. SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database." NED "No Objext found."

IC 2415.
POSS. O-62.
Wolf List 1, No.150.  08hr 47m 11.550s + 18 50' 19.449" (1950).
08hr 50m 02.104s + 18 39' 06.595" (2000).
This is a faint star :  The only modern listings are NGC 2000 (***), MOL (Three 
stars), Steinicke (= *).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED" and APL 
which states (= *). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
 
IC 2416.
POSS. O-62.
Wolf List 1, No.151.  08hr 47m 41.765s + 18 44' 47.961" (1950).
08hr 50m 32.197s + 18 33' 33.478" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are NED "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000, MOL each making 
it a double star. Steinicke and APL (=*).

IC 2417.
POSS. O-62.
Wolf List 1, No.152.  08hr 48m 18.202s + 18 48' 44.977" (1950).
08hr 51' 08.657s + 18 37' 28.531" (2000).
This is a star :  The only modern listings are NGC 2000 (GX),  MOL (Galaxy) and 
both select a galaxy at a declination of + 18 59'.3, or about 10 arcmins north of 
Wolf's declination.  
The APL lists as (*).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."  
Steinicke has (Not found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
As in the case of IC 2399 I am reluctant to accept that Wolf created an error of 
10 arcmins, therefore at this time I maintain my conclusion as stated above 
especially as the nominal position lands just off the south following edge of 
the star, which is the case with almost all the nominal positions given in Wolf's 
List 1.

IC 2419.
POSS. O-62.
Wolf List 1, No.154.  08hr 49m 19.640s + 18 17' 22.925" (1950).
08hr 52m 09.528s + 18 06' 03.194" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (= *), MOL (Single 
star) Steinicke (= *2), NED "There is no object with this name in NED," SIMBAD "Not 
present in the databse." and APL = **.
NOTE :  This is the final entry in Wolf's List 1.

IC 2423.
POSS. O-62.
Javelle #1062.  08hr 51m 55.399s + 20 24' 42.804" (1950).
08hr 54m 47.134s + 20 13' 14.822" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  I was unable to locate any listing for the actual identity IC 
2423 in the MOL, instead, this source lists the correct object only as UGC 04667, 
MCG +03-23 -017 and ZWG 090.035, all of which are correct but still no primary 
identity (IC 2423).  
The galaxy is correctly identified in the CGCG, UGC, MCG, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, 
APL, PGC, RC3 and NGC 2000 (GX).

IC 2424.
POSS. O-721. 
Bigourdan #271. 08hr 53m 33.986s + 39 34' 31.828" (1950).
08hr 56m 47.449s + 39 22' 58.121" 
This is equal to NGC 2704  (Wm. Herschel H 625-3) :   CGCG gives only the identity 
IC 2424.  MCG makes IC 2424 = NGC 2704 ?.  UGC "Notes" for U04678 = IC 2424 states 
"Probably equal to NGC 2704." NGC 2000, MOL, Carlson, NED, SIMBAD and PGC all 
correctly equate both identities. RC3 gives only NGC 2704.  APL and Steinicke give 
(= NGC 2704).

IC 2425.
POSS. O-469.
Bigourdan #396.  08hr 53m 18.500s - 03 13' 53.412" (1950).
08hr 55m 49.418s - 03 25' 25.275" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Bigourdan was not sure as to its nature as he describes it as 
"Object of 13.5 Mv. appears nebulous, but cannot say with certainty."
Listed in the NGC 2000 as (*) and in the MOL as (May not exist).  NED and Carlson 
each list it as "Not found," while both the APL and Steinicke correctly type it as 
a star. SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2436.
POSS. O-1011.
Stewart #316.  09hr 03m 05.633s - 18 57' 54.679" (1950).
09hr 05m 23.336s - 19 09' 56.608" (2000).
This is a pair of stars in visual contact :  Listed in the MOL as (NSO).  The NGC 
2000, APL and Steinicke correctly list it as two stars.  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2440.
POSS.O-1325. 
Bigourdan #273.  09hr 10m 46.662s + 73 40' 02.360" (1950).
09hr 15m 50.958s + 73 27' 33.774 " (2000). 
This is a single star :  Listed in NGC 2000 without type.  MOL makes it (NSO).  
The APL gives = * and Steinicke gives (= *). NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2447.
POSS. O-1365.
Javelle #1080.  09hr 10m 32.482s + 28 56' 52.007" (1950).
09hr 13m 30.845s + 28 44' 27.042" (2000).  
Not found :  No nebular image in the area as given by Javelle.  Only modern 
listings are NGC 2000 (No Type) Steinicke, APL "Probably equal to IC 2446." SIMBAD 
and NED (Not found) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2449.
POSS. O-1365.
Javelle #1081.  09hr 10m 33.003s + 30 12' 22.081" (1950).
09hr 13m 32.658s + 29 59' 57.073" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  At the separations given by Javelle from his reference star DM 
+30 1834 no nebular image exists, however, if his RA separation sign was - 51.22 
tsec instead of the + 51.22 tsec which he gives, it would be equal to ZWG 151.026 
= UGC 04856 = MCG +05-22-17, being an extended galaxy close north preceding NGC 
2783 which Javelle refers to in his observation (Part 1).  
Listed in NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) at the historical position.  
The APL gives it coordinates consistent with ZWG 151.026 and identifies it as 
being equal to NGC 2783B. Steinicke has correct identity.  The PGC list CGCG 151-
026 as an "Anon." = PGC #26012.  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED," however, they do list it under the name NGC 2783B.  Simbad has "Not present in 
the database," however, they do list it under the identity UGC 4856.
RC3 lists this as Hick 37B.  DSFG lists as NGC 2783B.
NOTE:  Javelle's reference star is also AC #943305 whose 1903 (discovery year) 
position would be 09hr 08m 34.876s + 30 20 43.687" and by applying his offsets 
(corrected in RA from+ 51.22 tsec to - 51.22 tsec then it gives coordinates of 
09hr 10m 33.003s + 30 12' 22.081" (1950), which lands right on the south edge of 
the extended galaxy as described above.
 
IC 2450.
POSS. O-237.
Javelle #1082.  09hr 14m 10.441s + 25 38' 22.826" (1950).
09hr 17m 05.164s + 25 25' 47.392" (2000).
Not found at Javelle's position but it is an existing galaxy :  
Corwin in his unpublished list (Accurate Positions List) suggests that Javelle 
misidentified his reference star DM + 25 2071 and that his object #1082 actually 
exists at 9hr 14m 11s + 25 38'.1  Steinicke and both the CGCG (ZWG. 121.049) and 
UGC (U04902) agree with Corwin and identify this object as IC 2450.
I am in agreement that the above authorities have correctly identified IC 2450
DM + 25 2071 is equal to AC #943530 at 09hr 16m 24.052s + 25 21' 48.63" (2000).  
Javelle took Argelander's coordinates for this star which unfortunately when 
precessed to 2000 would give a position of 09hr 16m 24.246s + 25 23' 16.316" or 
about 1 arcmin 27.6 arcsec off the true declination.  
Secondly, Javelle's published offsets have the incorrect sign in RA, making it to 
be - when it should be +.  
When these corrections are applied and the correct coordinates for the star are 
precessed back to the discovery year (1896) and the corrected offset directions 
entered it results in giving IC 2450 coordinates of 09hr 14m 10.441s + 25 38' 
22.826" (1950), or 09hr 17m 05.164s + 25 25'47.392" (2000).
The MCG lists this same object only as +4-22-29.  Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and 
MOL (NSO) list the identity IC 2450 but place it at Javelle's original 
coordinates.  The PGC (# 26218), SIMBAD and NED list the CGCG, UGC, MCG candidate 
but do not equate with the identity IC 2450.
NOTE: Corwin in his recent update now agrees that Javelle's reference star is DM 
+25 2071.

IC 2451.
POSS. O-237.
Javelle #1083.  09hr 12m 54.878s + 23 42' 20.534" (1950).
09hr 15m 47.931s + 23 29' 48.771" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The only error here is the very minor typographical one found 
in Javelle's Catalogue Part 2, in which the reference star is identified as DM 25 
2065  when it should read DM 23 2065.  Fortunately Javelle did record the correct 
coordinates for the reference star, therefore his positional data was not in 
error.  The modern catalogues which list this identity, CGCG, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, APL, 
Steinicke, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO), all have the correct identity.

IC 2455.
POSS. O-57.
Javelle #1087.  09hr 13m 59.912s + 20 19' 31.550" (1950).
09hr 16m 49.849s + 20 06' 56.689" (2000).
Not found at Javelle's given position :  The closest object visible on the Palomar 
print is a faint star.  Dr. Corwin in his NGC/IC Bugs List gives an argument that 
perhaps Javelle's declination offsets are in error and if they were to read +7' 
36".7 instead of +2' 36".7 then the galaxy NGC 2804 would be a viable candidate 
for what Javelle was recording, however, Corwin adds that Javelle in his
observation of IC 2457 (discovered and measured by Javelle within minutes of IC 
2455), states that he also measured its position from the nebula NGC 2804 which if 
correct would mean that Javelle was well aware of the NGC galaxy and this would 
most likely invalidate the IC 2455 = NGC 2804 hypothesis.
Because of this I am currently reluctant to accepting the equivalency and have 
decided to go with the Not found explanation although there is no doubt that the 5 
arcmin difference in declination would provide an excellent solution.  
APL list it as = NGC 2804.  Steinicke has (= NGC 2804). NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2456.
POSS. O- 925. 
Javelle #1088.  09hr 14m 28.181s + 34 59' 48.185" (1950).
09hr 17m 32.491s + 34 47' 11.708" (2000). 
Not found:  No nebular image found at or close to Javelle's separation values.  
CGCG, MCG and UGC have no listing for this identity.  Both the NGC 2000 and MOL 
listings give the original IC II declination.  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED have (Not 
found). The APL suggests that it might be a galaxy at 09hr 14m 19,98s + 34 53' 04.9" 
(1950).NOTE:  See Corwin's PUZZLE SOLUTION FILES for an very interesting discussion as to 
this identity and one that may well be the correct solution.

IC 2460. 
POSS. O- 925.
Javelle #1091.  09hr 16m 15.910s + 34 05' 26.013" (1950).
09hr 19m 18.934s +33 52' 44.422" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 2827 (Rosse):   CGCG gives the single identity NGC 2827.  MCG 
gives only IC 2460.  UGC has no listing.  NGC 2000 lists with the Type [?].  MOL 
states  "May not exist."  Carlson reports  "Not Found."   The PGC, SIMBAD and NED 
correctly make IC 2460 = NGC 2827. The APL and Steinicke equates IC 2460 with NGC 
2827.
NOTE:  When Javelle's data is computed by TYCHO 2, which takes into account the 
reference star's proper motion, it places IC 2460 at 09hr 19m 18.582s + 33 52' 
37.26" (2000).

IC 2465.
POSS. O-237.
Javelle #1096.  09hr 20m 39.475s + 24 39' 40.300" (1950).
09hr 23m 32.626s + 24 26' 46.564" (2000).
This is a confirmed galaxy at Javelle's position :  The CGCG has incorrectly 
assigned this identity to an Anon. at a declination of + 22 40' NED, SIMBAD and the 
PGC also equate this CGCG galaxy with IC 2465.  The only other modern listings are 
NGC 2000 (No Type), APL, Steinicke and MOL (NSO) and each of these give the correct 
declination and correct identity.
TYCHO 2 would give the coordinates as 09hr 20m 38.392" + 24 39' 38.90" (1950).

IC 2466.
POSS. O-237.
Javelle #1097.  09hr 20m 52.313s + 24 44' 05.161" (1950).
09hr 23m 44.507s + 24 31' 10.830" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG identifies this galaxy only as ZWG.121.076.  
Not listed in the RC3 or UGC.  Correctly listed in the MCG, PGC, Steinicke, NED, 
APL, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO). 
For additional information regarding this identity see Q.J.R.astr. Soc. (1992), 
33, p 64. "Corrections to Zwicky's Catalogue."

IC 2470. 
POSS. O- 237. 
Javelle #1100.  09hr 22m  49.002s + 23 34' 50.337" (1950).
09hr 25m 40.981s + 23 21' 50.648" (2000).  (Javelle Section II) 
Declination error of 20 degrees :   Due to a typographical error in Section I of 
Javelle's catalogue Dreyer and other compilers of catalogues have been misled.  
The correct IC 2470 is listed in the CGCG only as ZWG121.088 and the PGC also 
identifies this galaxy only as #26730 = CGCG 121-88.  In the MCG as +4-22-49 (dec. 
+ 23 35'.4).   UGC has no object listed at the correct declination.  NGC 2000 and 
MOL have the declination as given by Dreyer.  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED," however, they do identify the IC galaxy as CGCG 121-088. SIMBAD 
has "Not present in the database," but do identify the correct object as MCG+04-22-
049. APL and Steinicke have the correct identity and coordinates.

IC 2474.
POSS. O-237.
Bigourdan #275.  09hr 24m 20.402s + 23 15' 03.056" (1950).
09hr 27m 11.947s + 23 01' 59.202" (2000).
This is a confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG incorrectly lists its ZWG.121.098 at 9hr 
24.4m + 23 04'.0 as being IC 2474.  This is actually NGC 2885 = IC 538 and this 
same error is repeated in the UGC (U05037) and MOL (NSO).  The MCG has correctly 
identified IC 2474.  The PGC (Corrections) has pointed out the CGCG and UGC error 
but has not referred to the equivalency that exists between the identities IC 538 
and NGC 2885.  The APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke have the correct identities and 
coordinates.  
For a more complete understanding of the identity errors in this field see 
W.S.Q.J..N0. 81. July 1990. "Identification Errors in the NGC 2885 Galaxy Group."  
M.J.Thomson. 

IC 2475.
POSS. O-1365.
Javelle #1103.  09hr 24m 56.863s + 30 00' 27.926" (2000).
09hr 27m 54.466s + 29 47' 22.331" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Correctly listed in CGCG, PGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and 
MCG.  Both the NGC 2000 and MOL list it a "Bright Nebula."

IC 2476.
POSS O-1365.
Javelle #1104.  09hr 24m 55.029s + 30 12' 08.461" (1950).
09hr 27m 52.823s + 29 59' 02.927" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Correctly listed in CGCG, PGC, MCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, 
UGC, RC3 and NGC 2000.  Listed in MOL as "Bright Nebula."

IC 2477.
POSS. O-466.
Javelle #1105.  09hr 25m 02.193s + 29 55' 26.258" (1950).
09hr 27m 59.704s + 29 42' 20.409" (2000).
Not found at nominal position:  Javelle's reference star is equal to AC 2000.2 
944738 at 09hr 27m 50.410s +28 45' 42.30" (2000).  When this is precessed back to 
the year of Javelle's discovery (1896), it's position would be 09hr 21m 40.442s 
+30 12' 46.900".  Javelle's published offsets are +9.450 tsec RA and 3arcmin 21 
arcsec north, which when applied and then precessed to the years 1950 and 2000 
results in the above coordinates, at which there are no nonstellar images.  
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke (Not 
found) and MOL (NSO).
NOTE: Since writing the above I see that in a later version of Dr. Corwin's APL 
Files (Jan. 16th 2004) he suggests that there is an 18 tsec error in Javelle's 
data, which he states is not the result of a typo error and that this correction 
would land on a galaxy which he believes could be Javelle's IC 2477, however, this 
particular object is another Javelle discovery, his #1108 = IC 2480, therefore if 
this hypothesis is correct then IC 2477 and IC 2480 would be equivalent 
identities, not separate galaxies as indicated in the Jan. 16th files. 
Additionally, I am not so sure that this would not be the result of a typo error, 
as if in original transcribing the RA offset should have been -29.450 tsec instead 
of the published -9.450 tsec, this would then have placed Javelle's #1105 very 
close to the south following edge of the image of IC 2480.  The most compelling 
evidence to support the equivalency is the fact that Javelle's observations for IC 
2477 and IC 2480 were made about two weeks apart and not on the same night.

IC 2478.
POSS. O-1365.
Javelle #1106.  09hr 25m 03.137s + 30 15' 20.959" (1950).
09hr 28m 00.965s + 30 02' 15.057" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Correctly listed in CGG, PGC, APL, NED, SIMBAD, UCG (Notes), and 
MCG. Listed in NGC 2000 as "Nebula" and MOL as "Faint Nebula."

IC 2479.
POSS.O-1353.
Javelle #1107.  09hr 25m 06.181s + 30 12' 35.606" (1950).
09hr 28m 03.957s + 29 59' 29.568" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Correctly listed in CGCG, PGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, UGC 
(Notes) and MCG.  Listed in NGC 2000 as "Nebula" and in MOL as "Bright Nebula."

IC 2480.
POSS. O-466.
Javelle #1108.  09hr 25m 20.608s + 29 55' 23.332" (1950).
09hr 28m 18.077s + 29 42' 16.666" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Incorrectly listed in the NGC 2000 as (Nebula) and MOL (Bright 
Nebula). 
Correctly listed in APL, PGC, CGCG, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke.

IC 2484.
Swift List XI, #94.  09hr 24m 55.079s - 42 37' 28.767" (1950).
09hr 26m 50.335s - 42 50' 33.029" (2000).
Not found :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and the MOL as (NSO).
The APL, Steinicke, NED and ESO have (Not found). SIMBAD has "Object of unknown 
nature. Nothing here."

IC 2485.
Stewart #317.  09hr 25m 11.677s - 39 03' 59.423" (1950).
09hr 27m 11.533s - 39 17' 04.563" (2000).
Not found.  Possibly a faint double star ? :  At Stewart's given position there 
exists only a faint double star which is located in a rich stellar field.  Whether 
this is the image considered to be nebulous by Stewart I am unable to say.
The NGC 2000 gives (No Type) and the MOL (NSO).  The APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and 
the ESO each have (Not found).

IC 2487.
POSS. O-57.
Javelle #1112.  09hr 27m 19.419s + 20 18' 38.012" (1950).
09hr 30m 08.238s + 20 05' 26.131" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG has incorrectly identified ZWG 91.098 as IC 2489, it 
should be IC 2487. (This error noted in the PGC Corrections which also corrects 
the error in the PGC main catalogue which equates the identities IC 2487 and IC
2489).  Listed correctly in the UGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, MCG, NGC 2000 (GX) 
and MOL (NSO).

IC 2489.
Barnard.  09hr 28m 43s - 05 39'.8 (Dreyer).
Not found :  At the nominal position no nonstellar object is found.  Listed in the 
NGC 2000 as (No Type) and the MOL as (NSO).  Steinicke, NED and the APL have (Not 
found).  Incorrectly equated with IC 2487 in the PGC (1986) main catalogue but 
this error corrected in the "PGC Corrections and 1996 version."  The CGCG 
incorrectly identifies what is IC 2487 as being IC 2489as does SIMBAD.

IC 2490.
POSS. O-466.
Javelle #1113.  09hr 30m 06.118s + 30 09' 00.897" (1950).
09hr 33m 03.170s + 29 55' 41.498" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  CGCG, UGC, PGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and MCG all 
correctly list it as being a galaxy.  NGC 2000 lists as "Nebula" and MOL as " Bright 
Nebula."

IC 2492.
Stewart #318.  09hr 31m 08.363 - 37 41' 15.442" (1950).
09hr 33m 10.919s - 37 54' 36.547" (2000).
Unable to confirm :  There are no nebular images at the nominal position, however, 
there is a small, faint galaxy (16.0 Mp), at 09hr 31m 12s - 37 38'.6 which 
Steinicke has identified as IC 2492.  This galaxy is also suggested as being IC 
2492 by the ESO (315-G013 = IC 2492?), the PGC, SIMBAD and NED, while the APL has (? 
= ESO 315-G013)., however, Stewart's description reads "eF, vS, R, B* 1 arcmin np; 
susp." and I am unable to find any bright star in this position relative to ESO 315-
G013. Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give the historical position.

IC 2494.
POSS. O-1536.
Swift List XI, #95.  09hr 33m 55.089s - 12 09' 52.279" (1950).
09hr 36m 20.228s - 12 23' 21.126" (2000).
Equal to NGC 2947 (Leavenworth) and IC 547 (Javelle #165).
Howe made a correction to Swift's coordinates stating that this object was 
positioned at 09hr 33m 40s - 12 12'.6 and there is no doubt that this is 
Leavenworth's NGC 2947 which Leavenworth had poorly placed at a position of 09hr 
35.9m - 12 12'.0.  This error by Leavenworth obviously misled Javelle who thought 
that his IC 547 was a new discovery to which he had measured a position of 09hr 
33m 40.7s - 12 12'.8, thus the double equivalency.
The MCG gives only the equivalency with IC 547.  The NGC 2000 gives each identity 
as separate objects while the MOL gives no equivalency and states that NGC 2947 is 
a non existing object.  The APL, PGC, NED and Steinicke make the correct double 
equivalency. SIMBAD equates NGC 2947 and IC 547, but for the identity IC 2494 it 
gives "Not present in the database.

IC 2500.
POSS. O-925.
Bigourdan  #399.  09hr 39m 17.946s + 36 34' 25.633" (1950).
09hr 42m 19.858s + 36 20' 42.540" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Carlson lists it as "Not found on Mt. Wilson plates."  The MOL 
states "May not exist." The NGC 2000 types it as [?].  Correctly identified in the 
CGCG, APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, DSFG (Notes to NGC 2965) and MCG.  Not 
listed in the RC3 or UGC.

IC 2502 and IC 2503.
POSS. O-925.
Javelle #1121.  09hr 40m 14.537s + 35 23' 20.172" (1950).
09hr 43m 15.091s + 35 09' 34.756" (2000). (IC 2502).  
#1122.  09hr 40m 17.417s + 35 26' 11.351" (1950).
09hr 43m 18.011s + 35 12' 35.674" (2000). (IC 2503).
Both existing galaxies :  At the coordinates derived from Javelle's data no such 
galaxies exist, however, this is due to what appears to be a typographical error 
in Javelle's published catalogue in which he identifies his reference star for 
both objects as being DM +33 2042 when it actually is DM +35 2042 = AC 2000.2 
1226788 at a declination 2 degrees north of where his data indicates.
Javelle states that his reference star's Mv is 6.5, placing it at 09hr 34m 16.4s 
+33 42'.7 (1860), however, the BD catalogue identifies BD +33-2042 as having a Mv 
of 9.5 and coordinates of 10hr 42m 49.976s +33 38' 25.747" (1860), therefore it 
appears certain that Javelle has misidentified his reference star.  Finally, when 
Javelle's offsets are applied to DM +35 2042 they come up with the two galaxies at 
the Corrected Nominal Positions as given above.
Only listings are NGC 2000 (No type for both identities).  MOL (NSO) for both 
Identities. NED, SIMBAD and the APL who identify IC 2502 and IC 2503 as (NF) and 
Steinicke who agrees with my conclusions.  
 
IC 2504.
Stewart #319.  09hr 37m 41.424s - 68 51' 34.016" (1950).
09hr 38m 34.274s - 69 05' 10.665" (2000).
Not found :  Stewart describes this object as "eF, vS, eE at 170 degrees, lbM, 
susp." and there is nothing in the field that resembles this description.
Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and the MOL as (NSO).  The APL, Steinicke, 
SIMBAD, NED and the ESO each list it as (Not found).

IC 2509.
POSS. O-233.
Bigourdan #276.  09hr 44m 19.238s + 05 55' 38.389" (1950).
09hr 46m 56.737s + 05 41' 43.348" (2000).
Not found :  At the nominal position I was not able to see any object stellar or 
nonstellar.  Bigourdan described it as "Trace of nebulosity exceedingly faint but 
whose existence seems certain. It requires a larger instrument."
Both the NGC 2000 and MOL list it as being a star, probably based upon Carlson who 
lists it as "* Mt. Wilson.".  NED and SIMBAD have (Not found). APL (=*?) and 
Steinicke (=*).  

IC 2511, IC 2512, IC 2513 and IC 2514.
Swift List XI, #97.  09hr 47m 10.158s - 32 37' 00.950" (1950).
09hr 49m 20.529s - 32 51' 02.360" IC 2511. (2000). 
#98.  09hr 47m 15.102s - 32 41' 38.150" (1950).
09hr 49m 25.416s - 32 55' 39.755" IC 2512. (2000).
#99.  09hr 47m 40.165s - 32 41' 45.155" (1950).
09hr 49m 50.544s - 32 55' 47.752" IC 2513. (2000).
#100. 09hr 47m 45.219s - 32 39' 02.356" (1950).
09hr 49m 55.651s - 32 53' 05.154" IC 2514. (2000).
This is an unusual problem in that Swift in his List XI actually gives four 
separate observations suggesting that there are 4 separate but associated nebulae 
in the field and this led to Dreyer assigning four separate IC identities, IC 
2511, IC 2512, IC 2513 and IC 2514., whereas when the field in question is 
examined there are only 2 galaxies.
It is interesting to note that IC 2511 and IC 2514 were discovered on December 
30th 1897 and that IC 2512 and IC 2513 were supposedly discovered on February 12 
1898, or more than one month later and it can be stated that Swift's nominal 
positions for IC 2511 and IC 2514 are considerably more accurate than those he 
gives for IC 2512 and IC 2513.
Additionally, comparison of Swift's descriptions for each of his four observations 
indicate great similarity between IC 2511 and IC 2512, also between IC 2513 and IC 
2514.
Stewart also examined this same field on his Plate #4313 and correctly identified 
the 2 nonstellar objects as Swift's XI, #97 (IC 2511) and Swift's XI, #100 (IC 
2514), thus corroborating that the correct historical identities are IC 2511 and 
IC 2514 and that the identities IC 2512 and IC 2513 are the result of duplicate 
observations by Swift and therefore equivalent identities.
Thus we have IC 2512 = IC 2511 and IC 2513 = IC 2514.
The MOL gives each identity as separate and at the historical coordinates.
The PGC correctly equates IC 2513 with IC 2514, however, they omit any reference 
to any equivalency between IC 2511 and IC 2512.  The NGC 2000, APL, Steinicke, NED 
SIMBAD and ESO each give the correct equivalencies.  The MCG gives only the 
identities IC 2511 and IC 2514, which by date of discovery are the correct 
identities.  The DSFG in its Notes correctly gives the identities IC 2511 and IC 
2514, but also incorrectly list the identity IC 2513 as being 17 arcmin WSW of NGC 
3038.
 

IC 2525. 
POSS. O-1345. 
Javelle #1135.  09hr 55m 24.846s + 37 20 29.472" (1950).
09hr 58m 24.553s + 37 06' 08.259" (2000). 
RA error by Javelle :   Javelle's catalogue  (Section II) has a typographical 
error which results in placing his J.1135 to be 33.47 tsec following his reference 
star DM + 37 2031 instead of where it actually is 33.47 tsec preceding the star. 
Fortunately in Section I of this same catalogue, which gives the coordinates for 
the epoch 1860, this error is not repeated and therefore Dreyer's IC II 
coordinates are relatively correct as it was the same data as given in the first 
section of Javelle's catalogue that Dreyer employed.  
CGCG, APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 and MOL correct.  UGC and MCG have 
no listing for IC 2525.
NOTE:  Javelle's declination is also almost 2 arcmin too far south, however, this 
is due to the incorrect declination he gives to his reference star DM +37 2031, 
this error  originating in the Argelander data.  DM +37 2031 is equal to AC 
#1338969 at 09hr 58m 57.679s + 37 08' 23.26" (2000) and when the corrected Javelle 
offsets are applied they land directly on the sought for galaxy at the above 
Corrected Nominal Positions.

IC 2528.
POSS. O-1391.
Swift List XI, #102.  09hr 56m 21.136s - 26 56' 53.312" (1950).
09hr 58m 37.470s - 27 11' 16.019" (2000).
Probably equal to NGC 3084 (h 3211) :  At the coordinates given by Swift no 
nebular image is found, however, at about 30 tsec following and about 03.5 arcmin 
north there is the galaxy NGC 3084 which is a viable candidate based upon Swift's 
normally less than precise positions.
The MCG lists NGC 3084 as an "Anon" -04-24-010.  The PGC identifies NGC 3084 
without any equivalency with IC 2528.  The MOL types IC 2528 as (single star).  
The NGC 2000, APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke all equate it with NGC 3084.

IC 2529.POSS. O-1391.
Swift List XI, #103.  09hr 57m 09.396s - 22 36' 13.068" (1950).
09hr 59m 28.958s - 22 50' 37.639" (2000).
This is a duplicate observation of NGC 3081 (H 596-3) :
Dreyer's position for NGC 3081 is 09hr 56m 47s - 22 33'.6 and Bigourdan corrected 
this to 09hr 57m 09.2s - 22 35' 08" which is an excellent match with Swift's 
position for his #103.  It would appear that Swift at the time of his observation 
was unaware of the Bigourdan correction for NGC 3081, therefore he considered this 
object to be a Nova.
Listed in the MCG as = NGC 3081 ?  The MOL (NSO) gives both identities as separate 
objects and places NGC 3081 at the incorrect Dreyer position.  The NGC 2000, APL, 
PGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke all correctly make the equivalency.

IC 2542. 
POSS. O-1345. 
Javelle #1140.  10hr 4m 55.049s + 34 33' 35.151" (1950).
10hr 07m 50.585s + 34 18' 53.482" (2000). 
Again Javelle's catalogue  (Section II) has a typographical error placing his 
J.1140 to lie 4' 14".2 south of his reference star DM + 34 2089 when it should be 
4' 14".2 north of the star, however, this same error was also transcribed into the 
Section I data  so that both Javelle and Dreyer are off by ~ 8'.5 in declination.  
This has resulted in the IC II, NGC 2000 and MOL declination values to be ~ 8' of 
arc too far south.  The CGCG gives the correct declination +34 33'.0.  The UGC has 
no listing for IC 2542.  The MOL lists it as "Anon." = + 06-33-76. The APL, PGC, 
NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke have the correct coordinates.

IC 2545.
Stewart #331.  10hr 04m 24.091s - 33 36' 35.084" (1950).
10hr 06m 36.443s - 33 51' 15.108" (2000).
Not found :  No nebular image at the nominal position, however, very close south 
preceeding the nominal position there is a compact group of 4 faint stars in the 
form of the letter Y and the 2 stars most south and preceeding of this group are 
in the relative position angle of about 28 degrees, which is in excellent 
agreement with Stewart's description "eF, eS, cE at 25 degrees, triangle 2 f 
stars."
NED, SIMBAD and PGC have selected the galaxy ESO 374-IG032 at 10hr 03m 53s - 33 
38'.5 and identified it as being IC 2545, however, this would require that Stewart 
not only made an error in RA of 30 tsec but additionally measured the declination 
incorrectly by 2 arcmin, something extremely unusual for him to have done.
The APL and ESO list ESO 374-IG032 as IC 2545 ?, while both the NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and MOL (NSO) give the coordinates based upon the historical data.  Steinicke has 
(Not found).

IC 2555.
Stewart #336.  10hr 09m 26.639s - 31 23' 45.577" (1950).
10hr 11m 41.534s - 31 38' 35.993" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 3157 (h 3233) :  The error results from an incorrect 
declination given by Dreyer for NGC 3157, giving it as - 30 42'.5 when it should 
be - 31 23'.7
Possibly the declination was an error in John Herschel's GENERAL CATALOGUE and 
thus misled Dreyer, but certainly in Herschel's CAPE OBSERVATIONS he gives the 
declination as -31 22' 27"0
The MOL correctly identifies IC 2555 but then makes NGC 3157 a nonexistent object 
at the historical declination.  The NGC 2000, APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and 
ESO correctly give the equivalency.

IC 2571.
Swift List XI, #107.  10hr 18m 52.269s - 34 01' 22.132" (1950).
10hr 21m 06.840s - 34 16' 30.750" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 3223 (h 3243) :  Howe made a correction to Swift's 
coordinates so that they read 10hr 19m 19s - 34 00'.8 and NGC 3223 has coordinates 
of 10hr 19m 22s - 34 00'.0 (Dreyer).
The equivalency is correctly noted in the NGC 2000, Carlson, MOL, APL, PGC, 
Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and the ESO.  The RC3 gives only the identity NGC 3223.

IC 2579. 
POSS. O-1387. 
Javelle #1158.  10hr 26m 30.292s + 26 21' 23.659" (1950).
10hr 29m 16.915s + 26 06' 01.189" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 3251 (D'Arrest) :    D'Arrest made an error of 1m in RA, 
however, when the image of IC 2579 on the Palomar print is examined and compared 
to D'Arrest's description there can be little doubt that this is the object first 
seen by D'Arrest and given the identity NGC 3251. 
Due to D'Arrest's error the NGC RA for NGC 3251 is 1 tmin too small.  CGCG, UGC 
and MCG give the single identity IC 2579.  NGC 2000 lists as IC 2579 = NGC 3251 ?.   
MOL lists as = NGC 3251 as does both Carlson and the PGC.  RC3 gives only NGC 
3251.  APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke have the correct equivalency.

IC 2585.
Stewart #349.  10hr 28m 09.192s - 35 06' 20.886" (1950).
10hr 30m 24.722s - 35 21' 45.951" (2000).
This is equivalent to NGC 3271 (h 3265) :  This is a very interesting and unusual 
problem as it is quite possible that John Herschel listed two entirely separate 
galaxies as being his h 3265.
NGC 3271 is one of a group of galaxies including NGC 3257, NGC 3258, NGC 3260, NGC 
3267, NGC 3268, NGC 3269, NGC 3271 and NGC 3273.
Herschel used 5 separate Sweeps over different periods of time in order to examine 
and list each of these NGC identities
His coordinates for all but NGC 3271 are in excellent agreement with the modern 
ones (e.g. APL), most of the discrepancies being on the order of about 3 tsec in
RA and less than 30 arcsec dec, except for NGC 3268, which has a difference of 
2'.5 arcmin from the APL declination, however, it should be stated that in the 
case of NGC 3268 Herschel gives only an approximate declination (+ or -).
NGC 3271 was observed during Sweeps # 446 and # 572 and Herschel measured the 
following coordinates.
Sweep #446 :   10hr 27m 49s - 35 06' 41" (F,S,lE,bM,15", one of a group of 3 or 
more).
Sweep #572 :   10hr 27m 49s - 35 08' 48" {+ or -}.  (pB, pmE,pmbM,).
Dreyer gives : 10hr 27m 48s - 35 06'.7
The APL gives :10hr 28m 14s - 35 06'.0
Obviously the major difference between Herschel and the APL concerns the RA which 
would be 25 tsec, also Herschel's two descriptions do not appear to match, 
although it can be argued that different conditions on different nights might 
account for this.
When the field is examined on the DSS the APL's NGC 3271 is easily visible and 
does certainly fit Herschel's description as given in Sweep #572, however, 
Herschel's given RA (25 tsec preceeding this galaxy), lands closer to another 
galaxy (SGC 102737-3507.2) and this better fits Herschel's description as given in 
Sweep #446.
The only other identity in the field which was observed during both Sweeps #446 
and #572 is NGC 3269 and Herschel gave excellent coordinates for this galaxy.
Sweep #446.  10hr 27m 44.1s - 34 57' 11"
Sweep #572.  10hr 27m 44.1s - 34 58' 25'"
APL.         10hr 27m 42.0s - 34 58'.00
Now based upon Herschel's data the separations between NGC 3269 and NGC 3271 would 
be 4.9 tsec RA and 9' 30" dec. (Sweep #446) and 4.9 tsec RA and 10' 23" dec (Sweep 
#572) and according to the NED data the difference between NGC 3269 and SGC102737-
3507.2 is 5 tsec RA and 9' 12" dec. which would appear to support that what 
Herschel was observing , measuring and describing, at least in his Sweep #446, 
fits the SGC galaxy.
So my question is  When it comes to the identity NGC 3271 was Herschel describing 
two different galaxies and was he seeing the SGC object during Sweep #446 and the 
brighter APL (and other modern authorities) galaxy identified as NGC 3271 during 
Sweep #572 ?
I also think it possible that Stewart may have considered these or similar 
possibilities concerning NGC 3271 as it would appear unlikely that he would have 
had any other reason to select the modern NGC 3271 as being a "nova" and list it 
as his #349 = IC 2585, especially with so many other bright galaxies in the 
immediate field, (Why this one ?).
I have also considered that as John Herschel gives NGC 3271 the same RA for both 
Sweep #446 and Sweep # 572, and the fact that his RA lands between the modern 
candidate and the SGC galaxy then it is possible that for both observations he was 
describing and seeing only one of the two possible candidates rather than both, 
and logic would demand that it would be the brighter, modern candidate that he was 
describing and seeing on both Sweeps, however, here again this can 
only be an assumption and does not comply with the different descriptions he 
gives.
I am going to go with the equivalency at this time, however, I still have the 
slightest nagging doubt.  Nobody said that this was going to be easy, but it does 
add spice to the investigation.
There is an additional factor dependent on which object Herschel was seeing on 
Sweep #446. If it was the SGC galaxy then by numerical order of Sweeps this 
historically would be Herschel's #3265 = NGC 3271 as he would have viewed it at a 
date prior to Sweep #572.  However, if as also seems reasonable, he was seeing the 
APL candidate on his Sweep # 572 then this also would be according to Herschel 
description his #3265 = NGC 3271.  So would this suggest two NGC 3271's, such as 
NGC 3271 West and NGC 3271 East?
The NGC 2000, MOL, PGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and ESO each have equated IC 
2585 with NGC 3271.  The RC3 gives the single identity NGC 3271.

IC 2592.
Stewart #351.  10hr 32m 51.988s - 43 26' 28.896" (1950).
10hr 35m 02.400s - 43 42' 01.647" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 3366. (h 3294) :  Herschel gave coordinates to his discovery 
of 10hr 43m 01s - 43 27'.0 and described it as "F, E, gbM, close to a star 6.7m.  
The minute of RA is doubtful."
Examination of the DSS shows that Stewart's #351 matches exactly this description 
and the 6th magnitude star lies just off the northern end of the galaxy.
The MOL lists both identities as being separate objects at the historical 
positions.  The NGC 2000, APL, Steinicke, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and ESO all correctly 
report the equivalency.  The RC3 gives only the identity NGC 3366.

IC 2595.
POSS. O-1537.
Swift List XI, #113.  10hr 35m 03.991s - 10 51' 27.212" (1950).
10hr 37m 33.094s - 11 07' 03.669" (2000).
Not found :  There is no suitable nonstellar image in the immediate field.
Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and the MOL (NSO).  Only other listings found 
are Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED (Not found). APL "Nothing here."

IC 2603. 
POSS. O-731. 
Bigourdan #279.  10hr 45m 37.601s + 33 11' 27.722" (1950).
10hr 48m 24.960s + 32 55' 35.728" (2000).   
Not found :  Bigourdan describes it as having the shape of two nebulae and 
elongated at 98.9 degrees, being about 1.4 arcmin long.   He adds a later Note 
stating "Appears to be a false image." And on two later observations he states 
that he can not see any object.  His reference star which he calls A.G.LEYTE 4280 
is equal to GSC 2519-561 at 10hr 48m 19.69s + 32 53' 21.3" (2000) or AC 1142205 at 
10hr 48m 19.821 +32 53' 21.85" (2000) and Bigourdan's offsets are (+ 0 tmin 5.13 
tsec RA, + 2 arcmin 14 arcsec Dec.) and when these are applied to the DSS they 
land on an empty space.  
The star selected as being Big. #279 Steinicke appears to me to be 
far to faint to have been seen by Bigourdan and does not match his description. 
Their candidate is listed in the USNO-B1.0 Cat. as #1229-0240393 and given a Rmag. 
Of 17.00.    
NGC 2000, SIMBAD and MOL all list it as a single star.  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no 
listing for IC 2603.  Steinicke has (=*). The APL lists it as Not found.  
NOTE :  An additional error is that in Bigourdan's OBSERVATIONS (1919) he lists 
this as being Object # 270 while in his earlier COMPTES RENDUS he lists it as # 
279.
 
IC 2605. 
POSS. O-731. 
Bigourdan #402.  10hr 47m 02.265s + 33 14' 27.868" (1950).
10hr 49m 49.397s + 32 58' 34.023" (2000).
Bigourdan measured the positions of the double system NGC 3395 and NGC 3396, 
therefore he was well aware of their identities.  His reference object for IC 2605 
is NGC 3395 and his offsets are - 0.5 tsec RA and - 17 arcsec Dec. which places 
his # 402 on the south spiral arm of NGC 3395, therefore it appears that what he 
probably saw is a bright part of this arm which to him seemed to be a separate 
object from the NGC galaxy.
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing for IC 2605.  Carlson states "Not Found."   NGC 
2000 lists Type as  [?] and MOL states  "May not exist."  DSFG states that it is 
an arm of the galaxy NGC 3395 (Notes to NGC 3395).  APL (= sp arm of NGC 3395).  
Steinicke equates it with spiral arm of NGC 3395.  The PGC lists NGC 3395 but has 
no references to the identity IC 2605.  NED has "There is no object with this name 
in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the databse."

IC 2609.
POSS. O-1022.
Bigourdan #403.  10hr 47m 48.547s - 11 50' 35.571" (1950).
10hr 50m 17.965s - 12 06' 30.496" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 3404 (Common #7) :  Common's coordinates, 10hr 47m 45s - 11 
36'.2 are as usual not precise and the declination difference must have convinced 
Bigourdan that his #403 was a Nova.  Bigourdan searched unsuccessfully for NGC 
3404 at Common's position.
The equivalency is correctly given in the MCG, NGC 2000, PGC, MOL, SIMBAD, APL, 
Carlson, NED and Steinicke.

IC 2610. 
POSS. O-731. 
Bigourdan #280.  10hr 49m 21.323s + 33 20' 56.331" (1950).
10hr 52m 08.087s + 33 04' 59.364" (2000). 
Not found :  Just north preceding the nominal position there is only the image of 
an extremely faint star with a 13 Mv star at about PA 250 degrees and the right 
separation as described by Bigourdan "Star 13.0 situated at 270 degrees, distance 
25 arcsec."   CGCG, UGC, PGC and MCG have no listing for IC 2610.  Carlson lists 
as  "Not Found."   NGC 2000 gives the Type as [?].   MOL lists as  "May not 
exist." MSIMBAD "Not present in the database."  APL and NED (Not found).  Steinicke 
has (Not found).  

IC 2611. 
POSS. O-976. 
Bigourdan #404.  10hr 50m 01.745s + 10 23' 36.006" (1950).
10hr 52m 39.059s + 10 07' 38.245: (2000). 
Not found :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000, MOL, Steinicke, APL and 
Carlson all make it a single star.  NED and SIMBAD have (Not found).

IC 2613. 
POSS. O-731. 
Javelle #1169. 10hr 47m 02.590s + 33 14' 47.747" (1950).
10hr 49m 49.723s + 32 58' 53.879" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 3395 :
A most complex problem whose solution was determined by Dr. Corwin.
All of the modern sources I have examined equate IC 2613 with NGC 3430 and that 
included myself in my previous versions of my survey.  This incorrect equivalency 
was based upon supposing that Javelle had erred in his RA offset making it to be + 
2 tmin 13.65 tsec when it should be + 0 tmin 13,65 tsec.
By applying this correction to his reference star DM +33 2046 = AC #1142260 at 
10hr 46m 15.103s + 33 35' 49.197 (Discovery year of 1896) and then precessing this 
to the year 1950 it gives a position for IC 2613 of 10hr 49 29.407s + 33 14' 
44.110" placing it quite close to the northern end of NGC 3430, thus the
equivalency between IC 2613 and NGC 3430 in the modern sources.
Javelle's description for IC 2613, "Bright, 1 arcmin in size, elongated at a PA of 
200 degrees, gradually much brighter in the middle with a diffuse nucleus." 
certainly matches well with the appearance of NGC 3430, except perhaps that the 
actual PA is closer to 210 (30) degrees.
While upgrading Javelle's positional data for this version of my survey I was not 
completely satisfied with the relatively small error between the corrected 
coordinates I was accepting for Javelle's corrected data and the actual position 
for NGC 3430 as it exceeded that normally found with Javelle's measurements, 
therefore, I contacted Dr. Corwin and expressed my concerns and asked him to check 
on the apparent discrepancy.  
He immediately replied that upon re-examination he had found that the solution lay 
in the fact that Javelle's sign in RA was reversed and should have read - 2 arcmin 
13.65 arcsec and when this correction was applied to Javelle's reference star it 
landed within a couple of arcsec of the center of NGC 3395 at 10hr 47m 02.590s + 
33 14' 47.747 (1950), thus making IC 2613 equal to NGC 3395, not NGC 3430.
Dr. Corwin further remarked that this solution poses another problem "Why did 
Javelle not mention in his description for IC 2613 the companion galaxy to NGC 
3395, namely NGC 3396, which lies just off the north following end of NGC 3395. 
Instead Javelle in his description for his Object #1163 = IC 2604 states "One also 
measured NGC 3396." ?  
Dr. Corwin believes that the answer is that Javelle originally did have this 
footnote for IC 2613 but that when he was later reducing the positional data for 
his catalogues he applied the + sign instead of the correct - sign and upon 
finding that the result was a difference of about 4.5 tmin, therefore he put the 
footnote on his nearest object to NGC 3396, which was IC 2604.
I find this to be a convincing argument and I fully accept Dr. Corwin's findings 
and conclusions making IC 2613 equal to NGC 3395.
Both the NGC 2000 and MOL give the equivalency with NGC 3430, however, they also 
list the RA of IC 2613 without the sign correction.  CGCG, UGC, SIMBAD, NED, RC2  
"Notes" and PGC have IC 2613 = NGC 3430.  MCG gives only the identity NGC 3430.  
APL, and Steinicke make the equivalency with NGC 3395.  

IC 2618.
POSS. O-1357.
Bigourdan #281. 10hr 59m 15.571s + 28 03' 34.093" (1950).
11hr 01m 58.394s + 27 47' 25.207" (2000).
This is equal to a single star as Bigourdan suspected :  Only modern listings are 
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  Steinicke gives (= *) and NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=**).


IC 2620.
POSS. O-1349.
Javelle #1175.  10hr 59m 36.362s + 38 46' 25.397" (1950).
11hr 02m 23.704s + 38 30' 16.155" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The MCG has incorrectly listed its +7-23-14 as being IC 2620 
and the PGC repeats this error.  The correct MCG object is +7-23-13.  Correctly 
listed in CGCG, UGC, APL, NED, NGC 2000 and MOL. Steinicke has correct object but 
equates it with MCG +7-23-14, as does SIMBAD.
NOTE:  The declination value for Javelle's reference star DM +39 2405 is off by 
about 1 arcmin 32.2 arcsec.  

IC 2622.
POSS. O-1012.
Swift List XI, #117.  11hr 00m 58.716s - 15 57' 52.784" (1950).
11hr 03m 27.644s - 16 14' 03.666" (2000).
At the position as given by Swift there is only a single star :  The APL and 
Steinicke have equated this identity with NGC 3508 (H 507-2) = NGC 3505 (h 3312) 
at 11hr 00m 30.8s - 16 01' 58" and are supported in this equivalency by the PGC.  
Certainly the difference in coordinates is within Swift's often found level of 
error and therefore a reasonable candidate.  Additional support for this candidate 
is the fact that it does have a star attached to its north following end and Swift 
describes his object as "looks like a double star."
The NGC 2000 and MOL give coordinates similar to those as given by Swift.  NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD equates with NGC 3508.

IC 2624 & IC 2625.
POSS. O-1012.
Swift List XI, #118.  11hr 04m 47.983s - 19 17'17.999" (1950).
11hr 07m 16.225s - 19 33' 32.923" (2000). (IC 2624).
11hr 04m 52.988s - 19 18' 00.088" (1950).
11hr 07m 21.235s - 19 34' 15.097" (2000). (IC 2625).
IC 2624 is = NGC 3497 = NGC 3528 and IC 2625 = NGC 3529.
This is an involved problem which goes back to an observation made in 1790 by Sir 
William Herschel.
W. Herschel discovered and measured a Nova which he listed as H 824-3 employing as 
his reference star Alpha (7) Crater and giving separation values of + 7 tmin 26 
tsec and + 1 degree 09 tmin which gives coordinates of 11 hr 04m 46.2s - 19 10' 
56"  Dreyer gave this discovery the identity NGC 3497 but he copied the 
coordinates as given by John Herschel in the GENERAL CATALOGUE (1864) in which 
there was a reduction error of 6 tmin given in the RA, thus NGC 3497 has this 
error published in the NGC, resulting in coordinates of 10hr 58m 54s - 19 12'.1
Dreyer at the time the NGC was published (1888) apparently was unaware that John 
Herschel in his CAPE OBSERVATIONS had already equated his h 3316 with H 824-3 
giving it a position of 11hr 04m 43'.7s - 19 12' 10" which is very compatible with 
the position of his father, thus we have Dreyer giving h 3316 the identity NGC 
3528, which means that NGC 3497 is equivalent with NGC 3528.  In the SCIENTIFIC 
PAPERS OF SIR WILLIAM HERSCHEL compiled by Dreyer and published in 1912 he was 
aware of this 06 tmin error and on page 236 of this work he makes this correction.
John Herschel in his CAPE OBSERVATIONS also discovered a second nebula in the same 
field as H 824-3 to which he gave the identity h 3317.  His coordinates for this 
object are 11hr 04m 46'.2 - 19 16' 25" or 02.5 tsec following and 04' 15" south of 
NGC 3497 and Dreyer gave this second nebula the identity NGC 3529.
Now we come to Swift who claimed discovery of two novae.  The preceding he listed 
as #118 in his List XI, giving it coordinates of 11hr 04m 47.983s - 19 17' 17.999" 
(1950) and the following he listed as #119 at 11hr 04m 52.988s - 19 18' 00.088" 
(1950).
There are only 2 galaxies in the field that are bright enough for Swift to have 
possibly seen and these are NGC 3497 = NGC 3528, and NGC 3529, therefore even 
though Swift's separation values between his two objects do not match the 
separations of the Herschel objects, if he did see 2 nebulae they have to be NGC 
3529 and NGC 3497 = NGC 3528, which makes IC 2624 = NGC 3497 = NGC 3528 and IC 
2625 = NGC 3529.
The MCG gives only the identities NGC 3528 and NGC 3529.  The MOL gives no 
equivalencies, listing all identities as separate.  The NGC 2000 makes IC 2624 = 
NGC 3528 and IC 2625 = NGC 3529.  The APL, NED and PGC equate IC 2624 with NGC 
3528 = NGC 3497 = NGC 3525 and IC 2625 with NGC 3529. SIMBAD equates IC 2624 with 
NGC 3497 and NGC 3525 and then equates IC 2625 with NGC 3529.
Steinicke and the DSFG has equated IC 2624 with NGC 3497 = NGC 3525 = NGC 3528 
while Steinicke also equates IC 2625 with NGC 3529, the DSFG having no listing for 
IC 2625.
NOTE :  There is also excellent evidence that NGC 3525 is also a duplicate 
observation of NGC 3497 = NGC 3528, which in turn are = IC 2624.  
NGC 3525 was credited as a discovery to O.Stone who had reported it as his Object 
#183 in THE ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL No.146, #2. (1886).  Stone gave it coordinates of 
11hr 03m 56s - 19 11'.4 (1950) and described it as "12.0 Mv, 0.8 arcmin in size, 
gbMN."  The RA data published by the observers at the Leander McCormick 
Observatory for their claimed NGC discoveries were very poor and therefore as no 
object exists at Stone's  coordinates for NGC 3525 and its stated RA is different 
from that for NGC 3497 by just over 1 tmin, whereas the declination values are 
consistent, it is highly probable that what Stone saw was Wm. Herschel's NGC 3497.

IC 2630.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.4.  11hr10m 06.550s + 12 35' 33.900" (1950).
11hr 12m 43.401s + 12 19' 13.832" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2635.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.8.  11hr 10m 53.328s + 11 44' 14.756" (1950).
11hr 13m 29.912s + 11 27' 53.982" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL which gives two listings 
(=**) and (confirmed), Steinicke (= *2),  NED "There is no object with this name 
in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2641.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.15.  11hr 11m 34.848s + 09 40' 22.749" (1950).
11hr 14m 10.882s + 09 24' 01.358" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
NGC 2000 No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2642.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.16.  11hr 11m 39.779s + 12 32' 30.645" (1950).
11hr 14m 16.519s + 12 16' 09.171" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2643.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.17.  11hr 11m 51.213s + 10 24' 06.364" (1950).
11hr 14m 27.413s + 10 07' 44.730" (2000).
This is a star:  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2647.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.22.  11hr 12m 02.193s + 12 24' 53.113" (1950).
11hr 14m 38.878s + 12 08' 31.307" (2000).
This is a faint star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2653.
POSS. O- 66.
Wolf List VII, No.28.  11hr 12m 17.542s + 10 49' 18.743" (1950).
11hr 14m 53.821s + 10 32' 56.724" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL (= 2 sts), Steinicke (=*2), 
NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the
database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2658.
POSS. O-66. 
Wolf List VII, No.34.  11hr 12m 32.282s + 13 16' 12.409" (1950).
11hr 15m 09.147s + 12 59' 50.155" (2000).
Equal to a faint star :  Both the NGC 2000 and MOL correctly list this as a single 
star.  Carlson also lists it a  star on Mt. Wilson plate.  APL and Steinicke give 
(=*).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database."

IC 2659.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.35.  11hr 12m 51.806s + 13 09' 40.953" (1950).
11hr 15m 28.623s + 12 53' 18.418" (2000).
This is a faint star :  Correctly listed as such by the NGC 2000, APL, Steinicke, 
MOL and Carlson.  NED has "Name dos not exist or no object found." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."  No additional listings.

IC 2662.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.38.  11hr 12m 53.956s + 13 02' 37.902" (1950).
11hr 15m 30.742s + 12 46' 15.339" (2000).
Not found :  At Wolf's coordinates there is no visible image. Identified as being 
a star by the NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson.  Steinicke gives (NF).  The 
APL states (= defect) while NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."   
SIMBAD "Not present in the database." No other modern listings.

IC 2663.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.39.  11hr 12m 56.088s + 12 52' 40.852" (1950).
11hr 15m 32.830s + 12 36' 18.259" (2000).
This is a single star :  Correctly identified as such by the APL, Steinicke, NGC 
2000, MOL and Carlson.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."  No other modern listings.

IC 2664.
POSS. O-66. 
Wolf List VII, No.40.  11hr 13m 02.561s + 12 50' 10.701" (1950).
11hr 15m 39.286s + 12 33' 48.015" (2000).
This is a double star : Only modern listings are NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson, each 
listing it as being a single star.  The APL gives (=**) and Steinicke has (= *2).  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 2665.
POSS. O-66
Wolf List VII, No.41.  11hr 13m 04.131s + 11 59' 49.661" (1950).
11hr 15m 40.651s + 11 43' 26.954" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  There is the image of a very faint, extended galaxy at the 
nominal position, however, it must be admitted that it does not appear to fit 
Wolf's description "vF, pL, iF, E, att 2 p* 13, N meas."  
It is extended, being an edge-on system, but although there are two 13 mag. stars 
preceding, they certainly are not attached.  Perhaps a photographic defect 
suggested this to Wolf ?  
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  APL gives only 
coordinates.  Steinicke identifies the galaxy as IC 2665 and I think he is 
correct.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED., however, they do list 
the correcr galaxy as MAPS-NGP 0 493 0344178."  SIMBAD has no listing for this 
object.

IC 2669.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.44.  11hr 13m 16.376s + 13 42' 11.386" (1950).
11hr 15m 53.298s + 13 25' 48.486" (2000).
This is a double star :  Wolf in his description questions whether it might be a 
double star.  
Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=**), NED "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not presentin the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 2671.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.46.  11hr 13m 26.939s + 13 23' 58.141" (1950).
11hr 16m 03.775s + 13 07' 35.097" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2672.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No 47.  11hr 13m 28.295s + 10 25' 51.097" (1950).
11hr 16m 04.418s + 10 09' 28.052" (2000).
This is a star superposed on the south end of IC 2673 :  The CGCG, PGC, UGC, MCG, 
NED, SIMBAD and RC3 all incorrectly give the identity IC 2672 to the galaxy IC 2673 
and with the exception of the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) have no listing for 
IC 2673.  Examination of Wolf's descriptions, No 47 =  IC 2672 "F, vS, R, 47 att 48" 
and No.48 =  IC 2673 "F, pL, iF with N, 48 att 47, * 11 f 1' " clearly establishes 
that his No.48 = IC 2673 is the only galaxy visible on the Palomar print at the 
required coordinates.  APL gives (=*). Steinicke gives (=*).
NOTE: The star is best seen on the DSS Second Generation Blue photograph.

IC 2673.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.48.  11hr 13m 28.597s + 10 26' 12.090" (1950).
11hr 16m 04.721s + 10 09' 49.041" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  
(See IC 2672).

IC 2675.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.50.  11hr 13m 34.587s + 12 31' 22.962" (1950).
11hr 16m 11.203s + 12 14' 59.817" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL NSO).

IC 2681.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.56.  11hr 13m 56.854s + 11 28' 49.449" (1950).
11hr 16m 33.199s + 11 12' 25.995" (2000).
Not found :  Until my last version I was convinced that IC 2681 was the galaxy 
identified as such by everyone except Dr. Corwin, however, having now re-examined 
all of the problem identities in Wolf's List VII I have found that Wolf's 
positional data is extremely accurate, so that his positions are consistently off 
by only fractions of tsec RA and a few arcsec of declination, I can no longer 
support that the galaxy listed as being IC 2681 by the modern authorities is 
valid.   
The APL has (= Plate defect, confirmed) and probably explains Wolf's confusion.  
Steinicke (NF). The CGCG, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, UGC and NGC 2000 all type it as being a 
galaxy.  Only other listing is the MOL (NSO).
NOTE:   The actual coordinates for the galaxy would be 11hr 13m 59.254s + 11 28' 
29.449" (1950).

IC 2682.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.57.  11hr 14m 00.472s + 09 41' 03.359" (1950).
11hr 16m 36.392s + 09 24' 39.856" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are  APL and Steinicke (= 2 sts), 
NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."  NGC 2000 (No Type ) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2685.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No. 60.  11hr 14m 24.397s + 10 22' 09.820" (1950).
11hr 17m 00.457s + 10 05' 45.981" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2686.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No. 61.  11hr 14m 26.071s + 13 13' 35.795" (1950).
11hr 17m 02.800s + 12 57' 11.917" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  In Wolf's description he states " Att * 14 sf."  This should 
read " Att * 14 np."  The APL gives two listings (=*) and (not confirmed; 2 sts ~ 
5' s could be it).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED," however, 
they do list the correct galaxy as MAPS-NGP 0 493 0167308  Steinicke has the 
correct identity.  Listed in the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). SIMBAD has "Not 
present in the database."

IC 2687.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.62.  11hr 14m 36.405s + 10 25' 57.550" (1950).
11hr 17m 12.469s + 10 09' 33.544" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2688.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No. 63.  11hr 14m 42.148s + 13 45' 48.436" (1950).
11hr 17m 18.985s + 13 29' 24.324" (2000).
Equal to a double star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=**), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).
Note :  The MOL gives IC 2689 a RA 1 tsec preceding IC 2688 which is not in 
agreement with Wolf's data.

IC 2690.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.65.  11hr 14m 45.048s + 13 15' 05.369" (1950).
11hr 17m 21.761s + 12 58' 41.226" (2000).
Unable to confirm :  Although there is a faint, inclined galaxy at 11hr 14m 42.7s 
+ 13 14' 05.369" (1950), the difference from Wolf's nominal position as given 
above would be about 2 tsec RA and 1 arcmin dec. which would be much larger than 
the differences found in the vast majority of Wolf's List VII Objects.  
Steinicke selects the extended system as being IC 2690.  
The APL has 3 separate listings (= *) and (confirmed)  Only other listings are NED 
which gives the galaxy only the identity MAPS-NGP 0-0167562 Mp 17.14. SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2691.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.66.  11hr 14m 48.785s + 12 18' 17.281" (1950).
11hr 17m 25.273s + 12 01' 53.093" (2000).
This is the south preceding component of a wide double star :  Only modern 
listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2693.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.68.  11hr 15m 00.139s + 13 49' 24.034" (1950).
11hr 17m 36.969s + 13 32' 59.672" (2000).
This is a very faint star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database.  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2696.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.71.  11hr 15m 13.417s + 13 01' 50.736" (1950).
11hr 17m 50.048s + 12 45' 26.206" (2000).
Equal to a very faint star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2697
POSS. O-66. 
Wolf List VII, No.73.  11hr 15m 14.557s + 13 40' 25.713" (1950).
11hr 17m 51.335s + 13 24' 01.156" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO).  
Steinicke and APL (=*).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."  
Wolf in his lists gave his object numbers in order of RA but for some unknown reason 
(quite possibly a typographical error) his Nos.72 (IC 2698) and 73 (IC 2697) got 
interchanged.  His RA coordinates clearly shows No.73 to precede No.72 by 1.4 tsec 
and Dreyer obviously noted this and quite correctly gave the identity IC 2697 to 
Wolf's No.73 and the identity IC 2698 to his No.72.  Oddly enough, due to a very 
slight difference in the annual rate of precession, 3.13 tsecs for IC 2698 and 3.14 
tsecs for IC 2697 their 1950 RA's are almost exactly the same, being 
different by only 10ths of a second.

IC 2699.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.74.  11hr 15m 16.497s + 12 11' 04.664" (1950).
11hr 17m 52.928s + 11 54' 40.095" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database. 
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2705.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.79.  11hr 15m 27.877s + 12 10' 39.413" (1950).
11hr 18m 04.294s + 11 54' 14.687" (2000).
Not found :  The closest image to the position is an exceptionally faint star.  
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the daatabase."   APL gives 
(=*) and Steinicke (= *).

IC 2706.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.80.  11hr 15m 53.074s + 12 49' 19.862" (1950).
11hr 18m 29.613s + 12 32' 54.793" (2000).
This is a single star :  In addition to measuring from a field star I also offset 
from IC 2708 which is a confirmed galaxy.  Only modern listings are APL and 
Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD :Not present 
in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2709.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.83.  11hr 16m 04.261s + 12 50' 16.618" (1950).
11hr 18m 40.792s + 12 33' 51.398" (2000).
Unable to confirm with certainty:  Wolf describes it as "pL, irreg Fig. eF, 
diffic, Several N', *13 n."  At the position he gives there is on the DSS an 
extremely faint, irregularly shaped nebular image. There is the 13th magnitude 
star lying north as described.
The nebular image is so faint and of such uniform brightness that it would suggest 
that it would never have been visible on Wolf's photographic plate, however
Wolf's coordinates land directly upon it.  Its appearance to me can best be 
described as a smudge.  Best examined on the DSS Second Generation Blue.
Only modern listings are APL (Prob = gal + defect. Perhaps confirmed), Steinicke 
(Not found), NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and MOL (NSO).

IC 2710.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.84.  11hr 16m 08.324s + 13 50' 30.534" (195).
11hr 18m 45.079s + 13 34' 05.242" (2000).
This is the north following component of a double star :  Wolf describes it as 
having a "* 13 attached sp." and that is what is visible on the DSS.   Only modern 
listings are APL (=**), Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2711.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.85.  11hr 16m 10.084s + 14 00' 48.497" (1950).
11hr 18m 46.877s + 13 44' 23.178" (2000).
Equal to a faint star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*).  Steinicke (=*).  NED 
has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2715,
P0SS. 0-66.
Wolf List VII, No.89.  11hr 16m 37.989s +12 14' 27.887" (1950).
11hr 19m 14.350s +11 58' 02.216" (2000).
Unable to determine definitely:  When Wolf's coordinates are applied to the DSS they 
land almost 1 arcmin north of a 17.91 Mp galaxy that is barely visible on the print.  
The APL lists this as being IC 2715 and it does have a PA similar to that given by 
Wolf (120 degrees) and may well be what Wolf listed, however, I am concerned about 
the discrepency in declination, as it is considerable more than what one finds in 
Wolf's level of error, the vast majority of his coordinates landing just off the 
south following edge of the objects he records.  NED records it as MAPS-NGP 0 493 
0317959, while SIMBAD has no listing for this galaxy. Steinicke has Not found.  NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2717.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.91.  11hr 16m 42.512s + 12 19' 25.790" (1950).
11hr 19m 18.887s + 12 03' 00.059" (2000).
This is a faint star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*),NED and 
SIMBAD (Not found). NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2719.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.93.  11hr 16m 56.094s + 12 20' 03.499" (1950).
11hr 19m 32.457s + 12 03' 37.588" (2000).
Equal to a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2721.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.95.  11hr 17m 05.868s + 12 35' 04.292" (1950).
11hr 19m 42.276s + 12 18' 38.252" (2000).
Not found :  When Dreyer entered this object into the IC II he of course gave it a 
North Pole Distance (NPD) value, as had indeed Wolf in each of his lists.  Dreyer 
converted the Wolf NPD (77 00' 21" Epoch 1875) to Epoch 1860 by applying the 
annual rate of declination change (19.7 arcsecs), which for the 15 year difference 
would be 4.9 arcmins, however, instead of subtracting this from Wolf's NPD value 
he incorrectly added it which in turn when converting from NPD to Declination 
results in an error of about 9.8 arcmins and with the exception of the APL, NED,    
SIMBAD and Steinicke ( ALL giving Not found), has influenced the modern catalogues 
which list IC 2721 to give a wrong declination. The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) 
give a declination about 10 arcmins too far south and Dreyer's IC II NPD should read 
76 55'.4 not 77 05'.4.   

IC 2726.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.100.  11hr 17m 21.837s + 13 41' 21.957" (1950).
11hr 19m 58.473s + 13 24' 55.693" (2000).
This is a star :   Listed by the following authorities.  NGC 2000 (= *), MOL (= 
single star) and Carlson (= * Mt. Wilson plate).  APL lists both (Not found or * 
30" N of Wolf's position). NED and SIMBAD give (Not found) Steinicke (=*).

IC 2728.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.102.  11hr 17m 28.928s + 13 41' 54.807" (1950).
11hr 20m 05.558s + 13 25' 28.451" (2000).
Equal to a single star :  Correctly typed in NGC 2000 (= *), MOL (= single star), 
APL (=*), Steinicke (= *) and Carlson (= * Mt. Wilson plate).  NED has "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2729.
POSS. 0-66.
Wolf List VII, No.103.  11hr 17m 30.619s + 13 40' 56.771" (1950).
11hr 20m 07.244s + 13 24' 30.394" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy:  This is an existing galaxy whose Rmag. is listed in the 2MASS 
Catalogue as 15.00.  Only modern catalogues to identity it as being IC 2729 are 
Steinicke, while the APL states " IC 2729. Not confirmed; defect superposed."
NED states IC 2729 "There is no object with this name in Ned," however, they do list 
the correct object as 2MASX J11200675+1324333. SIMBAD is entirely incorrect in 
equating it with IC 2720.

IC 2730.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.104.  11hr 17m 31.447s + 12 38' 29.750" (1950).
11hr 20m 07.841s + 12 22' 03.375" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2731.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.105.  11hr 17m 33.968s + 13 50' 03.701" (1950).
11hr 20m 10.622s + 13 33' 37.277" (2000).
Equal to a single star :  Correctly listed in APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 (= 
*), NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database. MOL (Single star) and Carlson (* Mt Wilson plate).

IC 2733.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.109.  11hr 17m 47.754s + 14 08' 37.413" (1950).
11hr 20m 24.460s + 13 52' 10.806" (2000).
Not found :  Nothing at nominal position.  Listed in APL and NED (Not found), 
SIMBAD "Not present in the database." Steinicke (= Not found), NGC 2000 (**) and MOL 
(double star).  Only modern listings.

IC 2736.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.111.  11hr 18m 18.984s + 12 40' 55.757" (1950).
11hr 20m 55.336s + 12 24' 28.769" (2000).
Equal to a very faint star :  Only image found at nominal position.  Only modern 
listings are Steinicke (=*).  APL (=*).  NED "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2737.
POSS. O-51.
Wolf List VII, No.112.  11hr 18m 31.822s + 14 34' 03.498" (1950).
11hr 21m 08.568s + 14 17' 36.326" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2743.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.117.  11hr 17m 49.939s + 08 58' 05.348" (1950).
11hr 20m 25.523s + 08 41' 38.745" (2000).
Not found or equal to a star :  Wolf has a 1 tmin too small error in his RA which 
places his #117 out of proper order.  Dreyer corrected this but there is only the 
image of a star at Dreyer's coordinates while at those published in Wolf's list 
there is no nonstellar image.
Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke (=*).  NED (Not found), NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO) both at Dreyer's position.  SIMBAD has "Not present in the 
database."  

IC 2747.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.120.  11hr 19m 04.889s + 09 04' 39.802" (1950).
11hr 21m 40.440s + 08 48' 12.244" (2000).
This identity is for 2 stars aligned north preceding south following :  The only 
modern listings are APL (=**), Steinicke (= *), NED "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 2750.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.123.  11hr 19m 15.036s + 09 55' 59.598" (1950).
11hr 21m 50.782s + 09 39' 31.909" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The declination value as published in the MOL is incorrectly 
given as + 18 55' 58".  NED list as "There is no object with this name in NED."  
However, they do list it as 2MASX J11215073+0939312. Both the APL and Steinicke 
have the correct identity. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database." And does not 
list it under any other identity.

IC 2751.
POSS. O-695.
Javelle #1180.  11hr 19m 26.013s + 34 38' 23.793" (1950).
11hr 22m 07.581s + 34 21' 56.141" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Javelle employed as his reference star DM +35 2238,  Mv 9.0 
which is equal to AC #1228902 and when his offsets are applied (+ 0 tmin 47.90 
tsec RA and 2 arcmin 53.6 arcsec south) they land on a galaxy at 11hr 19m 26.013s 
+34 38' 23.793 and the CGCG correctly identifies this galaxy as ZWG 185.047 = IC 
2751.  Meanwhile the MCG incorrectly selects its +06-25-054 as being IC 2751 which 
is an extended galaxy lying directly south and slightly preceding the correct IC 
2751 and is an "Anon." equal to  ZWG 185.046.  
The PGC  (# 34873)and NED also incorrectly select and identify this same extended 
galaxy as being IC 2751. SIMBAD has the correct object, but incorrectly equates it 
with MCG +06-25-054, which is the extended galaxy to the south.   The CGCG (ZWG 
185.047), APL, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO) have the correct identities.  Not listed 
in the UGC.  Steinicke gives coordinates for IC 2751 which land on the correct 
galaxy, ZWG 185.0047, however, he incorrectly equates this with MCG +6-25-54 and PGC 
#34873, both of these being for the extended galaxy south preceding.    

IC 2752.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.124.  11hr 19m 24.964s + 14 24' 04.413" (1950).
11hr 22m 01.609s + 14 07' 36.574" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as "Neb." and MOL as "faint nebula."  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED," But they do list the correct 
IC 2752 as MAPS-NGP 0 493 0013293.  Correctly identified in the APL and by 
Steinicke. SIMBAD has no listing for this galaxy.

IC 2754.
POSS. O-51.
Wolf List VII, No.126.  11hr 19m 25.669s + 14 25' 04.399" (1950).
11hr 22m 02.317s + 14 08' 36.551" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 "Neb."  MOL "Faint nebula."  
Listed in NED as "There is no object with this name in NED," but listed as MAPS-
NGP 0 493 0013302.  Steinicke and APL have correct identity. SIMBAD has no listing 
for this galaxy.

IC 2755.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.127.  11hr 19m 25.848s + 14 04' 03.394" (1950).
11hr 22m 02.421s + 13 47' 35.545" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 
(= *) and MOL (Single star).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2759.
POSS. O-1353.
Bigourdan #405.  11hr 19m 34.485s + 24 35' 33.031" (1950).
11hr 22m 12.397s + 24 19' 05.245" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  I am entirely indebted to Steve Gottlieb for having brought to 
my attention the erroneous identities given to this galaxy in a number of the 
modern catalogues.
Hickson in his two papers (Astrophy J. #255 and Astrophy J. Supplement #70) 
examines a group of 6 galaxies which he lists as Group 51, two of which he 
correctly identifies as NGC 3651 (Hickson 51a) and NGC 3653 (Hickson 51c), the 4 
remaining galaxies receiving only Hickson identities.  The controversy involves 
the two galaxies listed as Hickson b and Hickson e which are only about 0.49 tsecs 
and 1.1 arcmins apart.
The CGCG ZWG 126.40, PGC #34882, UGC (Notes to NGC 3651 = U06388), MCG +4-27 -26, 
NED and RC3 have all incorrectly identified the larger of the two (Hickson 51b) as 
being IC 2759, however, Gottlieb has made a visual observation of the field and 
correctly states that Hickson 51e is visually the brighter due to a higher surface 
brightness and this has been confirmed by Dr. Corwin.  Additionally Bigourdan's 
coordinates are almost exactly those found for Hickson 51e and as he saw only a 
single object at this position it would have been the brighter.
The MOL (NSO) and NGC 2000 (No Type) have the correct identity due to both having 
relied upon Dreyer's coordinates, however, the CGCG and MCG should be corrected to 
list ZWG 126.41 and + 4-27-27 as being IC 2759.  Steinicke and APL have correct 
identities.  Corrections are also in order for the UGC and RC3 data.  SIMBAD also 
incorrectly identifies the south following of the pair as being IC 2759.  It is the 
north preceding that is the correct object.
NOTE :  It must be stated that it is only because Steve Gottlieb made a visual 
observation of this field and immediately recognized that Hickson 51e was visually 
brighter than Hickson 51b that we now can confirm that B #405 = IC 2759 is Hickson 
51e.  A tribute to Gottlieb's awareness and the importance of such observations. 

IC 2761.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.132.  11hr 19m 40.652s + 14 27' 07.098" (1950).
11hr 22m 17.289s + 14 10' 39.064" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as "Neb." and MOL as "Faint nebula."  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED," but list it as MAPS-NGP 0 493 
0013595. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database." Correctly identified by Steinicke 
and APL.

IC 2763.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.134.  11hr 19m 42.070s + 13 20' 20.065" (1950).
11hr 22m 18.471s + 13 03' 52.027" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This is the brighter and preceding companion of a double 
system with IC 2767 also discovered by Wolf.  The PGC (Main catalogue and 
Corrections), in its Table 1 incorrectly equates these two identities, they are 
instead two separate galaxies easily seen as such on the Palomar print.  The CGCG 
correctly describes them as a double system and the UGC in its Notes for IC 2763 
refers to the companion as object b.  
IC 2763 is correctly identified in the MCG, RC3, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMNAD, NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2764.
Swift List XI, #121.  11hr 19m 27.038s - 28 43' 55.627" (1950).
11hr 21m 54.488s - 29 00' 23.494" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The error here consists of a large discrepancy in the RA value 
as given by Swift.
At the nominal position there is nothing remotely resembling Swift's description 
"pB, pS, R, 10 mag. star close nf, 7th mag. star f," however, at 11hr 24m 37s - 28 
42'.2, or at about  5 tmin 10 tsec following there is such a galaxy with the two 
reported stars at the correct relative positions.
The MOL (NSO) gives the incorrect historical RA.  The MGC identifies it only as -
5-27-012.  The NGC 2000, APL, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, ESO and RC3 have the 
correct coordinates.

IC 2767.POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.137.  11hr 19m 46.766s + 13 21' 110.971" (1950).
11hr 22m 23.165s + 13 04' 42.875" (2000).
(See IC 2763).

IC 2769.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.139.  11hr 19m 49.142s + 14 28' 09.928" (1950).
11hr 22m 25.773s + 14 11' 41.789" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in NGC 2000 as (Neb.) and in the MOL as (Faint nebula). 
Correctly identified in the APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and by Steinicke.
NOTE :  Since my original entry as given above Steve Gottlieb has kindly pointed 
out to me that the CGCG also correctly lists this galaxy as ZWG 067. 065

IC 2772.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.142.  11hr 19m 53.831s + 13 52' 23.832" (1950).
11hr 22m 30.330s + 13 35' 55.639" (2000).
This is a star which has a very faint, very small galaxy immediately preceding :  
Listed in the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  Both the APL and Steinicke 
correctly make it (= *).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 2773.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.143.  11hr 19m 59.810s + 13 50' 40.712" (1950).
11hr 22m 36.296s + 13 34' 12.447" (2000).
Unable to confirm. Probably equal to a faint star :  At Wolf's position I could 
only find an extremely faint, very compact image which I was unable to decide as 
to type.  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the dsatabase."  NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and MOL (NSO).

IC 2774.
POSS.O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.144.  11hr 20m 00.653s +12 47' 20.692" (1950).
11hr 22m 36.919s + 12 30' 52.433" (2000).
This is a faint star :  It lies close north preceding IC 2775 and appears to be 
completely stellar to me.
Only listings are NGC 2000 (No type), MOL (NSO), APL (= * or gx UA10 = IC 2775).  
NED "There is no object with this name in NED" SIMBAD "Not present in the database," 
and Steinicke (= *).

IC 2776.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.146.  11hr 20m 03.725s + 13 36' 49.634" (1950).
11hr 22m 40.159s + 13 20' 21.325" (2000).-
Confirmed galaxy :  This is the south preceding of a pair of galaxies, the 
companion being IC 2779.  
The PGC incorrectly equates these two identities, however, both are clearly 
visible on the Palomar print at the separations as given by Wolf.  The CGCG 
correctly identifies both as a double system while the MCG gives only the identity 
IC 2776.  Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) correctly lists them as 
separate galaxies.  Correctly identified in the APL, NED, SIMBAD and by Steinicke.

IC 2778.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.148.  11hr 20m 05.748s +12 47' 56.591" (1950).
11hr 22m 42.010s + 12 31' 28.269" (2000).
This is a faint star.  Only listings are NGC 2000 (No type), MOL (NSO), NED and 
SIMBAD Not found. and Steinicke (=*).

IC 2779.
Wolf List VII, No.149.  11hr 20m 08.420s + 13 37' 19.540" (1950).
11hr 22m 44.850s + 13 20' 51.174" (2000).
(See IC 2776).

IC 2785 and 2786.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.155.  11hr 20m 39.280s +13 39' 57.923" (1950).
11hr 23m 15.683s +13 23' 29.190" (2000). IC 2785.
Wolf List VII, No.156.  11hr 20m 41.376s + 13 39' 57.890" (1950).
11hr 23m 17.777s + 13 23' 29.124" (2000). IC 2786
Confirmed and separate galaxies :   These are a close but separate pair, the 
preceding being IC 2785.  Both are easily visible on the Palomar print and the 
preceding (IC 2785) appears to be the brighter, which is in accordance with Wolf's 
description which states "Pretty faint" for IC 2785 and "Considerably faint" for IC 
2786.  The CGCG lists IC 2786 as a double system but does not identify the preceding 
companion as IC 2785, while the MCG and PGC give only the identity IC 2786.  
Correctly identified in both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO), also in the APL 
and by Steinicke.  NED correctly identifies IC 2786 but then names IC 2785 as being 
IC 2786 NED01 while also stating for the identity IC 2785 "There is no object with 
this name in NED."  SIMBAD also identifies the preceding galaxy as IC 2786 and 
states for IC 2785 "This Identifier is not present in the Database."

IC 2789.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.159.  11hr 20m 56.514s + 14 27' 46.597" (1950).
11hr 23m 33.060s + 14 11' 17.642" (2000).
Unable to confirm :  The image appears as two faint objects almost in contact, 
aligned north preceding south following.  The south following component seems to 
definitely be a star, however, the north preceding one strongly suggests being 
nonstellar, especially on the DSS Second Generation. Only modern listings are APL 
(=** or * + eS GX?), Steinicke (= *2), NGC 2000 (Double *) and MOL (Double star).  
NED gives "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 2794.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.164.  11hr 21m 27.699s +13 04' 06.989" (1950).
11hr 24m 03.928s + 12 47' 37.682" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).   
First verified as being a star by Steve Gottlieb.

IC 2799.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.169.  11hr 21m 50.602s + 14 07' 26.554" (1950).
11hr 24m 27.014s + 13 50' 56.961" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in NGC 2000 as (Neb.) and MOL as (Faint nebula).  NED 
has "There is no object with this name in NED, " but lists it as 2MASX 
J11242669+1350564.  SIMBAD has "Not present in the database." But lists the galaxy 
as LEDA 1442248.  Correctly identified in the APL and by Steinicke.

IC 2805.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.176.  11hr 22m 23.794s + 14 17' 25.926" (1950).
11hr 25m 00.200s + 14 00' 55.949" (2000).
This is a star that has what appears to me to have an extremely faint, small 
extended nonstellar system attached to its preceding edge. :   It would seem that 
the attached image would have been beyond the limits of Wolf's photographic plate 
and that it is the star that he is referring to as his Object #176 ?  Only modern 
listings are APL and Steinicke (=**), NED "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (*) and MOL (Single star).

IC 2806.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.177.  11hr 22m 39.999s + 09 55' 47.610" (1950).
11hr 25m 15.549s + 09 39' 17.473" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2808.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.179.  11hr 22m 51.826s + 09 24' 46.388" (1950).
11hr 25m 27.269" + 09 08' 16.119" (2000).
Not found : At the exact nominal position there is no image visible.  The closest 
image is that of a star which is the southernmost of a diamond of stars, however, 
the separation of this star is larger than those normally found in Wolf's List VII 
data, which generally is only fractions of tsec in RA and less than 5 arcsec in 
declination.   
Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).

NGC 2809.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.180.  11hr 23m 02.528s + 08 48' 11.188" (1950).
11hr 25m 37.849s + 08 31' 40.798" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), NED "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." Steinicke (=*).  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2810.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.181.  11hr 23m 08.819s + 14 57' 02.090" (1950).
11hr 25m 45.298s + 14 40' 31.599" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (Neb.) and MOL as (Faint nebula).  
Correctly identified in the CGCG, UGC, MCG, APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, Steinicke and 
RC3.
NOTE :  IC 2810 is the brighter and larger of a pair, the fainter being identified 
in the UGC Notes as "Companion at 1'.2, PA 114, 0.8 x 0.2" and in NED and the MCG 
as "IC 2810b. 11hr 23.1m + 14 56'.0 
Now Wolf in his description for IC 2810 states "* 14 sf 0.3 arcmins." and I 
thought that perhaps this might refer to the companion galaxy, however, the star 
in question does exist at exactly the place where Wolf describes while the 
companion galaxy lies at about 1.0 arcmin south following this star.  I mention 
this only because I am very surprised to see that Wolf makes absolutely no mention 
of this companion galaxy yet it is quite obvious on the Palomar print and is both 
larger and brighter than many of Wolf's other confirmed objects.  This companion 
galaxy is listed in E. A. Fath's "A Study of Nebulae."  Astr. J. 128: 267. 1914. 
as 1.401.

IC 2817.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.189.  11hr 23m 43.467s + 09 25' 32.440" (1950).
11hr 26m 18.871s + 09 09' 01.591" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "No object 
found." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2824.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.196.  11hr 24m 28.983s + 14 21' 40.635" (1950).
11hr 27m 05.251s + 14 05' 09.260" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke (=*), APL (*, UA10), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2825.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.197.  11hr 24m 27.409s + 08 43' 44.648" (1950).
11hr 27m 02.655s + 08 27' 13.318" (2000).
Not found :  Wolf's star "south following one-third arcmin attached," is where he 
states, however, no image at the position he gives for his object.  Only modern 
listings are NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke (Not found), APL (IC 2825? 11 24 28.37 +08 43 
09.1 UA10). NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2827.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.199.  11hr 24m 34.202s + 11 47' 30.535" (1950).
11hr 27m 09.992s + 11 30' 59.126" (2000).
Equal to a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
(Not found), SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2831.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.203.  11hr 24m 47.938s + 09 15' 14.285" (1950).
11hr 27m 23.262s + 08 58' 42.734" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2832.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.204.  11hr 24m 49.516s + 14 15' 57.271" (1950).
11hr 27m 25.741s + 13 59' 25.674" (2000).
This is  star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2833.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.205.  11hr 24m 50.198s + 13 52' 45.257" (1950).
11hr 27m 26.352s + 13 36' 13.656" (2000).
This is a very faint star :  It is also possible that there was on the original 
plate a photographic defect as Wolf states that a 14th mag. star attached north 
preceding 1 arcmin, and such a star does exist at the separation as given.   
Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database." NED "There is no object with this name in NED."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and 
MOL (NSO).

IC 2836.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.208.  11hr 25m 02.152s + 09 21' 35.036" (1950).
11hr 27m 37.483s + 09 05' 03.331" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2841.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.213.  11hr 25m 13.060s + 12 52' 29.854" (1950).
11hr 27m 49.006s + 12 35' 58.025" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2849.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.221.  11hr 25m 36.912s + 09 22' 10.431" (1950).
11hr 28m 12.218s + 09 05' 38.358" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2854.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.226.  11hr 25m 44.967s + 09 14' 40.291" (1950).
11hr 28m 20.245s + 08 58' 08.136" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2858.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.230.  11hr 26m 00.089s + 13 56' 19.044" (1950).
11hr 28m 36.171s + 13 39' 46.705" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  When I first examined the image on the DSS (First Generation) 
I was unable to confirm its type, however, recent re-examination employing the DSS 
(Second Generation), leaves no doubt as to its nonstellar nature.
Steinicke sees it as a being a compact galaxy, possibly a star.  The APL (=* , 
Referenced to UA10).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED," however, 
they do identify it as 2MASX J11283591+1339408. SIMBAD has no listing for this 
object.  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2859.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.232.  11hr 26m 06.780s + 09 23' 03.918" (1950).
11hr 28m 42.056s + 09 06' 31.424" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2863.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.235.  11hr 26m 19.061s + 09 22' 12.710" (1950).
11hr 28m 54.334s + 09 05' 40.200" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2865.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.237.  11hr 26m 24.462s + 09 23' 42.618" (1950).
11hr 28m 59.735s + 09 07' 10.054" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are Carlson (= *, Mt Wilson), APL (=*), 
Steinicke (= *), NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present 
in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2866.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.238.  11hr 26m 24.740s + 09 19' 03.614" (1950).
11hr 29m 00.000s + 09 02' 31.046" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are Carlson (= *, Mt. Wilson), APL (=*), 
Steinicke (= *), NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present 
in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2868.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.241.  11hr 26m 30.547s + 09 22' 12.516" (1950).
11hr 29m 05.811s + 09 05' 39.889" (2000).
This is a star :  Carlson in her Mt. Wilson Paper states that IC 2868 is equal to 
IC 698 and both the NGC 2000 and MOL have followed this finding, however, IC 2868 
is a star located about 2 tsec following and about 1 arcmin south IC 698.  The PGC 
correctly identifies IC 698 and has no listing for the identity IC 2868.  NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 
Steinicke and APL have (=*). There can be absolutely no doubt that Wolf was not 
mistaking his No.241 (IC 2868) for IC 698 as in his List VII he also separately 
identifies IC 698 giving it coordinates of 11hr 26m 28.4s + 09 23' 17", which not 
only clearly dispute any equivalency but agrees almost precisely with the GSC 
coordinates for IC 698.  Additionally, Wolf's descriptions for IC 698 and IC 2868 
are entirely different.

IC 2869.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.243.  11hr 26m 33.722s + 09 17' 36.462" (1950).
11hr 29m 08.971s + 09 01' 03.803" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2870.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.244.  11hr 26m 36.313s +12 08' 28.425" (1950).
11hr 29m 12.042s + 11 51' 55.733" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy : An extremely faint, face-on system.  Best seen on DSS Second 
Generation photograph.   
Identified in the UGC only as UGC 06486.  Other listings are NGC 2000 (Gx).  MOL 
(NSO).  Both the APL and Steinicke have the correct identity.  Both NED and Simbad 
identify it as UGC 0648.

IC 2874.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.247.  11hr 26m 52.245s + 10 54' 25.156" (1950).
11hr 29m 27.749s + 10 37' 52.312" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Rather unusual in appearance having a horse-shoe shape.  
Listed in the NGC 2000 and MOL as being an "Open cluster."  Steinicke has 
(Peculiar galaxy).  NED states "There is no object with this name in NED," but 
then lists it as MAPS-NGP 0 493 0491564. SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 2875.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.248.  11hr 26m 59.592s + 13 15' 58.039" (1950).
11hr 29m 35.488s + 12 59' 25.105" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2880.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No. 253.  11hr 27m 17.519s + 13 28' 30.742" (1950).
11hr 29m 53.431s + 13 11' 57.626" (2000).
This is a star with an extremely faint companion just off its south end :  
Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 2882.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.256.  11hr 27m 33.458 + 12 16' 00.478" (1950).
11hr 30m 09.149s + 11 59' 27.213" (2000).
Equal to a faint star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2884.
Stewart #354.  11hr 26m 04.097s - 79 27' 30.723" (1950).
11hr 27m 45.514s - 79 44' 03.074" (2000).
This is a closely associated line of faint stars :  Stewart's coordinates land 
directly on this group of 4 faint stars which are aligned at a PA close to 145 
degrees as Stewart reported as being the extended PA of the major axis.  Stewart 
himself was unsure as to its nonstellar character as he added "Susp." to the end 
of his description.
Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and the MOL as (NSO).  Correctly identified in 
the APL as (6-7 stars in line), Steinicke (=* group) and the ESO (20-**2).  NED 
has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 2885.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.258.  11hr 27m 47.835s + 10 03' 00.239" (1950).
11hr 30m 23.149s + 09 46' 26.837" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2888.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.261.  11hr 28m 00.255s + 10 11' 03.038" (1950).
11hr 30m 35.580s + 09 54' 29.516" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=2*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED."  SIMBAD completely confuses this 
identity equating it with MCG -00-13-061 at 04hr 59m 45.9s -0009' 27" (2000).  NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2890.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.262.  11hr 28m 10.722s + 13 27' 37.876" (1950).
11hr 30m 46.570s + 13 11' 04.238" (2000).
This is the south following of 3 faint stars aligned north preceding to south 
following:
Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 2895.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.267.  11hr 28m 22.144s + 10 15' 11.687" (1950).
11hr 30m 57.462s + 09 58' 37.953" (2000).
This is a star in a group of 3 forming a small triangle:  Only modern listings are 
APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2897.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.269.  11hr 28m 44.228s + 11 49' 35.339" (1950).
11hr 31m 19.776s + 11 33' 01.391" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED."  SIMBAD types IC 2897 as "Nebula of unknown 
nature."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2899.
POSS. O-66.
Wolf List VII, No.271.  11hr 28m 45.186s + 10 54' 40.322" (1950).
11hr 31m 20.588s + 10 38' 06.373" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL (= 2 sts), Steinicke (= *2), 
NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2902. 
POSS. O-1406. 
Wolf List VII, No.274.  11hr 28m 57.517s + 14 29' 54.135" (1950).
11hr 31m 33.480s + 14 13' 20.040" (2000). 
This is a single star :  Only modern listings found are APL and Steinicke (=*), 
NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (Nonstellar Object).

IC 2904.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.276.  11hr 29m 06.824s + 13 27' 42.987" (1950).
11hr 31m 42.609s + 13 11' 08.814" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2905.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No 277  11hr 29m 11.854s + 09 22 58.901" (1950).
11hr 31m 46.995s + 09 06' 24.696" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL NSO).

IC 2906.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.278.  11hr 29m 13.897s + 13 24' 35.877" (1950).
11hr 31m 49.666s + 13 08' 01.639" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2907.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No. 279.  11hr 29m 13.756s + 10 10' 33.873" (1950).
11hr 31m 49.017s + 09 53' 59.649" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), 
Steinicke and APL (=*).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."

IC 2908.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.280.  11hr 29m 14.745s + 13 12' 56.863" (1950).
11hr 31m 50.482s + 12 56' 22.621" (2000).
This is a faint star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2911.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No 282.  11hr 29m 29.729s + 13 15' 14.631" (1950).
11hr 32m 05.455s + 12 58' 40.249" (2000).
This is the south preceding component of a double star :  Only modern listings are 
APL (=*), Steinicke (= *2), NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2915.
POSS. O-1406.
Wolf List VII, No.285.  11hr 29m 39.706s + 14 45' 36.481" (1950).
11hr 32m 15.658s + 14 29' 01.992" (2000).
This is a star :  Even though this star may have a very faint galaxy attached to 
its north preceding edge the galaxy would in my opinion not be what Wolf was 
referring to as his nova.
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), Steinicke and APL (=*).  
NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 2916.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.286.  11hr 29m 40.676s + 11 57' 37.460" (1950).
11hr 32m 16.188s + 11 41' 02.982" (2000).
Equal to a very faint star :  Only modern listings are APL Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2918.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.288.  11hr 29m 50.663s + 13 31' 29.310" (1950).
11hr 32m 26.408s + 13 14' 53.730" (2000).
This is a star :  At the nominal position there is only the image of a single 
faint star.  Wolf's description "PA 100 degrees," suggests that he was referring 
to an extended image , perhaps a photographic defect ?  Only modern listings are 
APL (*), Steinicke (Not found), NED "There is no object with this name in NED."  
NGC 2000 (No Type), SIMBAD "Not present in the database" and MOL (NSO).

IC 2920.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.290.  11hr 30m 13.646s + 12 50' 02.960" (1950).
11hr 32m 49.259s + 12 33' 28.180" (2000).
This is a faint star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2922.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.292.  11hr 30m 16.035s + 13 11' 57.924" (1950).
11hr 32m 51.701s + 12 55' 23.120" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBASD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2924.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.294.  11hr 30m 17.654s + 09 18' 02.893" (1950).
11hr 32m 52.730s + 09 01' 28.084" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
Steinicke and APL who correctly identify it as being a star.

IC 2926.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.295.  11hr 30m 28.790s + 12 42'47.732" (1950).
11hr 33m 04.368s + 12 26' 12.816" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2927.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.296.  11hr 30m 29.453s + 13 21' 45.723" (1950).
11hr 33m 05.129s + 13 05' 10.795" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "Name does 
not exist or no object found." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2931.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.299.  11hr 31m 15.221s + 12 44' 41.045" (1950).
11hr 33m 50.754s + 12 28' 05.720" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), NED "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  MOL (NSO), 
Steinicke and APL (=*).

IC 2932.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.300.  11hr 31m 18.746s + 10 49' 16.990" (1950).
11hr 33m 53.994s + 10 32' 41.644" (2000).
This is a very close double star :  Only modern listings are APL (=**), Steinicke 
(= *2), NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database.NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2935.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.303.  11hr 32m 13.400s + 10 31' 36.205" (1950).
11hr 34m 48.557s + 10 15' 00.389" (2000).
Not found :  No nebular image at Wolf's nominal position, only an exceedingly 
faint image for which I cannot determine its nature.   
Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED (Not found), NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2937.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.305.  11hr 32m 28.845s + 10 22' 52.987" (1950).
11hr 35m 03.969s + 10 06' 17.042" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Actually Wolf described it possibly being a "nebulous star ?"  
Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 2939.
POSS. O-468.
Wolf List VII, No.307.  11hr 33m 02.735s + 10 58' 27.517" (1950).
11hr 35m 37.909s + 10 41' 51.297" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2940. 
POSS. O-103. 
Bigourdan #283.  11hr 33m 25.545s + 21 54' 55.005" (1950).
11hr 36m 02.236s + 21 38' 18.687" (2000). (OBSERVATIONS). 
Not found :  Bigourdan first published his discovery of his #283 in the COMPTES 
RENDUS in 1897 and gave it coordinates of 11hr 33m 22s + 22 03' 09" (1950) and it 
was these that Dreyer employed in his IC II.
In Bigourdan's 1919 OBSERVATIONS he gives his date of discovery as April 29th 1891 
and his stated reference star is BD 2377 Mv.9.4, (equal to AC 721451 at 11hr 33m 
24.045s +21 58' 54.155 (1950).  Bigourdan gives it coordinates that for 1950 
compute to 11hr 33m 24.051s + 21 59' 31.098" and from this star he measured the 
separations to his # 283 to be + 01.5 tsec RA and - 3' 59 " of arc which would 
result in 1950 coordinates for IC 2940 of 11hr 33m 25.551s + 21 55' 32.098" or by 
employing the more modern coordinates, a 1950 position of 11hr 33m 25.545s + 21 
54' 55.155"
When Bigourdan's position for the star BD 2377 is entered into the DSS it lands 
very close to a 9th magnitude star, however, when Bigourdan's offsets are applied 
to this star they come up with only blank space to the south of the star, also 
when his coordinates as based upon the COMPTES RENDUS data are applied to the DSS 
they also land in a blank space only now to the north of the star.
The CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 and MOL list it as a "Double 
star," however, at the coordinates they give (based upon the Dreyer data), there 
is no double star, the closest double being 15 tsecs preceding the given 
position.
There is absolutely no doubt as to the 9th magnitude star being the one used by 
Bigourdan as on the same night he made an excellent measurement as to the offset 
from this same star for the galaxy NGC 3743.
Steinicke (Not found, Possibly = NGC 3743?). NED and SIMBAD have (Not found).  The 
APL has "Not found, nominal position."
NOTE:  Bigourdan adds a notation to his OBSERVATION description stating that 
perhaps the position angle is in error by 180 degrees, however at neither PA is 
there an image.

IC 2949.
Finlay.  11hr 38m 23.630s - 46 11' 54.425" (1950).
11hr 40m 51.134s - 46 28' 33.219" (2000).
Not found :  At the nominal position no nebular image exists, however, there is a 
galaxy at 11hr 38m 31s - 46 17'.5 which the PGC, ESO, SIMBAD and NED suggest might 
be IC 2949 by identifying it as ESO IC 2949 ? 266-G016. APL gives (**) and Steinicke 
(*2).
I am reluctant to equate this galaxy with the identity IC 2949 due to the fact 
that its Mp is listed as being 15.4 and Finlay was visually observing with 
telescopes of 6 and 7 inch apertures and thus it would have been extremely 
difficult for such a telescope to have picked up such a faint object.
   
IC 2953. 
POSS. O-109. 
Javelle #1189.  11hr 41m 48.630s + 33 37' 56.883" (1950).
11hr 44m 25.633s + 33 21' 17.275" (2000).
Probably equal to NGC 3855 (D'Arrest) ? : 
The problem concerning this identity involves the equally confusing situation 
regarding just which two of the three closely associated galaxies in the field are 
D'Arrest's NGC 3855 and NGC 3856. 
D'Arrest was the first to examine the field and reported the discovery of two 
objects  "A very faint, obscure nebula with another in the field which is a little 
north," adding that he was doubtful about his declination value.  
Unfortunately he measured only a single position for this observation and later 
Dreyer gave them the identities NGC 3855 and NGC 3856 with the common coordinates 
given by D'Arrest of 11hr 42m 07s + 33 37'.4.  (Incorrectly printed as 11hr 41m 
07s in the W.S.Q.J. April, 1992 paper. "The Complex Identities of NGC 3855 and NGC 
3856." M.J.Thomson).    
In the  "Notes" to the NGC / IC catalogues there is a correction given by Spitaler 
which reads  "NGC 3855: RA is 11hr 41m 40s + 33 37'.0, D'Arrest's declination is 
correct.  NGC 3856: 11hr 41m 50s + 33 36'. 7."  These two galaxies I shall call 
for the moment Objects A and B.  
Javelle later observed the field and claimed discovery of two novae, J.1188 = IC 
2952, 11hr 41m 40s.349" + 33 37' 47.039" and J.1189 = IC 2953, 11hr 41m 48.630s + 
33 37' 56.883".  
When these coordinates are measured on the Palomar print they indicate that J.1188 
= IC 2952 and J.1189 = IC 2953 are exactly the same two objects listed in
Spitaler's correction, namely Objects A and B.  
Bigourdan next reported his observations of the field and gave the positions for 
the only two objects he saw and identified them as NGC 3855, 11hr 41m 49s.4 + 33 
36' 29" and NGC 3856, 11hr 42m 08s.5 + 33 34' 20".  
He noted that NGC 3855 lies 17s of RA preceding Dreyer's RA and from his 
positional data I was able to determine that Bigourdan's NGC 3855 is Object B, but  
what is of more significance is that his NGC 3856 is an entirely separate object 
from either A or B, and was not mentioned by either Spitaler or Javelle. (I shall 
call this Object C).
The major arguments against this possibly being the NGC 3856 seen by D'Arrest are.   
(1). That with a Mp of 15.6 it could not have been one of D'Arrest's objects, 
however, Bigourdan, using a telescope only 3 cm. larger than D'Arrest, without any 
doubt saw Object C, this can further be confirmed by his measuring by position 
angle and distance two associated stars which are clearly visible on the Palomar 
print at Bigourdan's positions.  (2).  As Object B is brighter than Object C by 
about half a magnitude it would 
usually be assumed that D'Arrest would have used the brighter object as his basis 
for his single measurement.   But the evidence is entirely the opposite, 
suggesting that he did in this instance employ the fainter object, Object C, as 
D'Arrest's positional data matches very well with the position where Object C is 
located, while as Bigourdan points out , the other field object lies north at a RA 
17s preceding the common RA given to both NGC 3855 and NGC 3856 by both D'Arrest 
and Dreyer.  
Additionally if Object C is indeed NGC 3856 this would fit the D'Arrest's 
description for NGC 3855 (Object B),  "another in the field which is a little 
north." 
If my conclusions are correct then 
Object A is IC 2952. 
Object B is NGC 3855 = IC 2953.   
Object C is NGC 3856.  
Those seeking a more detailed evaluation of this problem may wish to consult the 
April, 1992 issue of the Webb Society Quarterly Journal. (The Complex Identities 
of NGC 3855 and NGC 3856.M.J.Thomson). 
CGCG equates NGC 3855 and NGC 3856 making them Object C, while making A = IC 2952 
and B = IC2953.  UGC gives IC 2953 = Object B and in its  "Notes" makes IC 
2952 = Object A and NGC 3855 = NGC 3856 = Object C.   The MCG makes Object A = IC 
2952, Object B = IC 2953 and Object C = NGC 3855.   
Both the NGC 2000 and MOL lists all identities making IC 2952 = Object A,  IC 2953 
= Object B, NGC 3855 = Object C, and NGC 3856 either without Type or listed as 
"Nonexistent."   The RC3 lists only IC 2953, making it = Object B.  The PGC 
equates NGC 3855 and NGC 3856 while making the identity IC 2953 an entirely 
separate identity. The APL gives IC 2953 as (= NGC 3855).  Steinicke equates 
the identity IC 2953 with NGC 3855.  NED gives the single identity IC 2953 without 
any NGC equivalency as does SIMBAD.

IC 2954.
POSS. O-1379.
Javelle #1190.  11hr 42m 27.808s + 27 03' 48.185" (1950).
11hr 45m 03.962s + 26 47' 08.393" (2000).
This is a single star :  At Javelle's position there is only the image of a star.  
UGC in it's Notes for U06729 states "IC 2954 may be a galaxy at 11hr 42.4m + 27 
07'.0." and this is the galaxy selected by the NGC 2000 (GX) as being IC 2954, 
however, this would require an error of about 2 arcmin 39 arcsec in Javelle's 
measured declination which I believe is unlikely.  
Listed in MOL as (NSO) with Javelle's coordinates.  Listed in APL and Steinicke as 
(= *).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD has "Object of 
unknown nature."

IC 2956.
POSS. O-1379.
Javelle #1191.  11hr 42m 41.224s + 27 02' 37.211" (1950).
11hr 45m 17.343s + 26 45' 57.349" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the CGCG only as ZWG 157.030 and in the UGC only as 
U06729.  Correctly identified in the MCG, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, DSFG (NOTES to NGC 
3830), RC3, PGC, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO).  APL gives correct identity.
  
IC 2957. 
POSS. O-109. 
Javelle #1192.  11hr 43m 00.480s + 31 34' 35.823" (1950).
11hr 45m 37.023s + 31 17' 55.847" (2000). 
Declination error of ~ 2.0 degrees :   This is another case in which the 
transposing of positional data in Javelle's catalogue from one section to the 
other resulted in a typographical error.  
In Section II the 1860 declination for IC 2957 is correctly computed to be + 32 
04.7", however in Section I this becomes + 34 04'.6, 1860, a difference of ~ 2.0 
degrees.  
Due to this Dreyer's IC II declination value is in error and the error has been 
continued by some of the modern catalogues. 
CGCG lists the correct IC 2957 only as ZWG157.031 and it is listed in the MCG only 
as +5-28-28, these two identities also only being given in the PGC.  UGC has no 
listing at the correct declination.   NGC 2000 and MOL both give the incorrect 
declination computed from Dreyer.  APL, Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED have correct 
identity and coordinates.

IC 2959.
POSS. O-109. 
Javelle #1194.  11hr 43m 33.668s + 33 23' 06.332" (1950).
11hr 46m 10.307s + 33 06' 26.191" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 3871 (h 967) :   CGCG and UGC lists as only NGC 3871.  MCG 
lists as IC 2959.  NGC 2000 and MOL list both identities as separate galaxies.  
PGC gives IC 2959 = NGC 3871 as does SIMBAD, NED, APL and Steinicke.   

IC 2962.
POSS. O-1562.
Swift List XI, #123.  11hr 46m 32.736s - 12 01' 58.162" (1950).
11hr 49m 05.714s - 12 18' 39.326" (2000).
Not found :  At the nominal position no nebular image exists.  Only modern 
listings found are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO).  NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke (Not 
found). APL "Nothing here ."

IC 2963.
POSS O-1006.
Bigourdan #284.  11hr 46m 50.218s - 04 50' 23.499"  (1950).
11hr 49m 23.658s - 05 07' 04.695" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 3915 (H 113-3) :  Herschel discovered NGC 3915 on the 24th 
April 1784, describing it as "Exceedingly faint, exceedingly small, with 240x, 2 
very small stars and nebulosity."  The reference star he employed on this night 
was 74 Leonis and measured the offsets to his discovery as 34 tmin following and 1 
degree 03 arcmin south arriving at coordinates of 11hr 48m 25.1s - 04 25' 41"
Peters (Copernicus I, p 53) gives coordinates for NGC 3915 of 11hr 47m 59s - 04 
52'.2, stating that the RA in the GC was from 15 to 20 tsec too small and that the 
declination differs rather much.  It was Peters coordinates that Dreyer gives in 
his NGC.  Now when these coordinates are applied to the DSS there is no suitable 
image found.
In Dreyer's 1912 publication of THE SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF SIR WILLIAM HERSCHEL there 
is a Note (page 300) which reads "H 113-3.  Better star (adopted by C.H.), Mayer 
510, preceeds 37m 36s, south 0 degrees 31arcmin.  This agrees within 18 
tsec and 1 arcmin with Peter's place."
It is thus understandable that when Bigourdan found a nebula at the position he 
gives there was no reason for him to conclude that it might be NGC 3915, however, 
the visible image of IC 2963 certainly fits Wm. Herschel's description 
for NGC 3915 and due to all the above I feel that the equivalency is valid.
One other item of historical interest concerning Bigourdan's observation is that 
he employed as his reference a 12th magnitude star which he called Anon.(2) 
and he arrived at its coordinates by measuring its separation from the BD star BD 
-4 3152, finding that Anon (2) was 01 tmin 39 tsec preceeding and 13 arcmin north.  
He then states that from this star he measured separation values of 10.4 tsec 
following and 09 arcsec south to obtain coordinates for his nova.  Next in his 
description he states "that there is a 12th magnitude star situated at a PA of 300 
degrees and a distance of 0.3 arcmin" from his Nova and this is confirmed on the 
DSS photograph, however, it is this second or preceding 12th magnitude star (GSC 
4937-1243) that is actually his Anon (2), not the first one (which is visible 
right on the north preceeding edge of the galaxy.  This can be confirmed by 
measuring the separations he gives between BD -4 3152 and Anon (2) and then 
between the preceeding 12th magnitude star and his object.
The NGC 2000 (Gx) and MOL (NSO) give separate identities to IC 2963 and NGC 3915.  
The MCG gives the single identity IC 2963.  Meanwhile both the PGC (Corrections) 
has equated NGC 3915 with an entirely different galaxy, IC 738 (which see).  
The APL gives IC 2963 = NGC3915??.  Steinicke has (= NGC 3915).  NED gives the 
single identity IC 2963, as does SIMBAD.

IC 2964.
POSS. O-468.
Bigourdan #407.  11hr 47m 17.530s + 12 19' 38.783" (1950).
11hr 49m 51.998s + 12 02' 57.628" (2000).
Not found :  Only modern listings are APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke (Not found), 
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 2965.
POSS. O-1013.
Swift List XI, #124.  11hr 47m 57.291s - 19 18' 40.539" (1950).
11hr 50m 29.928s - 19 35' 22.037" (2000).
Equal to NGC 3957 :  At Swift's coordinates no nonstellar image is visible.  The 
NGC 2000, PGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and APL have equated it with NGC 3957 which 
would require that Swift's RA has about a 3.5 tmin too small in error,  
It can be stated that Swift's description "B, S, eE, a ray" is an excellent 
description for NGC 3957, with the single exception of the size which he gives as 
small, however, Bigourdan, using a telescope one-third smaller than Swift, was 
able to see NGC 3957 as quite large, describing it as 1 arcmin in length.  
Due to the fact that Swift's declination is compatible with that of NGC 3957 and 
that for many of his List XI discoveries his RA values often are too small I am 
accepting that IC 2965 is a duplicate of NGC 3957.

IC 2968. 
POSS. O-103. 
Kolbold.  11hr 49m 55.039s + 20 54' 34.495" (1950).
11hr 52m 29.766s + 20 37' 52.662" (2000).  
Confirmed galaxy :  IC 2968 precedes NGC 3937 by ~ 12s RA, which is where Kolbold 
had originally placed it and where it is easily visible on the Palomar print.  
CGCG lists the correct object ZWG 127.085, but incorrectly identifies it as IC 
2958.  The PGC gives only the identity CGCG 127-85.  UGC lists only NGC 3937 then 
in its  "Notes" for this galaxy  (U06851) states "IC 2968 ?;  11hr 49m.9 + 20 
55'.0 = IC 2958," however, IC 2958 lies at a declination of + 33 25'.4.   MCG 
incorrectly equates IC 2968 with NGC 3937, as does the PGC (Corrections).  NGC 
2000 and MOL correctly identify each galaxy. The APL, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke have 
the correct identity and coordinates.

IC 2969.
POSS. O-471.
Swift List XI, #125.  11hr 49m 56.449s - 03 26' 53.004" (1950).
11hr 52m 30.034s - 03 43' 34.761" (2000).
Declination error :  There is an error of about 7 arcmin in Swift's declination 
which is also found in Dreyer and the MOL.  The correct declination is - 03 35'.7 
and is correctly given in the APL, MCG, NGC 2000, CGCG, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and 
Steinicke.

IC 2970.
POSS. O-1360.
Swift List XI, #126.  11hr 50m 37.342s - 22 50'41.149" (1950).
11hr 53m 10.086s - 23 07' 23.740" (2000).
Not found :  No nonstellar image at or close to Swift's coordinates.  
At about 47 tsec following and 3 arcmin south of Swift's position is the bright 
galaxy NGC 3955, however, Swift in his description states that his object is not 
NGC 3955.  
The NGC 2000, MOL and ESO each describe IC 2970 either as a triple star or 3 
stars, however, at the coordinates as given in the APL's previous version (11hr 
50m 36s - 22 51'.0), I was unable to land on any such grouping of stars when these 
positions were entered into the DSS, rather the exact position resulted in empty 
space.  Furthermore, the APL coordinates would suggest that at least in this case 
Swift would have excelled himself in giving such an accurate position for what he 
claimed to be his #126.  The APL in its latest version (which see) states "nothing 
here, nominal position."  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED have (Not found).

IC 2972.
POSS. O-1006.
Swift List XI, #127.  11hr 51m 06.456s - 03 41' 53.243" (1950).
11hr 53m 40.052s - 03 58' 35.187" (2000).
This is equivalent to NGC 3952. (H 612-3) :  Actually this is one of those rare 
cases where Swift's coordinates are quite accurate and confirm that what he was 
seeing is NGC 3952.  The MCG gives only the identity NGC 3952.  Both the NGC 2000 
and MOL give separate identities and separate positions.  Steinicke, SIMBAD, NED APL 
and PGC correctly equate IC 2972 with NGC 3952.   

IC 2975.
POSS. O-1006.
Swift List XII, #9.  11hr 51.5m ? - 05 16'.7 ? (1950).
11hr 54.1m ? - 05 33.4' ? (2000).
Not found :  Swift gives very incomplete coordinates for this identity.  His 
coordinates (Given for the year 1900) are 11hr 49m ? - 05 ?? which allow for 
considerable differences when subjected to varying years of precession, therefore 
it becomes mostly a matter of assumption in trying to match just what it was he 
claimed to have discovered.
At the above 1950 nominal position no nebular image exists, however, the APL 
suggests that it might be equal to IC 2974 which is an existing galaxy at 11hr 51m 
15.2 - 04 53' 24".  Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) identify it as being 
at the Dreyer coordinates (11hr 51.6m - 05 30'.0) which are based upon 90 years of 
precession.  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED have (Not found).  The PGC gives only the 
identity IC 2974. APL (=IC 2974).

IC 2976.
POSS. O-1401.
Swift List XI, #129.  11hr 51m 56.530s - 02 26' 41.398" (1950).
11hr 54m 30.187s - 02 43' 23.437" (2000).
Equal to NGC 3979 (Swift List III, #61) :
The APL, Steinicke, PGC, SIMBAD and NED all equate this identity with NGC 3979 at 
about 11hr 53m 27.3s - 02 26' 32" and this is pretty strong support, especially as 
the declinations match and this galaxy does have a faint star north following as 
Swift described.    The NGC 2000, MCG and MOL make no equivalency between these two 
identities.

IC 2979. 
POSS. O-109. 
Javelle #1201.  11hr 54m 19.970s + 32 26' 12.815" (1950).
11hr 56m 54.527s + 32 09' 30.679" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy.  Declination error :  Javelle used as his reference star the 8th 
Mv. DM+33 2172 and listed its NPD as 56 01.1m (1860) or declination + 33 28'.9  
(1950), however, this is incorrect, being 1 degree of arc too far north as DM + 33 
2172 = SAO 062767 lies at +32 28' 52.703"  (1950).  
Due to what is probably a typographical error published in Javelle's catalogue 
Dreyer, NGC 2000 and MOL all give the incorrect declination value.   Listed in the 
CGCG only as ZWG 157.059 at 11hr 54.3m + 32 25'.0,  The UGC only as U06925 and MCG 
only as +5-28-54.   NGC 2000 lists without Type.  MOL lists as "Nonstellar 
Object," both giving the incorrect declination.  The RC3, PGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, 
SIMBAD and DSFG (Notes to NGC 3986) have the correct identity and coordinates.

IC 2981. 
POSS. O-109. 
Javelle #1202.  11hr 53m 07.894s + 32 28' 02.205" (1950).
11hr 55m 42.674s + 32 11' 20.182" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :    As with IC 2979 Javelle employed the star DM + 33 2172 as 
his reference and again the 1 degree error in Declination was given in his 
catalogue which means that the correct declination for IC 2981 should be + 32 28' 
00"   
Additionally, Dr. Corwin has pointed out that it appears that Javelle also gives 
the wrong separation sign in computing his RA as he places it 01 tmin 04.4 tsec 
following the star whereas if this is changed to 01 tmin 04.4 tsec preceding the 
star the corrected coordinates land on a galaxy fitting Javelle's description.
This galaxy is incorrectly identified in the CGCG as ZWG 157.056 = NGC 3966.  The 
MCG identifies its +5-28-48 as = NGC 3966? but this is IC 2981.  The PGC and NED 
also makes this same error.  The NGC 2000 and MOL list both identities 
as separate objects at the historical coordinates which is incorrect as what they 
identify as being NGC 3966 is actually IC 2981 and NGC 3966 is equal to NGC 3986 
(See Corwin).  No listing for IC 2981 in the UGC.  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  Steinicke and Corwin 
have correct identity.

IC 2983.
POSS. O-1401.
Bigourdan #286.  11hr 55m 41.127s - 01 36' 38.629" (1950).
11hr 58m 14.844s - 01 53' 21.045" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  There are a number of different opinions as to the identity of 
IC 2983.  The MCG, PGC, SIMBAD and NED have each equated it with the galaxy NGC 
4006, while The NGC 2000 makes it equal to a star , quoting B. Skiff as its source.  
The MOL gives both identities as being separate objects while the APL states "Not 
found at nominal position and Steinicke has (Not found).
Examination of Bigourdan's observational data clearly refutes the possibility that 
any equivalency exists between it and NGC 4006 as he also made on the same night 
(March 30th 1892), a correct observation and correct identity of NGC 4006 and in 
both cases he employed the same reference star BD -1 2597 and his separations for 
each of the two identities differ by about 11.2 tsec and 1.8 arcmin, thus whatever 
he thought might be a Nova he certainly was not confusing it with NGC 4006.
It should be pointed out that he described it as being only suspected and 
exceedingly faint and at the coordinates he gives there is no nebular image, 
however, his reference star is equal to Tycho 2. #4932 whose 2000 position after 
applying proper motion values would be 11hr 58m 04.837 -01 59' 21.015" and after 
precessing back to the discovery year (1892) and applying Bigourdan's offsets of + 
10 tsec RA and - 6 arcmin Dec (which it is important to know were estimated 
offsets, not measures by micrometer), then the result after precessing again 
forward to 1950 would place IC 2983 at 11hr 55m 41.121s - 01 48' 38.619." where no 
image exists, but by reversing Bigourdan's offset declination sign to read north 
instead of south the coordinates would then be 11hr 55m 41.127s - 01 36' 38.629 
(1950) for his Nova and this lands just off the north end of the 16.03 Mp galaxy 
ZWG. 13.016 equal to PGC #037665 at 11hr 55m 41.520s - 01 36' 47.60 (NED).
Due to Bigourdan's offsets for IC 2983 being estimations and also by reversing his 
declination sign results in being an excellent match for the position of ZWG. 
13.016, I am at this time concluding that this is what Bigourdan saw and 
identified as Object # 286.

IC 2988.
POSS. O-1611.
Bigourdan #408.  12hr 01m 08.061s + 03 42' 38.503" (1950)>
12hr 03m 41.765s + 03 25' 56.117" (2000).
This is a faint star :  The APL and Steinicke correctly list it as = *.  Only 
other listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), NED "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." and MOL (NSO)

IC 2989.
POSS. O-1401.
Bigourdan #287.  12hr 02m 00.299s + 02 04' 50.673" (1950).
12hr 04m 34.013s + 01 48' 08.308" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 4139 (D'Arrest) :  It would appear that D'Arrest published 
erroneous data regarding his RA for NGC 4139 giving it a position 5 tmins too far 
east as when this is corrected by this amount it lands very close to the position 
of IC 2989.  Additionally D'Arrest described it as the north preceding of a double 
nebula (NGC 4140), the separation in RA being between 4 to 5 tsecs and this again 
matches the separation between IC 2989 and NGC 4077 discovered by Wm. Herschel 
(H 258-3), therefore not only is IC 2989 = NGC 4139 but NGC 4140 is equal to NGC 
4077.
The CGCG, MCG and UGC give only the identity IC 2989 as does the NGC 2000 and MOL, 
however, in the case of the MOL it lists both NGC 4139 and NGC 4140 as being 
nonexistent objects.  The APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and PGC correctly have the 
equivalency.

IC 2992. 
POSS. O-1398. 
Javelle #1207.  12hr 02m 43.119s + 31 08' 00.717" (1950).
12hr 05m 16.171s + 30 51' 18.546" (2000). 
Declination error :  Javelle has a declination error for his reference star DM + 
31 2327, which is equal to AC #959087, of 30'.6 too far south.  
When Javelle's separations are applied to the reference star at its correct 
position the image of a galaxy fitting Javelle's description is found.  
This error was not detected and has affected the identity in most of the modern 
catalogues. CGCG lists this galaxy as ZWG 158. 014,  RC3 and MCG as +5-29-8.  UGC 
has no listing.  NGC 2000 and MOL give the incorrect declination.  APL has correct 
identity and coordinates while also referring to the Javelle 30 arcmin 
declination error.  The PGC gives only the CGCG, MCG and MK identities.  Steinicke 
has correct identity. NED has "There is no object with this name in NED," but they 
list the correct IC 2992 as MRK 0757. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but 
lists the object as Mrk 757.

IC 2993.
POSS. O-1599.
Javelle #1208.  12hr 03m 05.367s + 33 05' 56.783" (1950).
12hr 05m 38.293s + 32 49' 14.680" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Javelle identified his reference star as DM +33 2298 and when 
his offsets (+ 0 tmin 47.45 tsec RA and 01' 52".1 of arc south) are applied no 
object is found.  
It would appear that Javelle misidentified his reference star and that what he 
actually employed was the 8.3 mag. star DM 33 2189 which lies at 12hr 02m 18s + 33 
07' 54".2 and now when his offsets are applied they do land on a galaxy at 12hr 
03m 05.367s + 33 05' 56.783, which is the correct IC 2993. 
The CGCG, SIMBAD and NED identify as IC 2993 a double system at 12hr 03.6m +33 10.0' 
(1950), however, this is not IC 2993.  MCG identifies this same galaxy as being an 
Anon. + 6-27-05 as does the PGC.  APL and Steinicke give correct identity and 
coordinates.

IC 2997. 
POSS. O-135. 
Bigourdan #288.  12hr 03m 12.231s + 20 33' 44.077" (1950).
12hr 05m 45.500s + 20 17' 01.869" (2000). 
Not found:  Until very recently I believed that IC 2997 was a duplicate 
observation of NGC 4090, however, Dr. Corwin has re-examined the problem and has 
indicated that based upon the historical positional data he finds that IC 2997 is 
not equal to NGC 4090 and I am now in agreement with his assessment.  Since 
arriving at my previous conclusion I have received a copy of Bigourdan's Appendix 
VIII in which he includes his observation for NGC 4090, (Not given in his 
OBSERVATIONS) and one of his two observations for NGC 4090 (correctly identified 
by him in his Appendix VIII) is dated May 7th 1894, the same night he gives for 
his single observation of IC 2997.  As the two recorded objects lie in the same 
immediate field it is highly unlikely that he could have mistaken NGC 4090 for a 
nova, thus this fact alone would negate the equivalency conclusion.
MOL lists as separate galaxies.  UGC, MCG, NGC 2000, NED, SIMBAD and PGC list as IC 
2997 = NGC 4090.  APL gives "Nothing here, nominal position," and IC 2997? "=*." 
Steinicke has (NF).
NOTE: (See Corwin's Explanation Files). 

IC 2998. 
POSS. O-135. 
Bigourdan #289.  12hr 03m 22.301s + 21 01' 55.872" (1950).
12hr 05m 55.540s + 20 45' 13.697" (2000). (CR). 
Not found :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing for IC 2998.  Listed in NGC 2000 
without any Type.  Listed in MOL as (Nonstellar Object).  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  Steinicke and 
APL have (Not found).
NOTE: I was unable to find any reference to this identity in Bigourdan's 
OBSERVATIONS.  The above coordinates are based upon the COMPTES RENDUS data.

IC 3000.
Stewart #358.  12hr 03m 34.013s - 29 23' 42.180" (1950).
12hr 06m 08.562s - 29 40' 24.556" (2000).
Unable to confirm.  Probably Not found :  At Stewart's nominal position no nebular 
image is found and the APL (Not found), Steinicke (Not found) and ESO (440-?053) 
reflect this.
At a little north preceeding the nominal position (12hr 03m 30.7s - 29 23' 38") 
there is a very faint (Mp. 17.0), very small, lenticular galaxy, however, due to 
its appearance on the DSS I have doubts that this is Stewart's object.  Stewart 
description reads "F, indistinct, *like, but poss, defect."
It should be noted that on the same photographic plate #3703 employed by Stewart 
and directly north of the galaxy IC 3005 = Stewart #359, there is another extended 
galaxy which is brighter than this candidate and Stewart did not see this galaxy 
when he examined the plate, thus supporting the premise that he would not have 
been able to see or recognize the fainter candidate as being nonstellar.
The NGC (No Type) and MOL (NSO) both give the historical coordinates.  Not listed 
in the MCG.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present 
in the database."

IC 3002.
POSS O-1599.
Javelle #1211.  12hr 04m 31.031s + 33 39' 32.949" (1950).
12hr 07m 03.664s + 33 22' 50.949" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG lists this only as ZWG 187.08 (See RASQJ # 33, p.68, 
1992).  
MCG, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, PGC, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO) are correct.  Not 
listed in RC3 or UGC.

IC 3003.
POSS. O-1599.
Javelle #1212.  12hr 05m 00.192s + 33 05' 23.680" (1950).
12hr 07m 32.759s + 32 48' 41.772" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Javelle identified his reference star as being DM +33 2298 
(8.8 Mv.) and measured offsets for his #1212 from what he thought was this star, 
however, he had misidentified the star which actually is DM +33 2189 and 
when his offsets are applied to this star they land upon the correct galaxy at 
12hr 05m 00.192s + 33 05' 23.680".
The NGC 2000 and MOL give coordinates incorrectly based upon the historical 
position.  The CGCG, MCG, APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke have the correct 
identity.
NOTE :  Also see IC 2993.

IC 3006.
POSS. O-1385.
Frost #796.  12hr 04m 51.391s +13 16' 17.891" (1950).
12hr 07m 24.726s 12 59' 35.858" (2000).
Not found :  At Frost's position there are no nonstellar images.  The closest 
object is a faint star north preceding.  Only listings found are NGC 2000 (No 
type), MOL (NSO).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database." and Steinicke (= *). APL has Nothing here; nominal 
position.

IC 3009. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #221.  12hr 05m 26.838s + 12 55' 29.035" (1950).
12hr 08m 00.145s + 12 38' 47.077" (2000). 
Not found :  Not listed in CGCG, UGC or MCG.  Listed in NGC 2000 and given Type [? 
]. MOL states " May not exist."  Steinicke, APL, SIMBAD and NED have (Not found).

IC 3011. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #124.  12hr 05m 35s + 10 39' 25" 
This is equal to NGC 4124 (H 33-1) :   CGCG, UGC, MCG, NGC 2000, MOL, Carlson and 
PGC all correctly make IC 3011 = NGC 4124.  RC2 gives only the identity NGC 4124.  
APL and Steinicke make it (= NGC 4124 = NGC 4119).  NED has "= NGC 4124," as does 
SIMBAD.

IC 3014.
POSS. O-1367.
Javelle #1214.  12hr 06m 05.040s + 39 06' 35.922" (1950).
12hr 08m 37.054s + 38 49' 54.154" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified only as +7-25-28a in the MCG.  Correctly listed in 
CGCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, PGC, UGC, RC3, NGC 2000 and MOL.

IC 3018. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Frost #802.  12hr 06m 57.212s + 14 21' 18.076" (1950).
12hr 09m 30.358s + 14 04' 36.326" (2000). 
Not found :   CGCG, UGC, and MCG have no listing for IC 3018.  NGC 2000 lists but 
gives the Type as [?].  MOL states  "May not exist."   Carlson states  "Not Found 
, but possibly a nebula 30' south of Frost's position," and the APL makes this 
galaxy equal to IC 3018 as does Steinick SIMBAD and NED have (Not found). 
Carlson's possible candidate is I feel unlikely to be Frost's object as although 
Frost only gave his declination coordinates to the closest minute of arc I find it 
difficult to accept that he made a 30'.0 error.  I would suggest rather that 
perhaps he was misled by a photographic defect.

IC 3026.
Stewart # 360.  12hr 07m 58.743s - 29 38' 41.803" (2000).
12hr 10m 34.038s - 29 55' 23.585" (2000).
Not found :  No nebular image at or close to the nominal position.  Both the NGC 
2000 and MOL list this as being a single star which I am sure is based upon 
Carlson who gives (=*.Mt. Wilson).  The ESO has no listing for this identity  
Steinicke, APL, SIMBAD and NED give (Not found).

IC 3027.
POSS. O-1385.
Frost #809.  12hr 07m 57.133s + 14 28' 18.194" (1950).
12hr 10m 30.199s + 14 11' 36.611" (2000).
Not found :  It is certain that this object is nonexistent as Carlson in her 1940 
paper states "Not found, a defect on the plate where it was originally found by 
Frost, Harvard Annals."  Only modern listings are Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED (Not 
found). APL (= defect). NGC 2000 and MOL and both of these indicate that its 
identity is dubious.

IC 3028. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Frost #810.  12hr 07m 57.220" + 12 02' 18.194" (1950). 
12hr 10m 30.404s + 11 45' 36.612" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Listed in the CGCG as ZWG 69.070 and this is also as it 
appears in the PGC.  Not listed in either the UGC or MCG.  Listed in the NGC 2000 
but given no Type.  MOL, APL and Steinicke have the correct object and identity.  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED" yet they do list it as VCC 
0024. SIMBAD lists IC 3028 and VCC 24 as two separate objects with different 
coordinates.

IC 3030.
POSS.O-1385.
Frost #812.  12hr 08m 33.089s + 14 25' 18.274" (1950).
12hr 11m 06.113s + 14 08' 36.799" (2000).
Not found. :  Might possibly be a faint star.  Only listings are NGC 2000 (No 
Type), MOL (NSO), APL (Nothing here) and Steinicke (=*). SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database." NED "No Object with this name in NED." 

IC 3035. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #222  12hr 09m 39.326s + 13 31' 30.439" (1950).
12hr 12m 12.321s + 13 14' 49.185" (2000). 
Equal to NGC 4165 :   CGCG describes NGC 4165/IC 3035 as a double nebula   This 
faint companion is also listed as Reinmuth 3.012b  12hr 09m 39s.12 + 13 31' 28".1. 
The UGC, MCG, NGC 2000, MOL, APL, Steinicke, SIMBAD, NED, Carlson and PGC all list 
IC 3035 = NGC 4165.  As IC 3035 is a duplicate observation of NGC 4165 then the CGCG 
identity making IC 3035 the companion galaxy is of course incorrect.   
NOTE :  Dr. Corwin in his NGC/IC Bugs List present a very strong argument that IC 
3035 is equal to NGC 4165, pointing out that the companion just off the north edge 
of NGC 4165 is too faint to be Schwassmann's #222.  This is supported by an 
observation of the field by Steve Gottlieb using a 17.5 inch telescope with which 
he records NGC 4165 but makes no mention of the companion galaxy.

IC 3036. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Frost #817.  12hr 09m 45.074s + 12 45' 18.454" (1950).
12hr 12m 18.107s + 12 28' 37.224" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Listed in the CGCG only as ZWG 69.077.  Listed in UGC as 
U07200.  APL = U07200,  MCG has no listing.  Steinicke, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 
and MOL give correct identity and coordinates.

IC 3042. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #151.  12hr 10m 12.670s + 11 08' 33.731" (1950).
12hr 12m 45.771s + 10 51' 52.598" (2000). 
Equal to NGC 4178 (h 1125) :  
CGCG, MCG and UGC list only the identity NGC 4178.  NGC 2000, MOL, RC2  "Notes ."  
Carlson, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and PGC all make IC 3042 = NGC 4178.

IC 3045. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #224.  12hr 10m 26.693s + 13 03' 26.871" (1950).
12hr 12m 59.663s + 12 46' 45.792" (2000). 
Not found :  No suitable image at the nominal position.   
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing for IC 3045.  NGC 2000 lists but without any 
Type.  MOL lists but describes as  "May not exist."  Carlson states  "Not Found."  
Steinicke has (=*2), however, these stars lies north preceding the location I 
give. APL "Not found." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NED "No object with 
this name in NED."

IC 3048. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #226.  12hr 10m 48.923s + 13 20' 49.237" (1950).
12hr 13m 21.849s + 13 04' 08.239" (2000). 
This is a star which is a component of a coarse double star :   Schwassmann makes 
it quite clear in his description that he suspected that it was a star.  CGCG, UGC 
and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson each list it as a "Double 
star."  Steinicke has (= *2). APL (= *).  NED has "There is no object with this name 
in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3050.
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #227.  12hr 11m 15.283s + 13 42' 16.719" (1950).
12hr 13m 48.155s + 13 25' 35.821" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4189 (H 106-2) :   CGCG, UGC, MCG, NGC 2000, MOL, RC2, 
Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, APL, Carlson and the PGC all correctly make IC 3050 = NGC 
4189.

IC 3051. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #228.  12hr 11m 21.200s + 13 27' 01.438" (1950).
12hr 13m 54.082s + 13 10' 20.566" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4193 (H 163-2) :   RC2 gives only the identity NGC 4193.  
CGCG, UGC, MCG, Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD, NGC 2000, Carlson and PGC all correctly 
give IC 3051 = NGC 4193.  MOL correctly equates IC 3051 with NGC 4193.

IC 3053.
POSS. O-1385.
Frost #827.  12hr 11m 26.866s + 14 29' 18.756" (1950).
12hr 13m 59.672s + 14 12' 37.904" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :    To begin with the CGCG identifies as IC 3053 two different 
objects, ( ZWG 98.109, 12hr 11.3m + 14 30'.0 and ZWG 69.094, 12hr 11.6m + 14 
26'.0).  Obviously one of these is in error and the PGC has selected the ZWG 
69.094 (the more southerly of the two to be the incorrect identity) and I am in 
agreement with this conclusion. 
In addition to measuring Frost separation values from a star I also measured the 
separation of his position for IC 3053 from the galaxy IC 3044, employing 
Schwassmann's more precise coordinates and again verified that it is ZWG 98.109 
which is Frost's #827 = IC 3053.
IC 3053 is not listed in the UGC, MCG, RC3 or DSFG.   Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and the MOL (NSO) have the correct identity.  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED also give 
the correct identity.

IC 3056. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Frost #830.  12hr 12m 02.845s + 14. 04' 18.876" (1950).
12hr 14m 35.635s + 13 47' 38.171" (2000). 
Not found :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing for IC 3056.  NGC 2000 list but 
gives its Type as [?].  MOL lists but states  "May not exist."   Carlson states 
"Not Found"  but adds "Possibly a nebula 1 degree south of Frost's position."  
Again I feel that this is not a viable candidate  (See IC 3018).  The APL gives a 
listing credited to DEEN making it a galaxy at 12hr 12m 05.2s +14 03' 27".  
Steinicke and NED have (Not found). SIMBAD Identifies it as "Uncertain object," and 
gives it coordinates which land close to the APL candidate.

IC 3057.
Stewart #361.  12hr 12m 24.772s - 44 11' 41.054" (1950).
12hr 15m 02.421s  - 44 28' 21.896" (2000).
Not found :  The APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and the ESO each list as Not found.  
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and the MOL (NSO) each have the historical coordinates.

IC 3059.
POSS. O-1385.
Frost #832.  12hr 12m 26.836s + 13 43' 18.960" (1950).
12hr 14m 59.624s + 13 26' 38.360" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This is a galaxy of low surface brightness and appears fainter 
than its given Mp 15.3   Carlson was unable to find it on the Mt. Wilson plates 
she examined and recommended that it be removed from the IC II.  The MOL was 
evidently influenced by this as they list it as "May not exist."  The CGCG, MCG, 
Steinicke, UGC, APL, NED, SIMBAD, PGC, NGC 2000 and RC3 all correctly identify IC 
3059.
NOTE: Frost's declination is about 1 arcmim too far south.  

IC 3064. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #230.  12hr 12m 44.201s + 13 18' 34.022" (1950).
12hr 15m 16.999s + 13 01' 53.503" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4206 (H 165-2) :   CGCG, UGC, MCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, 
NGC 2000, MOL, Carlson and PGC all make IC 3064 = NGC 4206.  RC2 lists only as NGC 
4206.

IC 3065.
POSS. O-89.
Frost #834.  12hr 12m 44.755s + 14 41' 19.024" (1950).
12hr 15m 17.449s + 14 24' 38.504" (2000).
A confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG (ZWG 98.114) incorrectly equates IC 3065 with IC 
3077, both are separate galaxies, IC 3077 being ZWG 98.118 which the CGCG 
identifies as being an "anon." 
The NGC 2000 gives the type as (Nebula) while the MOL gives (Bright Nebula).  The 
MCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, RC3 and PGC each have the correct identity.

IC 3067. 
POSS. O-135. 
Javelle #1216.  12hr 12m 44.085s + 24 14' 08.273" (1950).
12hr 15m 16.016s + 23 57' 27.825" (2000). 
This is equal to IC 772 (Bigourdan #170)
Javelle employs as his reference star DM + 24 2443  (12hr 13m 48s + 24 13' 23") 
from which to measure his five claimed novae, IC 3067, IC 3082, IC 3084, IC 3089 
and IC 3095.  (This star is also AC #723752. (12hr 16m 20.745s + 23 56' 44.06" 
J2000).
He placed only IC 3095 north of this star.  The CGCG has identified the galaxy IC 
772 as IC 3067 (IC 772 lies north of DM 24 2443), while Javelle #1216 was placed 
south of the star, (the APL also makes this equivalency).   
At Javelle's nominal position no nebular image exists, only a faint star.
There can be little doubt that Javelle in his Third Catalogue Part 2 has a 
misprint in the sign for his declination separation from his reference star which 
would then place his #1216  00' 44".3 north instead of south of this star, in 
which case it would be equal to IC 772, Therefore there certainly is strong 
support for such an equivalency.  
NGC 2000 gives (GX) and their coordinates suggest that they are referring to IC 
772, while the MOL gives (NSO), at Javelle's given position.   UGC and MCG have no 
listing for IC 3067. NED gives the single identity IC 3067, as does SIMBAD however, 
when it comes to the identity IC 772 they state "There is no object with this name 
in NED," and "Not present in the database," which is indeed curious as the first 
discoverer of the object, Bigourdan, gives excellent coordinates for the identity IC 
772 which he discovered about 15 years prior to Javelle's observation. Steinicke and 
APL have (IC 3067 = IC 772).
NOTE: As Bigourdan's observation was made on April 6th 1888 and Javelle's on May 
15th 1903 the correct discoverer is Bigourdan. 

IC 3070. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #231.  12hr 12m 51.972s + 13 19' 03.051" (1950).
12hr 15m 24.760s + 13 02' 22.556" (2000). 
This is a single star :   NGC, MOL, Steinicke and Carlson correctly describe it as 
a star.  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3071. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #126.  12hr 12m 58.891s + 09 49' 29.176" (1950).
12hr 15m 31.932s + 09 32' 48.713" (2000). 
This is a star :   NGC 2000 lists Type as [?].  
MOL states  "May not exist."   Carlson, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke give "Not Found." 
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing. APL (=*).

IC 3072. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #127.  12hr 13m 03.906s + 09 50' 05.495" (1950).
12hr 15m 36.943s + 09 33' 25.055" (2000). 
Equal to a very faint star :  Schwassmann gave excellent coordinates for NGC 4207 
(12hr 12m 57.19s + 09 51' 49.4") and this lies close north preceding the very 
faint star that is IC 3072.  NGC 2000 lists Type as [?].  MOL states "May not 
exist."  Carlson describes as "Not Found."  Steinicke has (=*) and NED and SIMBAD 
have (Not found).  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing. APL (=*). 

IC 3076. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #77.  12hr 13m 31.153s + 09 21' 24.099" (1950).
12hr 16m 04.204s + 09 04' 43.785" (2000). 
This is a faint star :  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 gives Type as 
[?].  MOL describes as "May not exist."  Carlson, SIMBAD and NED list as "Not 
Found." Steinicke identifies as IC 3076 as (=*). APL (=*).  

IC 3077.
POSS. O-89.
Frost #839.  12hr 13m 32.693s  + 14 41' 19.206" (1950).
12hr 16m 05.327s + 14 24' 38.905" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  It is listed in the CGCG only as ZWG 98.118 and in the UGC 
only as U07285 (these omissions listed in the PGC Corrections).  Typed in the NGC 
2000 as (Nebula) and in the MOL as (Faint Nebula). Correctly listed in the MCG, 
Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, PGC, APL, RC3 and PGC.

IC 3080. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Frost #842.  12hr 13m 38.702s + 14 26' 19.229" (1950).
12hr 16m 11.348s + 14 09' 38.956" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  NGC 2000 and MOL describe it as "nebula."  CGCG, Steinicke, 
NED, SIMBAD, PGC and the APL give correct identity.  UGC and MCG have no listing for 
IC 3080.

IC 3083.
POSS. O-1385.
Frost #844.  12hr 13m 50.793s + 12 52' 19.277" (1950).
12hr 16m 23.551s + 12 35' 39.067" (2000).
Not found :  No nonstellar object visible at Frost's position.
Carlson lists it as "Not found, Harvard."  The NGC 2000 gives (Type ?) and the MOL 
states "May not exist."  The APL gives (GX. Deen) at 12hr 13m 55.2 +12 51' 17".  
Steinicke has (Not found).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." 
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
NOTE:  I am rejecting the candidate (GX Deen) due to the fact that in the majority 
of Frost's offsets from the correct position of his objects measured on his Plate  
# 6718 his coordinates land south following the object, eg; IC 3081, IC 3091 and 
IC 3096.  In the case of (GX Deen) his offset would be to the north preceding 
side.  As the coordinates on each plate were measured from reference stars any 
offset errors would be expected to be relatively consistent. 

IC 3085. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #128.  12hr 13m 53.239s + 09 44' 51.286" (1950).
12hr 16m 26.242s + 09 28' 11.077" (2000). 
This is the preceding of a group of 3 stars :  NGC 2000, Steinicke and MOL 
correctly describe it as a star.  CGCG, UGC, PGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has 
"Name does not exist or no object found." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
APL (=*).

IC 3086.
POSS. O-1385.
Schwassmann #78.  12h 13m 54.909s + 09 17' 08.393" (1950).
12hr 16m 27.947s + 09 00' 28.192" (2000).
This is a faint double star with its components in contact:  Carlson lists as " 
Not found, Harvard." and the NGC 2000 gives Type as [?].  The MOL states "May not 
exist."  Steinicke has (= *2).  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=**).  No other modern listings 
found.

IC 3087. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #234.  12hr 13m 54.692s + 13 33' 58.793" (1950).
12hr 16m 27.389s + 13 17' 18.597" (2000). 
This is a wide double star :  Schwassmann describes it as "Like a line PA 30." 
which is confirmed by the double star's image.  Schwassmann also measured the 
position of NGC 4222, placing it 4s preceding and 1' 11" north of his # 234.   
CGCG, UGC, NED, SIMBAD, MCG and PGC incorrect in making IC 3087 = NGC 4222.  
NGC 2000, MOL, Steinicke and Carlson correctly describe it as "A double star."
APL (Equal to 2 stars).

IC 3088.
POSS. O-1385.
Schwassmann #129.  12hr 13m 56.158s + 09 44' 19.498" (1950).
12hr 16m 29.159s + 09 27' 39.303" (2000).
This is a star in a group of three :  It is the most southern of the same 3 stars 
which contains IC 3085 (the most preceding star).  
Listed in the NGC 2000 as (*), the MOL as (single star). APL and Steinicke 
(=*). NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 3090. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #79.  12hr 13m 59.156s + 09 43' 02.910" (1950).
12hr 16m 32.157s + 09 26' 22.730" (2000). 
Equal to a single star which is the south following component of a coarse double 
star aligned north preceding south following  :
Schwassmann describes it as "Very faint, Very small."   
NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson list as "A double star."  Steinicke lists as (=*2).  
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL has "Is a double star."

IC 3091. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Frost #845.  12hr 14m 02.684s + 14 16' 19.325" (1950).
12hr 16m 35.314s + 13 59' 39.166" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy with a star attached to its south preceding edge :  CGCG, 
Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD, PGC and MCG correctly list this galaxy.  NGC 2000 and 
MOL list it as "Double star."  UGC has no listing.

IC 3096.
POSS. O-89.
Frost #848.  12hr 14m 26.618s  + 14 46' 19.424" (1950).
12hr 16m 59.177s + 14 29' 39.385" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (Nebula) and in the MOL as (Bright 
Nebula).  Correctly identified in the CGCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, PGC and 
MCG.

IC 3098.
POSS. O-1611.
Schwassmann #55.  12hr 14m 36.611s + 07 28' 07.265" (1950).
12hr 17m 09.766s + 07 11' 27.262" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 4235. (H 172).  The CGCG, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, UGC, MCG, 
PGC, Carlson, APL, NGC 2000 and MOL all correctly give the equivalency.   

IC 3102.
POSS. O-1611.Schwassmann #6.  12hr 14m 52.756s + 06 57' 59.534" (1950).
12hr 17m 25.943s + 06 41' 19.610" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 4223. :  The CGCG, UGC, MCG, PGC, Carlson, SIMBAD, NGC 2000 and 
MOL all give the equivalency IC 3102 = NGC 4241. The APL, NED and Steinicke make the 
equivalency IC 3102 = NGC 4223  
NOTE : See IC 3115.

IC 3103. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #81.  12hr 14m 56.024s + 09 38' 15.348" (1950).
12hr 17m 28.985s + 09 21' 35.452" (2000). 
This is a single star :  NGC 2000, Steinicke, APL, MOL and Carlson all list it as 
"Single star."  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3106. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #130.  12hr 15m 13.211s + 09 53' 29.724" (1950).
12hr 17m 46.137s + 09 36' 49.917" (2000). 
This is a star :  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing for IC 3106.  NGC 2000 gives 
no Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  Steinicke and APL make it (=*).  NED 
has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 3109.
POSS. O-1385.
Frost #852 :  12hr 15m 14.658s + 13 25' 19.631" (1950).
12hr 17m 47.276s + 13 08' 39.840" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG incorrectly identifies its ZWG 069.134 as being IC 
3109, it should be ZWG 069.131.  The MCG Lists it only as +2-31-81.  Correctly 
listed in APL, NED, NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  Steinicke has the correct 
identity.  PGC and SIMBAD incorrectly cross reference it with ZWG 069.134 but as 
stated it is ZWG 069.131 that is the correct equivalency.

IC 3113.
POSS. O-1611.
Schwassmann #7.  12hr 15m 24.830s + 07 27' 51.675" (1950).
12hr 17m 57.956s + 07 11' 11.922" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 4246 (H 913).  The CGCG, UGC, MCG, PGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, 
SIMBAD, Carlson, NGC 2000 and MOL all have the correct equivalency.

IC 3114. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #82.  12hr 15m 24.157s + 09 24' 43.273" (1950).
12hr 17m 57.115s + 09 08' 03.524" (2000). 
This is a single star :  Schwassmann described it as "cF, vS, like a star 12-13 
mag."  NGC 2000 gives Type as [?].  MOL describes as "May not exist."  Carlson 
lists as "Not Found."  Steinicke identifies as (=*).  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no 
listing.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database." APL (=*).

IC 3115.
POSS. O-1611.
Schwassmann #8.  12hr 15m 26.578s +06 55' 51.083" (1950).
12hr 17m 59.749s + 06 39' 11.336" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 4241 = H 480-3 :  In the past I have listed the identity IC 
3115 as being a separate galaxy, however, after re-examining the problem from the 
argument as given by Dr. Harold Corwin in his NGC Bugs List I am delighted to say 
that his findings have convinced me that IC 3115 is indeed the same galaxy seen by 
William Herschel and assigned the identity H 480-3 = NGC 4241 and that IC 3102 is 
equal to NGC 4223.
The CGCG, UGC, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, MCG, NGC 2000 and MOL have each identified IC 3115 
as a separate galaxy.  Steinicke and APL have (= NGC 4241).
(See IC 3102.  Also the excellent account in Corwin's NGC data files).

IC 3117.
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #83.  12hr 15m 31.406s + 09 20' 57.805" (1950).
12hr 18m 04.364s + 09 04' 18.095" (2000). 
This is a star with a fainter companion close north following:  NGC 2000 lists 
Type as [?].  MOL describes as "May not exist."  Carlson lists as "Not Found."  
Steinicke identifies it as (=*). APL (Double star).  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no 
listing.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database."

IC 3121.
POSS O-1385.
Frost #854.  12hr 15m 50.608s + 13 31' 19.794" (1950).
12hr 18m 23.175s + 13 14' 40.194" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  It is equal to VIII ZW 178 at 12hr 15m 44.81s + 13 32' 06".4   
Steinicke lists it as (=  8ZW 178).  The NGC 2000 has (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  
The PGC identifies it as only as (8ZW 178). SIMBAD identifies it as [DCY96] 10.  
Correctly identified in NED. APL "Pair in contact." 

IC 3123. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #37.  12hr 15m 54.664s + 08 20' 33.712" (1950).
12hr 18m 27.693s + 08 03' 54.123" (2000). 
This is a single star :  NGC 2000, Steinicke, MOL and Carlson all correctly list 
it as "A single star."   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (defect or 
star).

IC 3124. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #132.  12hr 15m 55.097s + 09 51' 52.014" (1950).
12hr 18m 27.990s + 09 35' 12.432" (2000). 
This is a single star :  NGC 2000, Steinicke, MOL and Carlson all correctly list 
it as "A single star."  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED. SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3125.
POSS O-135.
Wolf List IV, No. 6.  12hr 15m 54.308s + 24 38' 35.391" (1950).
12hr 18m 25.784s +24 21' 55.875" (2000).
Equal to a very faint star :  Not listed in the CGCG, MCG, UGC.  Steinicke 
identifies it as (=*).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3129. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #133.  12hr 16m 12.012s + 09 52' 19.894" (1950).
12hr 18m 44.890s + 09 35' 40.404" (2000). 
This is a single star :  NGC 2000, MOL Steinicke and Carlson all list it as "A 
single star."  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3130. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #38.  12hr 16m 16.835s + 08 30' 30.116" (1950).
12hr 18m 49.833s + 08 13' 50.651" (2000). 
This is a single star (the 3rd most southerly) in a group of 4:  NGC gives Type 
as [?].  MOL lists as "May not exist."  Carlson states "Not Found."   CGCG, UGC 
and MCG have no listing.  Steinicke has (= *4).  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED. SIMBAD "Not present inn the database." APL "At least 2 stars."

IC 3131.
(See IC 3132).

IC 3132. 
POSS. O-1560. 
Schwassmann #40.  12hr 16m 18.313s + 08 08' 22.523" (1950).
12hr 18m 51.343s + 07 51' 43.064" (2000). 
This is equal to IC 3131. (Schwassmann #39) : 
Schwassmann gives 2 nebulae (IC 3131 and IC 3132), with almost the same 
coordinates, those for IC 3131 being 12hr 16m 17.683s + 08 08' 23.320" (1950).  
When these are applied to the DSS they show that both are for the same galaxy.  
Steinicke has (IC 3132 = IC 3131).  CGCG, NGC 2000, MOL Carlson, NED, SIMBAD and PGC 
all make IC 3132 = IC 3131.  The MCG list as IC 3131-2. APL makes the equivalency.

IC 3133.
POSS. O-1560.
Schwassmann #41.  12hr 16m 22.277s + 07 55 07.342" (1950).
12hr 18m 55.325s + 07 38' 27.904" (2000).
This is a star in a group of 3 stars :  Carlson lists as "Not found, Harvard.  " 
Steinicke and APL (= *3) and the only other modern listings are NED "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 and 
MOL who both indicate that its identity is dubious.

IC 3139. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #85.  12hr 16m 28.146s + 09 24' 22.871" (1950).
12hr 19m 01.053s + 09 07' 43.472" (2000). 
This is a single star :  NGC 2000, MOL, Steinicke and Carlson all make it "A 
single star."  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3140. 
POSS. O-1398. 
Wolf List IV, No.8.  12hr 16m 26.517s + 27 24' 27.512" (1950).
12hr 18m 57.613s + 27 07' 48.181" (2000). 
This is a star :  NGC give it without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED have (Not found).

IC 3142. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Frost #860.  12hr 16m 32.498s + 14 15' 19.993" (1950).
12hr 19m 04.948s + 13 58' 40.622" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  NGC 2000 and the MOL list it as "Nebula."  CGCG, Steinicke, 
NED, SIMBAD, PGC, APL, UGC and MCG list it correctly.

IC 3145.
POSS. O-135.
Wolf List IV, No.12.  12hr 16m 39.565s +24 34' 19.702" (1950).
12hr 19m 10.949s + 24 17' 40.437" (2000).
Not found :  At the nominal position there is only the image of two extremely 
faint stars which would appear to be at least of the 20th Mp.  It is possible that 
Wolf's original plate had a spurious image caused by a photographic defect. 
Only listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO) and Steinicke (=*). NED has "There 
is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3150.
POSS. O-1560.
Schwassmann #43.  12hr 16m 56.391s + 08 4' 27.409" (1950).
12hr 19m 29.402s + 07 47' 48.166" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Carlson list as "Not found, Harvard."  NGC 2000 lists as [?] 
and MOL as " May not exist."  Not listed in UGC, MCG or DSFG.  Correctly 
identified in CGCG, Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD, PGC and RC3.

IC 3158. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #87.  12hr 17m 15.833s + 09 34' 09.407" (1950).
12hr 19m 48.688s + 09 17' 30.283" (2000). 
This is a single star :  NGC 2000, MOL, Steinicke, APL and Carlson all correctly 
make it "A single star." CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3160. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #88.  12hr 17m 27.659s + 09 22' 42.468" (1950).
12hr 20m 00.523s + 09 06' 03.413" (2000). 
This is a single star :  NGC 2000, Steinicke, MOL and Carlson all correctly 
identify as "A single star."  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There 
is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3161. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #89.  12hr 17m 28.477s + 09 16' 32.772" (1950).
12hr 20m 01.350s + 08 59' 53.722" (2000). 
This is the north preceding component of a double star :  NGC 2000, MOL and 
Carlson correctly describe it as "Double star."  Steinicke has (= *).  CGCG, UGC 
and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3162. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #90.  12hr 17m 30.336s + 09 16' 28.082" (1950).
12hr 20m 03.208s + 08 59' 49.043" (2000). 
This is the south following component of the same double star (IC 3161) :   
NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson all make it "Double star."  Steinicke has (*).  CGCG, 
UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3163. 
POSS. O-1385. 
Schwassmann #90x   12hr 17m 30.724s + 09 32' 02.784" (1950).
12hr 20m 03.570s + 09 15' 23.747" (2000). 
This is a double star :  NGC 2000, MOL, Steinicke and Carlson all make it "A 
double star."  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=**?)

IC 3164.
POSS. O-135.
Wolf List IV, No.18.  12hr 17m 33.985s + 25 14'.03.098" (1950).
12hr 20m 05.173s + 24 57' 24.053" (2000).
This is a pair of faint stars :  Steinicke also lists it as (=*2), NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database." No additional listings. APL (= double star).

IC 3166.
POSS. O-1427. 
Swift List XII. #10.  12hr 17m 30.039s + 60 58' 20.300" (1950).
12hr 19m 54.019s + 60 41' 41.484" (2000). 
Not found :  The only modern sources to list this identity are NGC 2000 (No Type), 
Steinicke, SIMBAD, and NED (Not found) and MOL (NSO). APL (See Corwin's Files).

IC 3169. 
POSS. O- 1398. 
Wolf List IV, No.22.  12hr 17m 50.631s + 25 52' 33.224" (1950).
12hr 20m 21.705s + 25 35' 54.287" (2000). 
Declination error. Given as 1 degree too far north :   
Dreyer in the IC II gives the declination for the year 1950 as + 26 52'.5, whereas 
Wolf gives + 25 52' 33".  Wolf places IC 3171 at 12hr 17m 52s + 25 50' 16" and 
also shows a separation between IC 3169 and IC 3171 of -2.5 tsec and + 2' 17" of 
arc.  I checked this out on the Palomar print and there is the image of a galaxy 
exactly where Wolf puts IC 3169 in relation to IC 3171. 
Because of the IC II error the NGC 2000 and MOL have an error of +1 degree in 
declination.  CGCG, UGC, PGC and MCG have no listing at either declination.  APL 
and Steinicke have correct declination.  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED," however, they list it as 2MASX J12202133+2535582. SIMBAD has "Not 
present in the database,"   

IC 3177. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Frost #866.  12hr 18m 02.373s + 14 24' 20.451" (1950).
12hr 20m 34.697s + 14 07' 41.610" (2000). 
Not found :  NGC 2000 list without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  CGCG, 
UGC and MCG have no listing.  Steinicke, APL, SIMBAD and NED have (Not found).

IC 3178.
POSS. O-1398.
Wolf List IV, No.26.  12hr 18m 04.792s + 26 26' 57.333" (1950).
12hr 20m 35.763s + 26 10' 18.483" (2000).
This is a star :  Previously I had thought this was the brighter of two associated 
galaxies, however, I now believe that it is the brightest of 3 stars forming a 
triangle immediately preceding the brighter or preceding of 2 galaxies, which is 
IC 3179.  
I base this upon the consistency of Wolf's positional error which places his 
nominal positions to land just off the Following or South Following edge of the 
images he is identifying, and for IC 3178 his coordinates place it just off the 
following edge of this star.
Listed in NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) both reflecting Wolf's Coordinates.  
Steinicke and APL have (= *).  NED lists only the brighter galaxy identifying it 
only as MAPS-NGP 0-321-1295962. SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
The PGC has only one identity, IC 3179 and correctly makes it the preceding of the 
two galaxies. 
 
IC 3179.
POSS. O-1398
Wolf List IV, No.27.  12hr 18m 07.085s +26 26' 34.350" (1950).
12hr 20m 38.051s + 26 09' 55.514" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  It is the brighter and preceding of the two associated 
galaxies following the small triangle of stars, one of which is Wolf's object 
identified as IC 3178, (which see).
Only listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), both at the historical 
coordinates.  PGC which has the correct identity and Steinicke who correctly lists 
it.
NOTE:  After sending my findings on the two identities IC 3178 and IC 3179 to Dr. 
Corwin I am happy to say that he kindly examined my arguments and informed me that 
he is in complete agreement with my conclusions.

IC 3180.
POSS. O-1427. 
Swift List XII.#11.  12hr 17m 59.777s + 60 58' 20.457" (1950).
12hr 20m 23.500s + 60 41' 41.819" (2000). 
Not found :  Listed in NGC 2000 without any type.  Oddly enough I was unable to 
find any listing for this identity in the MOL.  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED have (Not 
found). APL (See Corwin's Files). No other listing in the other modern catalogues.

IC 3181. 
POSS. O-1398. 
Wolf List IV, No.28.  12hr 18m 12.155s + 29 37' 22.392" (1950).
12hr 20m 43.590s + 29 20' 43.590" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4286 (H 300-1) :  CGCG, UGC, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, MCG, NGC 
2000, MOL, APL, RC2 (Notes), Carlson and PGC all correctly equate IC 3181 with NGC 
4286.

IC 3182. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #237.  12hr 18m 15.475s + 13 00' 17.021" (1950).
12hr 20m 47.929s + 12 43' 38.268" (2000). 
This is a triple star :  NGC 2000 and MOL make it "Three stars."  Carlson 
describes it as "Group of 3 stars."  Steinicke has (= *3).  CGCG, UGC and MCG have 
no listing for IC 3182.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database." APL (= **2).

IC 3183. 
POSS. O-1560. 
Schwassmann #9.  12hr 18m 16.073s + 06 57' 55.222" (1950).
12hr 20m 49.143s + 06 41' 16.451" (2000). 
This is a single star :  NGC 2000, MOL, Steinicke and Carlson make it a "Single 
star."  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL makes it a double star.  

IC 3190. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #136.  12hr 18m 30.136s + 09 50' 50.400" (1950).
12hr 21m 02.903s + 09 34' 11.727" (2000). 
This is a single star :  NGC 2000, MOL Steinicke, APL and Carlson all give "Single 
star."  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3191. 
POSS. O-1560. 
Schwassmann #45.  12hr 18m 32.283s + 07 58' 54.011" (1950).
12hr 21m 05.238s + 07 42' 15.346" (2000). 
This is a single star :  NGC 2000 lists without Type.  MOL states "May not exist."  
Carlson has "Not Found."  Steinicke and APL have (=*).  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no 
listing. NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database."

IC 3197.
POSS. O-135.
Wolf List IV, No.37.  12hr 18m 55.226s +25 43' 13.732" (1950).
12hr 21m 26.169s + 25 26' 35.196" (2000).
This is a faint star :  Only listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO) and 
Steinicke (Not found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database." "NED "There is no 
object with this name in NED." 

IC 3198.
POSS. O-1398.
Wolf List IV, No.38.  12hr 19m 00.457s +26 38' 38.775" (1950).
12hr 21m 31.269s + 26 22' 00.275" (2000).
This is the south following of two faint star :  Listed in the NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and MOL as (NSO). Steinicke and APL correctly have (=*). NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3208. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Frost #872.  12hr 19m 26.479s + 12 14' 20.917"(1950).
12hr 21m 58.939s + 11 57' 42.614" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  .  Frost's description "Pretty large, Very much extended at 
PA 70 degrees," is impossible to distinguish as such on the Palomar blue print in my 
possession, although it can be readily confirmed on the DSS Second Generation.  
NGC 2000 has no Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  APL gives (GX. Adamik).   
CGCG and MCG have no listing.  The UGC identifies it only as U07421 and this is 
the identity in the PGC and SIMBAD.  Steinicke has the correct identity.  NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED." but does identify it as UGC 07421.

IC 3214. 
POSS. O-1398. 
Wolf List IV, No.50.  12hr 19m 38.766s + 27 30' 49.095" (1950).
12hr 22m 09.369s + 27 14' 10.842" (2000). 
This is a single star :  Steinicke identifies it as (=*).  NGC 2000 lists without 
Type.  MOL lists as a (Nonstellar Object).  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database." APL (=*).

IC 3223. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #137.  12hr 19m 57.840s + 09 45' 51.700" (1950).
12hr 22m 30.543s + 09 29' 13.599" (2000). 
Not found :  Schwassmann describes it as "vF, pS. Among 3 vF *."
His nominal position lands midway between the two most southerly of the 3 stars 
where nothing exists.  NGC 2000, MOL, Steinicke and Carlson all list it as a 
single star. NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present 
in the database." APL (Possible defect).

IC 3226. 
POSS. O-1398. 
Wolf List IV, No.58.  12hr 20m 04.473s + 26 20' 40.315" (1950).
12hr 22m 35.172s + 26 04' 02.238" (2000). 
Equal to 2 stars :  NGC 2000 lists without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar 
Object).  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  Steinicke has (*2) and NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 
APL has (* possibly **?)

IC 3229.
POSS. 0-1560.
Schwassmann #14.  12h 20m 11.325s +16 57' 16.680" 91950).
12hr 22m 44.329s + 06 40' 38.659" (2000).
Unable to resolve :  Until recently I was of the opinion that Schwassman's object 
was the galaxy UGC 7448 which follows IC 3225, however, after reading Dr. Corwin's 
files I am left in somewhat of a quandary as his statement in regards to 
Schwassmann's coordinates placing IC 3229 5 tsec following IC 3225, whereas UGC 
7448 lies about 14 tsec following IC 3225, is quite true and in order to accept 
that Schwassmann has such an error in measuring is as Corwin says "unlikely," 
based upon the high degree of accuracy usually found with Schwassmann's 
coordinates and which is illustrated by his coordinates for IC 3225.
It is possible that Schwassmann's RA reflects a transcription error, however, 
there is absolutely no evidence to support this, therefore I would say that at 
present I would have to favor Corwin's conclusions regarding this identity, which 
dispute IC 3229 being equal to UGC 7448.
The NGC 2000, MOL, UGC, CGCG, MCG, RC3, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke each select 
and identify the galaxy UGC 7448 as being IC 3229.

IC 3232.
POSS. O-135.
Wolf List IV, No.63.  12hr 20m 17.310s + 24 42' 12.426" (1950).
12hr 22m 48.199s + 24 25' 34.421" (2000).
This is a star :  Correctly identified by Steinicke.  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type).  
MOL (NSO).

IC 3245. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Frost #883.  12hr 20m 44.687s + 09 24' 21.384" (1950).
12hr 23m 17.392s + 09 07' 43.604" (2000). 
Not found :  NGC 2000 lists Type as [?].   MOL describes as "May not exist."  
Carlson states " Not Found ".  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED (Not found).  CGCG, UGC and 
MCG have no listing. APL has "defect on Harvard plate."

IC 3246. 
POSS. O-1563.
Schwassmann #240.  12hr 20m 45.291s + 13 19' 44.089" (1950).
12hr 23m 17.542s + 13 03' 06.322" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  Definite galaxy image exactly at the given coordinates.  
Schwassmann describes it "Like a line" which suggests that he considered it to be 
extended, however the image on the Palomar print does not indicate this.  
Steinicke and APL have correct object.  NED has (No object with this name in NED", 
however, they list it as VPC 0272, as does SIMBAD.  NGC 2000 lists without Type.  
MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  Identified in 
the PGC only as #40202.

IC 3247. 
POSS. O-1398. 
Wolf List IV, No.69.  12hr 20m 44.107s + 29 10' 12.667" (1950).
12hr 23m 14.308s + 28 53' 34.865" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  It is not equal to NGC 4338 (D'Arrest).  D'Arrest's 
declination differs from the declination given to IC 3247 by ~ 20' of arc.  It is 
unlikely that what D'Arrest was describing even exists as in his description he 
states "Extremely difficult due to twilight," which means that he would have had 
to have been able to see an object of Mp 15.6 in a telescope of 28 cm aperture 
during twilight, something I find difficult to accept, especially as no object is 
visible on the Palomar print at these coordinates. 
CGCG, UGC, APL, NED, Steinicke and MCG have correct identity.  NGC 2000 
incorrectly equate IC 3247 with NGC 4338 as does the PGC and SIMBAD.  MOL correctly 
identifies IC 3247 , however, it gives incorrect coordinate data for NGC 4338 ( RA 
off by-10s and Declination off by - 21' from both D'Arrest's and Dreyer's 
positions), thus suggesting that IC 3247 and NGC 4338 are equivalent identities.  
Carlson lists IC 3247 = NGC 4338 ?, quoting as her source Reinmuth (1926) who lists 
NGC 4338 as "Not Found. = IC 3247 ?."

IC 3248.
POSS. O-135.
Wolf List IV, No.70.  12hr 20m 46.213s + 25 49' 45.684" (1950).
12hr 23m 16.885s + 25 33' 07.892" (2000).
This is a very faint star :  Listed in the NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO).  
Steinicke correctly makes it a star.  NED has "There is no object with this name 
in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3250.
POSS. O-135.
Wolf List IV, No.72.  12hr 20m 47.595s + 25 54' 20.696" (1950).
12hr 23m 18.253s + 25 37' 42.916" (2000).
This is a very faint star :  Correctly identified as such by Steinicke.  Listed in 
the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and MOL as (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database. 


IC 3251.
POSS. O-135.
Wolf List IV, No.73.  12hr 20m 48.387s + 25 55' 51.703" (1950).
12hr 23m 19.040s + 25 39' 13.929" (2000).
Not found :  Probably a photographic defect on the original plate  I was unable to 
see any image at the precise spot.  Steinicke lists as (Not found)).  The NGC 2000 
has (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3252.
POSS. O-1398.
Wolf List IV, No.74.  12hr 20m 55.413s + 28 53' 44.769" (1950).
12hr 23m 25.624s + 28 37' 07.046" (2000).
This is a single star or at best a double star :  
Wolf's nominal position lies on the following edge of a star which lies among a 
small group of about 5 stars. No associated nebulosity evident.
Only modern listings are Steinicke (= * group), NED "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (Open cluster) and MOL 
(Open cluster). APL (**).  Both of these types are most likely based upon Dreyer's 
IC description which reads "F,S,iF,?cL." which would suggest that Wolf's use of the 
abbreviation cL, means cluster, however, having looked at a number of  Wolf's 
descriptions for other identities (including some obvious nonstellar images of 
single NGC galaxies for which he included the same abbreviation) it would seem that 
he was not referring to the typing as being an open star cluster.
NOTE :  Wolf in his INTRODUCTION to his List #3 includes an explanation for each 
of the abbreviated forms he applies to his descriptions, however, there is no 
listing of the abbreviation cL except in the context of size of an object 
(considerably large).

IC 3254.
POSS. O-1576.
Frost #884.  12hr 21m 01.559s + 19 44' 21.493" (1950).
12hr 23m 33.006s + 19 27' 43.857" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 4336 (H 406-2) :  The CGCG, Steinicke, APL, NED, UGC, MCG, 
MOL, SIMBAD and PGC all correctly equate the two identities as does Carlson (= NGC 
4336.Harvard Annals 88. 1930).    

IC 3256 and IC 3260.
POSS. O-1560.
Bigourdan #291.  12hr 21m 06.095s + 07 19' 51.477" (1950)
12 23 39.025s + 07 03' 13.867 (2000). (IC 3256).
Bigourdan #294.  12hr 21m 20.490s + 07 23 05.780" (1950).
12hr 23m 53.406s + 07 06' 28.274" (2000). (IC 3260).
Wm. Herschel was the first to report on the field and he listed 3 objects (H 94-3, 
H 95-3 and H96-3).  He gave only a single position, 12hr 21m 01.7s + 07 14' 38".
Later John Herschel examined the field and reported seeing only a single object 
which he identified as being H 94-3, giving it coordinates of 12hr 21m 05.3s + 07 
13'.1.  
Dreyer included in the NGC all 3 of Wm. Herschel's claimed objects and recorded 
them as follows.
H 94-3 = NGC 4343.  12hr 21m 06s = 07 13'.8
H 95-3 = NGC 4341.  12hr 21m 05s + 07 15'.5
H 96-3 = NGC 4342.  12hr 21m 05s + 07 15'.5
Bigourdan examined the field on two occasions, April 25th 1895 and May 8th 1907.  
On both nights he searched for Wm. Herschel's 3 nebulae but stated that he only 
found NGC 4341, placing it at 12hr 21m 05s + 07 13' 01' and that he 
did not find either NGC 4342 or NGC 4343, however, based upon Dreyer's given NGC 
identities it would appear that Bigourdan's coordinates for what he identifies as 
being NGC 4341 are in better agreement with what Dreyer had given for NGC 4343.
Next Bigourdan claimed discovery of 2 Novae in the immediate field containing his 
NGC identity.  The first Nova (B #291) he places at 12hr 21m 06.095s + 07 19' 
51.477" (1950) and it received the identity IC 3256, while the second Nova (B 
#294) he places at 12hr 21m 20.490s + 07 23' 05.780 (1950)."  
Now as these two Novae are in the same field as the one he identifies as being one 
of Herschel's three one must wonder why he did not question whether they might be 
indeed Wm. Herschel's claimed objects, instead he evidently assumed that as they 
were not at the positions as given by Dreyer for Wm. Herschel's "missing" pair 
they had to be new discoveries, however, if Bigourdan was able to see them then it 
is almost certain that Herschel would have and therefore what Bigourdan claimed as 
his # 291 and #294 are in fact equal to NGC 4341 and NGC 4342 and when Bigourdan's 
coordinates for these 2 identities are compared with the modern data it shows that 
IC 3256 is equal to NGC 4342 and IC 3260 is equal to NGC 4341.
The CGCG gives the single identities IC 3256 and IC 3260.  The UGC correctly 
equates IC 3256 with NGC 4342 and IC 3260 with NGC 4341 as does the PGC, SIMBAD and 
NED.  
The MCG makes NGC 4342-3 = NGC 4341 which is entirely incorrect as they are 3 
separate galaxies, then gives the single identities IC 3256 and IC 3260.
Carlson also correctly gives the IC and NGC equivalencies as does the APL, 
Steinicke, RC3 and DSFG.
NOTE:  Bigourdan's reference star for his # 293 and #294 is equal to AC 319831 at 
12hr 23m 36.033s +07 10' 36.93 (2000) and when his offsets, (+0 tmin 2.972 tsec RA 
and - 7 arcmin 23.100 arcsec Dec) and (+ 0 tmin 17.29 tsec RA and - 4 arcmin 10.9 
arcsec Dec.) are applied to this star they land on NGC 4342 and NGC 4341 
respectively.

IC 3257. 
POSS. O-1560. 
Bigourdan #292.  12hr 21m 11.737s + 07 31 51.259" (1950).
12hr 23m 44.639s + 07 15' 13.642" (2000). 
Not found :  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists without any Type.  
MOL states "May not exist."  Carlson, Steinicke, APL, SIMBAD and NED list as "Not 
Found."
NOTE:  Bigourdan incorrectly gave the 1900 declination of his reference star BD 
+8-2594 as + 07 43' 52".  It is equal to AC #319824 at 12hr 23m 30.175s + 07 18' 
57.14" (2000) It is equal to GSC 288-075 at 12hr 20m 56.941" +07 35' 33.699" 
(1950), and its declination for 1900 is + 07 52' 13.462".  
When Bigourdan's offsets are applied to the AC star the correct coordinates for IC 
3257 would be 12hr 21m 11.737s + 07 31' 51.259" (1950) and 12hr 23m 44.639s + 07 
15' 13.642" (2000).
Now when these coordinates are entered into the DSS (First Generation) they land 
right on an image that appears decidedly nebular, however, this same image is no 
longer visible on either the Red or Blue versions for DSS (Second generation), the 
closest image being of extreme faintness.
It is my opinion that the First Generation image is spurious and that Bigourdan's 
object #292 = IC 3257 is Not found.

IC 3260
(See IC 3256).

IC 3262. 
POSS. O-1398. 
Wolf List IV, No.75.  12hr 21m 17.957s + 27 40' 10.975" (1950).
12hr 23m 48.290s + 27 23' 33.406" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   CGCG, Steinicke, PGC, NED, SIMBAD and APL have correct 
identity.  UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 and MOL describe it as "Open 
cluster."

IC 3265. 
POSS. O-1560. 
Schwassmann #48.  12hr 21m 26.622s + 08 04' 51.748" (1950).
12hr 23m 59.450s + 07 48' 14.261" (2000). 
This is a star close north of NGC 4353 (Peters) :   Schwassmann makes it clear in 
his description that he suspected that it might possibly be a star, also his 
positional data shows that there is no equivalency between IC 3265 and IC 3266.  
NGC 2000 lists it with Type  [?].   MOL states "May not exist."   CGCG lists as IC 
3265 = IC 3266 = NGC 4353 ?.  RC2 (Notes) list IC 3265 + IC 3266 = NGC 4353.   MCG 
lists as IC 3265-IC 3266.   PGC makes IC 3265 = IC 3266 = NGC 4353 as does SIMBAD   
UGC has no listing.  APL (= *).  Steinicke has (=*).  Carlson correctly makes IC 
3265 "Single star."  NED equates NGC 4353 with both IC 3265 and IC 3266.

IC 3266. 
POSS. O-1560. 
Schwassmann #49.  12hr 21m 27.503s + 08 03' 43.754" (1950).
12hr 24m 00.333s + 07 47' 06.273" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4353:  
The CGCG and PGC both equate IC 3266 with IC 3265 = NGC 4353.  NGC 2000, MOL and 
Carlson equate IC 3266 with NGC 4353.  MCG equates IC 3266 with IC 3265.  UGC has 
no listing.  Steinicke and APL have (= NGC 4353 = IC 3265).  NED has NGC 4353 = IC 
3265 and IC 3266 as does SIMBAD
NOTE : (See IC 3265).

IC 3273. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #95.  12hr 21m 42.253s + 08 48' 54.849" (1950).
12hr 24m 14.983s + 08 32' 17.479" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4356 (H 481-3) :    CGCG, UGC and MCG all only give the 
identity IC 3273. NGC 2000, MOL, PGC, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and Carlson 
correctly make IC 3273 = NGC 4356.  RC3 gives the single identity NGC 4356.

IC 3279.
POSS. O-1563.
Schwassmann #242.  12hr 21m 51.976s + 13 07' 42.814" (1950).
12hr 24m 24.177s + 12 51' 05.526" (2000).
This consists of a pair of stars :  Schwassmann himself stated that perhaps it was 
2 stars.  Listed in the NGC 2000 (= *) and the MOL (single star).  Steinicke has 
(*2), Carlson (* Harvard).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (**).

IC 3280. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Frost #888.  12hr 21m 50.188s + 13 29' 21.802" (1950).
12hr 24m 22.346s + 13 12' 44.498" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Listed in the CGCG only as ZWG 70.054.  Listed in MCG only as 
+2-32-30.  UGC has no listing.  NGC 2000, Steinicke and MOL give correct identity.  
The PGC gives only the MCG and CGCG identities.  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED" but then they list it as VCC 0729. SIMBAD ha "Not present in the 
database," but lists it as MCG +02-32-030.

IC 3281. 
POSS. O-1560. 
Schwassmann #51.  12hr 21m 55.080s + 08 05' 46.032" (1950).
12hr 24m 27.887s + 07 49' 08.753" (2000). 
Not found :   Schwassmann describes this object a "Pretty bright and Considerably 
bright, like a star of mag. 9 or 10."   There is no object fitting this 
description in the position given by its discoverer.   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no 
listing for IC 3281.   NGC lists with the Type as [?].  MOL states "May not 
exist."   Carlson states "Not Found."  Steinicke has (Not found).  NED has "There 
is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (Not 
found).

IC 3282.
POSS O-135.
Wolf List IV, No.84.  12hr 21m 57.637s + 25 56' 52.348" (1950).
12hr 24m 28.125s + 25 40' 15.071" (2000).
This is a very faint star :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and MOL as (NSO).  
Correctly listed as (=*) by Steinicke.  NED has "There is no object with this name 
in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3285. 
POSS. O-135. 
Wolf List IV, No.86.  12hr 22m 03.171s + 25 08' 12.400" (1950).
12hr 24m 33.764s + 24 51' 35.154" (2000). 
At the nominal position there is only the image of a very faint star :  
Wolf describes it as "in long diffuse nebulosity," which suggests that there was a 
photographic defect involved in the original plate.   
NGC lists without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  CGCG, UGC and MCG have 
no listing.  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED list as (Not found).

IC 3294. 
POSS. O-135. 
Wolf List IV, No.90.  12hr 22m 19.274s + 25 52' 30.557" (1950).
12hr 24m 49.722s + 25 35' 53.440" (2000). 
Unable to confirm.  Wolf himself classified it as (?) :  
Its appearance to me is that of a very faint star ? yet it does suggest having a 
softer image than similar stars in the field. 
Steinicke identifies it as (=*).  NGC 2000 gives no Type.  MOL lists as(Nonstellar 
Object).  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." The GSC 2.2. classifies it 
as being a star.

IC 3295. 
POSS. O-1398. 
Wolf List IV, No.91.  12hr 22m 18.956s + 28 59' 05.557" (1950).
12hr 24m 48.933s + 28 42' 28.440" (2000). 
Not found :  At the nominal position no image is visible, the closest star being 
beyond the error level of Wolf's coordinate.   
NGC 2000 lists without any Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  CGCG, UGC and 
MCG have no listing.  Steinicke has (= *).  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL "Nothing here."

IC 3297.
POSS. 0-1398.
Wolf List IV, No.93.  12 22m 28.311s +27 02' 44.646" (1950).
12hr 24m 58.562s +26 46' 07.592" (2000).
This is a single star:   
NGC 2000 lists without Type.  MOL has (NSO). Only other listings are APL and 
Steinicke (=*). SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NED "There is no object with 
this name in NED."
IC 3301. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Frost #894.  12hr 22m 38,022s + 14 26' 22.121" (1950).
12hr 25m 10.004s + 14 09' 45.171" (2000). 
Probably equal to IC 3307 (Frost #896) :   
Frost listed two galaxies (#894 = IC 3301 and #896 = IC 3307) as being 0.2m apart 
in RA.  I was able to find only one on the Palomar print and it fits Frost's data 
for IC 3307.  At the nominal position for IC 3301 there is only a 10th mag star.  
NGC 2000 lists without Type.  MOL makes IC 3301 equal to a single star.  Carlson 
lists IC 3307 as a star and quotes Harvard Annals, 88, as equating IC 3301 and IC 
3307.  This equivalency is strengthened by the fact that IC 3301 and IC 3307 were 
discovered on separate plates at Harvard.  
CGCG, PGC, SIMBAD, UGC and MCG have no listings for either IC 3301 or IC 3307.  The 
APL Gives "= IC 3307."    
Steinicke identifies IC 3301 as equal to IC 3307. NED has no identities for either 
IC 3301 and IC 3307.
NOTE:  Additional support that IC 3301 is equal to IC 3307 is that concerning 
offset error.  IC 3301 was measured on Plate # 6720 and the nominal position lands 
south preceding IC 3307.  
IC 3280 was also measured on this same plate and the offset error is also south 
preceding by a similar amount, which suggests that Frost's reference star was 
subject to positional error.
IC 3307 was measured on Plate # 6718 and the nominal position lands south 
following the galaxy as do all other adjacent Plate # 6718 objects measured by 
Frost.    

IC 3307.
(See IC 3301).

IC 3310.
POSS. O-1576.
Bigourdan #297.  12hr 22m 38.419s + 15 57' 02.967" (1950).
12hr 25m 10.204s + 15 40' 25.806" (2000). (COMPTES RENDUS).  
12hr 23 23.490s + 15 57' 27.097" (1950).
12hr 25m 55.213s + 15 40' 50.464" (2000). (OBSERVATIONS).
This is equal to a star located in the north preceding edge of NGC 4396 :
The first publication for this identity is found in the COMPTES RENDUS JAN. 11 
1897 in which it is given a rough position of 12 hr 23m 03s +15 57'.0 (1950) and 
described as being of magnitude 13.4, diffuse, from 15 to 20 arcsecs in 
diameter, having a condensation that is stellar and just visible.
When this position is examined on the Palomar print or DSS there is found the 
image of a faint double star (probably only the primary would have been within the 
range of Bigourdan's telescope).  It is this image that is most likely the one 
selected by Carlson and subsequently the NGC 2000 and MOL as being Bigourdan's 
B297 = IC 3310.
In Bigourdan's 1919 OBSERVATIONS he publishes as his reference star the 11.5 Mv 
Anon.(4) which would have 1950 coordinates of 12hr 24m 15s + 16 03' 21" and from 
this position he gives his IC 3310 separations of - 6 tsecs -49 arcsecs which 
would result in coordinates for IC 3310 of about 12hr 24m 09s + 16 02' 32"  
(1950).  When these are applied to the Palomar print or DSS they gives no image at 
all, being approximately 6 tsec preceding a 9th Mp star.
This is confusing as we can see that he has given two sets of coordinates more 
than 1 tmin apart, however, he gives us in his 1919 work some additional data that 
I feel is conclusive.
He adds as a footnote that his reference star Anon.(4) is distant from NGC 4379 by 
+ 0 tmin 49 tsec and + 5 arcmin and by computing the position he gives for NGC 
4379, which by the way is excellent, 12hr 22m 43s + 15 53' 11" (1950) and then 
applying his stated offsets we have him placing his star Anon. (4) at 12 hr 23m 
32s + 15 58' 11" (1950) which is considerably different from the published 
coordinates and now by measuring his stated offsets (- 6 tsec and - 49 arcsec) 
would give IC 3310 coordinates of 12hr 23m 26s + 15 57' 22" (1950).
The APL gives coordinates for NGC 4396 of 12hr 23m 27.5s + 15 56' 53" (1950) and I 
originally considered that perhaps IC 3310 would then be equal to NGC 4396, 
however, Bigourdan measured both identities on the same night and these positions 
are extremely close , so close that I am unable to accept that he would be 
measuring and describing the same image as two different objects.  
The reference star Bigourdan employs for his observation of NGC 4396 he lists as 
Anon. (3), this is equal to AC #541901 at 12hr 26m 01.255s +15 41' 39.56 (2000) 
and his separation values for NGC 4396 are - 2 tsec and - 1 arcmin 24 arcsec and 
this is reflected as being accurate on the photographic print and when the 
separation values for his IC 3310 are measured on the same print from this same 11 
mag. star they come down exactly upon a 13th mag. star located in the north 
preceding extension of NGC 4396 and would fit Bigourdan's description for his IC 
3310, therefore I believe now that this star is IC 3310 and that the reference 
star as published in Bigourdan's 1919 work is incorrect and that he was actually 
using the same reference star for both NGC 4396 and IC 3310.   The latest version 
(March 31st 2005) of Steinicke's NGC/IC Catalogue is in agreement with my 
conclusion as is Corwin (Jan. 16th 2004). NED has "There is no object with this name 
in NED." And SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3318. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #139.  12hr 23m 17.489s + 10 02' 27.992" (1950).
12hr 25m 49.993s + 09 45' 51.342" (2000). 
This is a single star :   NGC 2000, Steinicke, MOL and Carlson all make IC 3318 = 
a star.  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3319. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #140.  12hr 23m 18.416s + 10 40' 04.398" (1950).
12hr 25m 50.839s + 10 23' 27.762" (2000). 
Not found at nominal position :   It is not equivalent to NGC 4390 (H 39-3).  
Bigourdan measured NGC 4390 and his coordinates would place NGC 4390  4' 41" north 
of the position given to IC 3319 by Schwassmann, (PGC gives a declination for NGC 
4390  4arcmin 10arcsec north of Schwassmann), also Schwassmann's description   
"Considerably faint , or pretty faint, pretty small" does not match NGC 4390 (Mp 
13.7 CGCG).   NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson all make IC 3319 = NGC 4390.  CGCG, UGC, 
PGC and MCG have no listing.  The APL has (Not found; nominal position. = NGC 
4390=IC 3320?)  Steinicke has (NF).  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED."SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3320. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #155.  12hr 23m 17.998s + 10 44' 06.595" (1950).
12hr 25m 50.413s + 10 27' 29.957" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4390 (H 39-3)  :    NGC 2000, MOL, APL and Carlson all equate 
IC 3320 with NGC 4390.  CGCG, UGC, PGC and MCG have only the identity NGC 4390.  
The APL equates IC 3320 with NGC 4390 and Steinicke equates IC 3320 with NGC 4390.  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 3323. 
POSS. O-1398. 
Wolf List IV, No.107.  12hr 23m 18.562s + 27 49' 10.151" (1950).
12hr 25m 48.567s + 27 32' 33.483" (2000). 
This is a superposed star    Examination of the image of NGC 4393 (H 361-3) on the 
Palomar print shows at Wolf's position what is a foreground star located on the 
south preceding edge of NGC 4393.  Wolf in his description clearly indicates that 
he is referring to this associated 
object, "Nebulous star attached to NGC 4393." and that he is well aware of the 
identity of the prominent galaxy, indeed he identifies and gives very precise 
coordinates for NGC 4393 (his object #111,  12hr 23m 21.1s + 27 50' 20"), which 
land right on the nucleus of NGC 4393.
CGCG and UGC equate IC 3323 with NGC 4393.  MCG, NGC 2000, NED, SIMBAD and PGC lists 
as IC 3323 = IC 3329 = NGC 4393.  Steinicke and APL have (=*).  MOL lists both IC 
3323 and NGC 4393 as separate objects but due to the RNGC giving a poor RA value for 
NGC 4393 the MOL coordinates would place IC 3323 on the south following edge of NGC 
4393 instead of the correct south preceding edge.   
(Also see IC 3329).

IC 3324.
POSS. O-1398.
Wolf List IV, No. 108.  12hr 23m 19.227s + 27 00' 57.157" (1950).
12hr 25m 49.357s + 26 44' 20.497" (2000).
Equal to a galaxy with a star attached south preceding:  In my Version 4 I listed 
this as a double star based upon the image on DSS First Generation, however, 
having recently re-examined it employing Second Generation DSS I see that it is 
indeed a small galaxy that is the north following companion.
NGC 2000 lists without type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar object).  CGCG, UGC and MCG 
have no listings.  Steinicke lists it as (=*2 or * + GXY).  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED," However they do list it as 2MASX J12245914+2644237. 
SIMBAD has no listings for this object. The APL correctly identifies the galaxy and 
foreground star.

IC 3329.
POSS. O-1398. 
Wolf List IV, No.112.  12hr 23m 26.228s + 27 50' 23.230" (1950).
12hr 25m 56.211s + 27 33' 46.622" (2000).
Either an associated galaxy or nebulous knot :   As with IC 3323 this is again 
visible on the Palomar print superposed on the image of NGC 4393, being located 
very close north following the nucleus.  
Once again Wolf's description leaves no doubt that he was well aware that what he 
was referring to was not the result of confusing the identity of NGC 4393 as he 
describes IC 3329 as "attached to NGC 4393."   
MCG, NED, SIMBAD and PGC make IC 3329 = IC 3323 = NGC 4393.  CGCG equates IC 3329 
with NGC 4393.  NGC 2000 lists without Type.  MOL lists as a separate, nonstellar 
object.  Steinicke and APL agree with me that the north following "Knot" is IC 3329.  
UGC has no listing for IC 3329.

IC 3333. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #248.  12hr 23m 37.182s + 13 24' 38.832" (1950).
12hr 26m 09.228s + 13 08' 02.343" (2000). 
This is a single star :   NGC 2000, MOL, Steinicke and Carlson all correctly list 
as a star.  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3335.POSS. O-1398.
Wolf List IV, No.116.  12hr 23m 49.243s +26 24' 19.467" (1950).
12hr 26m 19.398s + 26 07' 43.045" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  It is the south preceding of two galaxies and although the 
north following one appears to be the brighter, Wolf's coordinates land at the 
expected offset from the fainter south preceding object.
Steinicke has correct identity.  NED states "There is no object with this name in 
NED" however, they identify the same galaxy as 2MASXiJ1226191+260745.  The APL, 
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) all have the correct object. SIMBAD has no listing 
for this galaxy.

IC 3339. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #99.  12hr 23m 56.921s + 09 08' 55.171" (1950).
12hr 26m 29.509s + 08 52' 18.832" (2000). 
Probably equal to NGC 4411 (Peters) :   It is difficult to correctly evaluate 
exactly just what Schwassmann was referring to as IC 3339.  His description reads 
"* 11 mag. nf surr m n," which I loosely translate as meaning 'Like a 11 mag. star 
north following the surrounding main nebulosity.'  Dreyer gives "11mag. star with 
nebulosity north following."
At the precise position as given by Schwassmann there is an 11th mag, star 
superposed upon the south preceding edge of the nucleus of NGC 4411 and this very 
well could be what Schwassmann was referring to as the object he measured, in 
which case IC 3339 would be a star.
CGCG, PGC and MCG lists the single identity NGC 4411.  UGC lists only NGC 4411a.  
NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson each equate IC 3339 with NGC 4411.    The APL, SIMBAD and 
NED list as IC 3339 = NGC 4411 = NGC 4411A and Steinicke equates IC 3339 with NGC 
4411A and NGC 4411-1.
A somewhat unrelated but interesting discovery I made while investigating these 
identities concerns the modern identity NGC 4411b which is listed in the UGC, RNGC 
and MOL.  
This galaxy is easily visible on the Palomar print following NGC 4411, or NGC 
4411a, by ~ 0.3m of RA. and is not included in Dreyer's catalogues.  My research 
turned up the fact that this galaxy was observed and described in an observation 
made by Bigourdan on April 25th, 1895, which by date would have qualified it for 
inclusion in possibly the IC I, or certainly in the IC II, yet its discovery was 
never included in these catalogues.  
Bigourdan listed it as B.298 and there is absolutely no doubt that he was 
observing what has become NGC 4411b.    I established this by not only measuring 
and computing the separation values involved between it and NGC 4411a, but also 
between it and another field galaxy, IC 790, also discovered by Bigourdan.  NGC 
4411b is definitely B.298 and unfortunately, or fortunately, is one of a 
relatively small number of objects whose discoverers have never received the 
credit due them.  
The reason that B.298 was never credited by Dreyer to Bigourdan has been brought 
to my attention by Dr. Corwin who has informed me that Dreyer in his  "Notes" for 
NGC 4411 (IC II, Page372.) stated "I assume that B.298 vF, L, 2'.5 is identical 
with this"  however, Corwin also brought to my attention the fact that while 
Dreyer considered Bigourdan's B.298 to be a duplicate observation of NGC 4411 for 
some unexplained reason he did not consider Schwassmann's, #99 to be a duplicate 
even though Schwassmann and Peter's coordinates are almost identical.

IC 3340.
POSS. O-1576.
Frost #900.  12hr 23m 55.588s + 17 08' 22.665" (1950).
12hr 26m 27.104s + 16 51' 46.328" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG incorrectly identifies its ZWG 99.052 as IC 3365 
which has a declination of almost 1 degree farther south.  ZWG 99.052 is IC 3340.  
The MCG identifies it only as +3-32-37 as does the PGC.  Only other modern 
listings are NGC 2000 (GX), Steinicke and APL (GX) and MOL (NSO).  NED has correct 
identity. SIMBAD identifies it as VCC 918 and MCG +03-32-037.

IC 3342. 
POSS. O-1398. 
Wolf List IV, No.121.  12hr 23m 57.797s + 27 24' 56.558" (1950).
12hr 26m 27.769s + 27 08' 20.201" (2000).
This is a single star :   NGC 2000 lists without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar 
Object).  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  Steinicke has (=*).  NED gives 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3343.
POSS. O-1563.
Schwassmann # 100.  12hr 24m 02.106s + 09 09' 11.009" (1950).
12hr 26m 34.690s + 08 52' 34.711" (2000). 
This is a double star  :   This is undoubtedly an excellent example of how an 
investigator, (certainly this one), of identity problems can be misled.   
My original examination of this identity would have suggested that Schwassmann's 
object was possibly a small galaxy very close north following NGC 4411.  Its image 
and position on the Palomar print matched very well with Schwassmann's data.  
Its appearance was that of a double star, the following component having what 
seemed to be a nebulous appendage on its north following edge.  However, due to 
Dr. Corwin's letter concerning B.298 in which he also alluded to the identity of 
IC 3343, stating that he considered the identity of IC 3343 to be referring to 
"One or both of the two faint stars following NGC 4411a,"  I was of course, upon 
receipt of this information required to re-examine my original conclusions and 
upon subsequent examination , using  high magnification oculars, I became aware 
that immediately preceding the image of this double star there was evidence of a 
photographic defect which resulted in producing two very small ring like spurious 
images and of significant importance this same defect appeared to be associated as 
a third defect located superposed on the north following edge of this double star 
where an arc of this ring had originally suggested to me the presence of a 
nonstellar image.  
When observed with low power oculars the preceeding defects could easily have 
passed as faint stars, however, when examined with an ocular of 6mm focal length 
the tiny ring like images of all three defects became apparent.  Thus it would 
seem that the identity IC 3343 is indeed exactly as Dr. Corwin suggested, that of 
a double star without any nebular association.  Steinicke has (=*2) and NED has 
"No object with this name found in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  The 
NGC 2000 (?) and MOL (May not exist).

IC 3350.
POSS. O-1563.
Schwassmann #102.  12hr 24m 14.218s + 09 43' 12.997" (1950).
12hr 26m 46.718s + 09 26' 36.797" (2000).
This is a star :  Schwassmann himself described it as "perhaps only a star."  
Listed in the NGC 2000 (= *) and MOL (single star).  Steinicke has (= *).  NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
APL (**).

IC 3351.
POSS. O-1398.
Wolf List IV, No.124.  12hr 24m 11.742s + 27 52'57.706" (1950).
12hr 26m 41.603s + 27 36' 21.460" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED," SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 
and Steinicke (=*). APL (=*). 

IC 3352. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #103.  12hr 24m 15.200s + 09 02' 03.304" (1950).
12hr 26m 47.789s + 08 45' 27.112" (2000). 
Not found :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists Type as [?].  MOL 
states "May not exist."  Carlson state "Not Found."  Steinicke has (Not found).  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database." APL "Nothing here."

IC 3354. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #187.  12hr 24m 19.591s + 12 22' 25.637" (1950).
12hr 26m 51.729s + 12 05' 49.489" (2000). 
This is a single star :   Both the NGC 2000 and MOL correctly list as a star.  
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  Carlson lists as "Equal to a star.".. 
Steinicke gives (= ). NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."APL (=).

IC 3360.
POSS. O-1398.
Wolf List IV, No.127.  12hr 24m 20.746s + 26 19' 28.801" (1950).
12hr 26m 50.839s + 26 02' 52.632" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), 
Steinicke (=*) and APL (=*).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3366. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #105.  12hr 24m 43.557s + 09 41' 25.413" (1950).
12hr 27m 16.057s + 09 24' 49.453" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :  Schwassmann measured excellent coordinates for the galaxy NGC 
4424 (his #104), then proceeded to measure coordinates for his #105 = IC 3366 at a 
separation from those he gave for NGC 4424 of + 4.27 tsec RA and 23.4 arcsec south 
and at the resultant coordinates there are no nonstellar images, however, very 
close directly south of NGC 4424 there is a very small galaxy with an 12th mag. 
star between it and the following end of NGC 4424.  This star is identified by 
Schwassmann as 105a and although Schwassmann gives incorrect coordinates for it 
the separation values he gives between it and IC 3366 establish that it is this 
galaxy that is IC 3366. Schwassmann's coordinates for IC 3366 are evidently in 
error by about 4 tsec RA and this can be supported by the separation values 
between the star whose correct position is 12hr 24m 39.96s +09 41' 33".3 (1950), 
from which he also separately measured IC 3366, his offsets being 0.85 tsec RA and 
14.7 arcsec dec. and these exactly match the separations between the star and the 
small galaxy just south of NGC 4424.  The correct coordinates for IC 3366 should 
be 12hr 24m 39.11s +09 41' 18".6 (1950).
UGC "Notes" lists only as a companion to NGC 4424.  NGC 2000 lists as [?].   MOL 
states "May not exist."  Steinicke and APL have the correct identity.  CGCG, PGC and 
MCG have no listing.  Carlson  states "Not Found."  Carlson, SIMBAD and NED state 
"Not Found."

IC 3375. 
POSS. O-1398. 
Wolf List IV, No.134.  12hr 25m 11.166s + 27 38' 32.353" (1950).
12hr 27m 40.918s + 27 21' 56.596" (2000). 
This is a single star :  It is the north following of a pair of faint stars and 
fits exactly Wolf's description "F, vS, R, att * 14 sp."  Steinicke identifies it 
as (=*).  NGC 2000 lists without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).   CGCG, 
UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED.
SIMBAD "Not present in thes database." APL (=*).

IC 3378 and IC 3379.
POSS. O-1576.
Frost #914.  12hr 25m 37.374s + 17 35' 23.426" (1950).
12hr 28m 08.673s + 17 18' 47.932" (2000).
Confirmed and separate galaxies :  For a reason I am unable to explain, Frost 
decided to provide a single Object Number to these two galaxies and gave only the 
above coordinates, however, in his description he states "2 neb; separated 1.0 
arcmin, mag. 15.5" and Dreyer correctly assigned separate IC identities to the 
pair which are readily confirmed by examination of the Palomar print. 
The PGC incorrectly equates both identities.  The CGCG correctly lists as IC 3378 
+ IC 3379 while the NGC 2000 (No Type).  Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD and MOL (NSO) 
correctly list both as separate objects.  No listings in the UGC, MCG or RC3. 

IC 3398. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #279.  12hr 26m 27.056s + 13 50' 28.915" (1950).
12hr 28m 58.845s + 13 33' 53.839" (2000). 
This is a single star :   NGC 2000, Steinicke, MOL and Carlson all list it as a 
star.  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the databbase."

IC 3399.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List IV, No.149.  12hr 26m 26.173s + 25 58' 21.207" (1950).
12hr 28m 56.031s + 25 41' 46.098" (2000).
This is a star :  Listed in NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  Steinicke correctly 
makes it a star.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."

IC 3400. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #108.  12hr 26m 30.818s + 09 41' 00.942" (1950).
12hr 29m 03.212s + 09 24' 25.897" (2000). 
This is a single star :  Schwassmann described it as being "like a 10th mag. 
star," and that is exactly what it is.  Steinicke makes it (=*).  NGC 2000 lists 
Type as [?].  MOL states "May not exist."  Carlson and NED state "Not Found." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing. APL (=*).

IC 3404. 
POSS. O-1560 
Schwassmann #22.  12hr 26m 38.020s + 07 25' 48.399" (1950).
12hr 29m 10.733s + 07 09' 13.409" (2000). 
Not found :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing for IC 3404.  NGC 2000 lists Type 
as [?]. MOL states "May not exist." Carlson, SIMBAD and NED list as "Not Found," as 
does Steinicke. APL "Nothing here."

IC 3408. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #194.  12hr 26m 44.076s + 12 09' 06.751" (1950).
12hr 29m 16.096s + 11 52' 31.829" (2000). 
This is a star :  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson 
all list it as being a star.  Steinicke has (= *).  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3415. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.156.  12h 26m 52.523s + 27 02' 36.520" (1950).
12hr 29m 22.128s + 26 46' 01.642" (2000). 
This is a star :   CGCG,UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists without any 
Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  Steinicke has (= *).  NED has "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3417. 
POSS. O-1560. 
Schwassmann #60.  12hr 27m 06.546s + 08 08' 18.631" (1950).
12hr 29m 39.138s + 07 51' 43.900" (2000). 
This is a single star :  Schwassmann's description is "eF, vS, ?, probably a 
star." and his positional data lands right on a 14th mag. star.  It definitely is 
not equal to NGC 4470 which Schwassmann measured with excellent coordinates as 
being 1.28 tsec preceding and 2' 13".5 of arc south of his #60. CGCG, UGC, PGC and 
MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 and MOL list it as being a star.  Carlson lists as 
"Equal to a star (Mt. Wilson plates), Equal to NGC 4470 (Harvard Annals 88 No. 
1)."  Steinicke has (=*).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3420. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #257.  12hr 27m 10.920s + 13 43' 11.070" (1950).
12hr 29m 42.676s + 13 26' 36.386" (2000). 
This is a single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000, Steinicke, 
MOL and Carlson all make it a star.  NED has "There is no object with this name 
in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3421. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.157.  12hr 27m 08.792s + 26 30' 24.715" (1950).
12hr 29m 38.455s + 26 13' 49.983" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   CGCG and UGC have no listing for IC 3421.  MCG, PGC, NED, 
SIMBAD and Steinicke give correct identity.  NGC 2000 and MOL both list it as being 
an open cluster.

IC 3423. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #282.  12hr 27m 15.275s + 13 56' 05.706" (1950).
12hr 29m 46.993s + 13 39' 31.060" (2000). 
This is a single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists Type 
as [?].  MOL states "May not exist."   Carlson gives "Not Found."  Steinicke has 
(=*) and NED  has "No object with this name in NED." Simbad "Not present in the 
database." APL (=*).

IC 3426. 
POSS. O-1563.  
Schwassmann #284.  12hr 27m 30.234s + 13 52' 41.930" (1950).
12hr 30m 01.944s + 13 36' 07.420" (2000). 
This is a single star :   CGCG,UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000, MOL, 
Steinicke and Carlson all correctly list it as a star.  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3427. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #158 & Frost.  12hr 27m 38.402s + 11 03' 19.607" (1950).
12hr 30m 10.534s + 10 46' 45.269" (2000).  (Schwassmann)
This is equal to NGC 4482  (H 40-3) :   Wm. Herschel gave a RA value of 12hr 28m 
06s for his H 40-3 which he discovered during his Sweep #174.  
Bigourdan made two observations of NGC 4482 and his measured RA is 12hr 27m 38s.  
He also noted that Wm. Herschel's RA was too large.  Dreyer in his "Notes" to both 
the NGC  (page 372) and SCIENTIFIC PAPERS OF SIR WILLIAM HERSCHEL-1912, gives the 
Bigourdan correction.  
As IC 3427 has a RA of 12hr 27m 37s there can be little doubt that it is the same 
object as NGC 4482.   CGCG, UGC and MCG give only the identity IC 3427.  NGC 2000, 
APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, Carlson and PGC have correctly given IC 3427 = NGC 
4482.  MOL lists both without comment as to equivalence although they do have the 
corrected RA for NGC 4482.

IC 3428.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List IV, No.160.  12hr 27m 37.204s + 23 57' 03.056" (1950).
12hr 30m 07.257s + 23 40' 28.560" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke (=*) and NED "No 
object with this name in NED."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). SIMBAD has 
incorrectly equated the identity IC 3428 with NGC 4492 which is more than 13 degrees 
south of Wolf's #160. APL (=*).

IC 3431. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Frost #930.  12hr 27m 49.996s + 11 52' 24.495" (1950).
12hr 30m 21.992s + 11 35' 50.170" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   CGCG, PGC, UGC and MCG have no listing for IC 3431.  NGC 
2000, MOL and Carlson all list it as being a star.  APL gives (GX, Deen).  
Steinicke correctly makes it a galaxy.  NED has "There is no object with this name 
in NED" but they do list it as VPC 0746. SIMBAD ha "Not present in the database," 
but list the same galaxy as Borngen 193.

IC 3435.
POSS. O-1576.
Frost #933.  12hr 28m 01.475s + 15 24' 24.594" (1950).
12hr 30m 32.906s + 15 07' 50.373" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The UGC has incorrectly identified this galaxy as IC 3455 
which has a declination of about +26 3'.5   It is correctly identified in the 
CGCG, PGC, MCG, NGC 2000 (GX), Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD and MOL (NSO).

IC 3438. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #65.  12hr 28m 27.789s + 08 21' 21.115" (1950).
12hr 31m 00.292s + 08 04' 47.133" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4492 (H 499-2) :   CGCG, Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD, UGC, 
RC2,MOL, Carlson and PGC all correctly make IC 3438 = NGC 4492.  MCG gives only the 
identity NGC 4492.

IC 3440.
POSS. O-1563.
Schwassmann #198.  12hr 28m 33.439s + 12 18' 10.467" (1950).
12hr 31m 05.324s + 12 01' 36.548" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  It is extremely diffuse but exists at the coordinates as given 
by Schwassmann.  Frost also noted it was visible on his Plate #6720 and identified 
it as being Schwassmann #198.
Steinicke has correct identity and NED has "No object with this name in NED" but 
then identifies this same object as VPC 0784. NO listing in SIMBAD.  NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO). 

IC 3444.
POSS. O-64.
Wolf List IV, No.164.  12hr 28m 45.297s +27 49' 27.917" (1950).
12hr 31m 14.477s + 27 32' 54.075" (2000).
This is a single star :  Wolf's position lies just off the south following edge of 
this star.  There is an extremely faint galaxy (19.23 Mp. MAPS-NGP 0 322 1521530) 
south following this star.
Only other listings are NGC 2000 (No Type). Steinicke (=*). APL (= double star).  
NED "No object by this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database" and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 3447. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Frost #940.  12hr 28m 50.068s + 10 57' 25.010" (1950).
12hr 31m 22.149s + 10 40' 51.253" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   CGCG, UGC, PGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 and MOL 
list it a being a star.  Carlson states  "Equal to a star (Mt. Wilson plates) and 
Found  (Harvard Annals 88 No.1)."  APL gives (Gx, Adamik).  Steinicke has correct 
identity.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." but list the same 
object as VPC 0805. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but lists the same 
galaxy as [DCY96] 247.

IC 3452. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #199.  12hr 29m 00.579s + 11 54' 03.803" (1950).
12hr 31m 32.500s + 11 37' 30.142" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4497  (H 42-3) :   CGCG, UGC, RC3, PGC and MCG list only as 
NGC 4497.  NGC 2000, MOL, APL, Steinicke and Carlson all correctly make IC 3452 = 
NGC 4497.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present 
in the database."

IC 3455.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List IV, No.170.  12hr 29m 14.649s + 26 03' 37.294" (1950).
12hr 31m 44.098s + 25 47' 03.738" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Carlson states " Not found on Mt. Wilson plates."  
NGC 2000 lists Type as [?] and MOL lists as "May not exist."  Not listed in CGCG, 
PGC, UGC, MCG or RC3.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED," but list 
the same object as 2MASX J12314455+2547098. SIMBAD Has "Not present in the 
database," but lists it as NGP9 F378-0034902.
Steinicke correctly lists it as a galaxy.

IC 3456. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.171.  12hr 29m 14.765s + 28 37' 59.300" (1950).
12hr 31m 43.709s + 28 21' 25.744" (2000). 
Not found :  There is nothing at or close to the nominal position.   
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists Type as [?].  MOL lists as 
(Nonstellar Object).  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED have (Not found). APL "Nothing 
here."

IC 3463. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #202.  12hr 29m 33.860s + 12 35' 48.700" (1950).
12hr 32m 05.635s + 12 19' 15.364" (2000). 
Schwassmann's nominal position is for the north following of 2 stars, however, his 
description reads "vF, cS, elongated at 40 degrees," and this would suggest that 
he was referring to both stars as their position angle agrees with that as stated 
by Schwassmann.
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson list it as a double 
star.  APL (=*. Southwestern of 2 stars and Northeastern of 2 stars).  Steinicke 
(= *2).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."  SIMBAD has "Not 
present in the database."

IC 3464. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.174.  12hr 29m 31.132s + 26 16' 54"2.510" (1950).
12hr 32m 00.500s + 26 00' 19.114" (2000).
This is a single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000, MOL and 
Carlson correctly make it a star.  Steinicke has (=*) and NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3467. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Frost #947.  12hr 29m 43.851s + 12 03' 25.489" (1950).
12hr 32m 15.703s + 11 46' 52.249" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Listed in the CGCG as Anon. ZWG 70.154.  UGC lists as U07686.  
MCG lists as +2-32-121.  NGC 2000 lists without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar 
Object).  Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD and PGC have correct identity.

IC 3469.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List IV, No.175.  12hr 29m 41.548s + 26 04' 44.648" (1950).
12hr 32m 10.930s + 25 48' 11.354" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The image visible at Wolf's position is extremely compact, 
however, on the DSS (Second Generation), there is no doubt as to its nonstellar 
nature.  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  Steinicke has 
correct identity.  NED has (Not found), however, they do list the correct galaxy, 
identifying it as MAPS NGP 0 378 0032807. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," 
but they do list it as NGP9 F378-0035109. APL "Confirmed."

IC 3477. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.177.  12hr 30m 09.185s + 26 19' 01.018" (1950).
12hr 32m 38.456s + 26 02' 27.996" (2000). 
This is a single star ;   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000, Steinicke, 
MOL and Carlson all correctly list it as a star.  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not presentin the database." APL (=*).

IC 3480. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.179.  12hr 30m 12.559s + 27 06' 16.065" (1950).
12hr 32m 41.663s + 26 49' 43.074" (2000). 
This is a double star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists 
without any Type.  MOL makes it "= two stars," however, they also incorrectly give 
the same coordinates for both IC 3480 and IC 3490 (MOL page 509).  The APL = **.  
Steinicke (= *2).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."

IC 3485. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #112.  12hr 30m 38.800s + 09 29' 42.792" (1950).
12hr 33m 11.024s + 09 13' 10.093" (2000). 
This is a  star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000, Steinicke, MOL 
and Carlson all correctly list it as a star.  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3493. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #114.  12hr 30m 48.606s +09 39' 56".684 (1950).
12hr 33m 20.794s + 09 23' 24.084" (2000). 
This is a single star :
When the field is examined on the DSS it shows a galaxy (IC 3487 = Schwassmann 
#113),with 2 stars closely following, the stars being about 2 tsec apart.  
Schwassmann's coordinates place his #114 closest to the following of the 2 stars 
however, in his published list he additionally measures coordinates for a star 
which he describes as "* 114a. * of 11 or 12 mag," and this star is also the 
following of the 2 stars.  .  
The APL gives Schwassmann's coordinates for IC 3493 as 12hr 30m 48.64s + 09 39' 
56".4 and this when applied to the DSS indicates that IC 3493 would be the 
following of the 2 stars.    
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000, MOL, Steinicke and Carlson all 
correctly list it as a star.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
NOTE:  I had originally believed that the preceding of the two stars was 
Schwassmann's object, based upon the fact that Schwassmann had placed his nova 
0.92 tsec preceding the star 114a and therefore the logical candidate would have 
been the preceding star, however, after employing the superior precession rates 
now made available by NED I have had to revise my conclusions to making both IC 
3493 and the star 114a the same, namely the following of the 2 stars.      

IC 3495, IC 3496 and IC 3498. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.184.  (See coordinates at end of text). 
These are three of a total of seven closely associated IC identities which were 
all credited to Wolf.  It is my belief that there is considerable confusion in 
some of the catalogues regarding which images on the Palomar print have been 
selected as these three identities. 
In order to attempt to sort out the problem I eventually resorted to selecting all 
three of the Wolf objects whose identities could be established with confidence 
(IC 3491, IC 3502, and IC 3508) and then by employing only Wolf's coordinates each 
of the disputed identities (IC 3495, IC 3496, IC 3498 and 3514) were all in turn 
measured separately against each of the three established galaxies and without 
exception this resulted every time in exactly the same print images.
The image for IC 3495 is that of a single star.   Certainly that is how the image 
appears to me. 
The NGC 2000, SIMBAD and MOL list this as being a galaxy, which I believe they are 
confusing with an Anon. listed only as KN 16.014 lying at 12hr 31m 00.3s + 27 00' 
57" directly north of the true IC 3498.  
Additionally the coordinates both these catalogues give are not in agreement with 
either Dreyer or Wolf.  The NGC 2000 gives IC 3495 12hr 31.0m + 27 03'.5, the MOL 
gives 12hr 31m 00s.8 + 27 03' 18". Wolf gives 12hr 30m 46.6s + 27 05'.0.  The 
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing. 
The image of IC 3496 is also that of a star.    Here again all of the separation 
factors point directly to this star (which lies close north preceding the true IC 
3498).  
It would appear that the NGC 2000, SIMBAD and MOL have incorrectly selected what is 
actually IC 3498 as being IC 3496 and again the coordinates do not match Dreyer or 
Wolf.  NGC 2000 for IC 3496 gives 12hr 31m.0 + 27 00'.5 , MOL gives 12hr 31m 00s.1 + 
27 00' 48" while Wolf gives 12hr 30m 48.9s + 27 02' 10".  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no 
listing. 
IC 3498 is a confirmed galaxy exactly where Wolf placed it at 12hr 30m 59.2s + 27 
00' 48" and is easily visible on the Palomar print being extended south preceding 
- north following with a star located just north of its northern extension.  Both 
the NGC 2000 and MOL list IC 3498 as a star while the CGCG, UGC and MCG have no 
listing. SIMBAD equates it with IC 3498.  The PGC lists only one identity, IC 3508. 
I found this to be a more than usually interesting problem to investigate, 
however, I have based my conclusions on the data found in Wolf's list and although 
Wolf may have on occasion mistaken a star for a nebular image (something I have 
done myself both at the telescope and while examining compact photographic images) 
I can say that I have great confidence in the accuracy of Wolf's measured 
coordinates. Wolf's coordinates for all seven IC identities and my conclusions are 
for epoch 1950 : 
IC 3491 = W.182  12hr 30m 39.982s + 27 22' 12.439"  = Galaxy 
IC 3495 = W.184  12hr 30m 47.534s + 27 04' 59.542"  = Star 
IC 3496 = W.185  12hr 30m 49.839s + 27 02' 09.574"  = Star (probable defect 
involved.  Wolf describes as "pL, * 15 south invested." 
IC 3498 = W.187  12hr 31m 00.107s + 27 00' 47.716"  = Galaxy 
IC 3502 = W.188  12hr 31m 13.592s + 26 53' 17.903"  = Galaxy 
IC 3508 = W.190  12hr 31m 38.184s + 26 56' 47.250"  = Galaxy 
IC 3514 = W.194  12hr 31m 47.143s + 26 58' 30.378"  = Double star 
The APL is in agreement with my assessment as is Steinicke.
NED makes IC 3491, IC 3498 and IC 3508 to be galaxies and for each of the other 
identities "There is no object with this name in NED."
NOTE :  The PGC (1996 Version), lists both IC 3495 and IC 3496 as being the exact 
same two galaxies as those listed by Steinicke, however, the coordinates for these 
two galaxies do not comply with those derived from Wolf's data.

IC 3497.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List IV, No.186.  12hr 30m 59.556s + 25 45' 54.706" (1950).
12hr 33m 28.819s + 25 29' 22.190" (2000).
This is a star:  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), Steinicke (=*), 
however, this is a different star to the one I identify as being IC 3497.  
MOL has (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3503.
POSS. O-105.
Javelle #1225.  12hr 31m 21.390s + 38 04' 00.493" (1950).
12hr 33m 47.763s + 37 47' 28.310" (2000).
Equal to a faint star :  At the nominal position there is only the image of a very 
faint star.  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), Steinicke and APL (=*), 
NED "There is no object with this name in NED," SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database," and MOL (NSO).

IC 3504.
POSS. O-1560.
Schwassmann #24.  12hr 31m 35.421s + 07 09' 43.426" (1950).
12hr 34m 07.997s + 06 53' 11.300" (2000).
This is a faint star :  Carlson listed it as "Not found, Harvard."  
The NGC 2000 Types it as [?] and the MOL as "May not exist."  Steinicke has (=*).  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database." APL (=*).

IC 3505. 
POSS. O-1576.
Frost #960.  12hr 31m 37.046s + 16 14' 26.549" (1950).
12hr 34m 08.046s + 15 57' 54.451" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the CGCG only as ZWG 99.091.  Correctly listed in 
PGC, NED, SIMBAD, MCG, Steinicke, APL, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3511. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.191.  12hr 31m 40.978s + 27 37' 26.291" (1950).
12hr 34m 09.757s + 27 20' 54.201" (2000). 
Equal to a star :  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 Type[?].  MOL "May 
not exist."  APL (=*).  Steinicke has (=*).  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3512. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.192.  12hr 31m 41.273s + 27 38' 17.295" (1950).
12hr 34m 10.048s + 27 21' 45.208" (2000). 
Equal to a star :  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists Type as  
[?].  MOL states "May not exist."  APL (=*).  Steinicke has (=*).  NED has "There 
is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3513. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.193.  12hr 31m 42.976s + 27 36' 19.320" (1950).
12hr 34m 11.754s + 27 19' 47.250" (2000). 
This is a faint star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists Type 
as [?].  MOL states "May not exist."  APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED has "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3514. 
POSS. O-64 
Wolf List IV, No.194.  (See IC 3495).

IC 3519.
POSS. O-1576.
Frost #964.  12hr 32m 01.077s + 15 51' 26.782" (1950).
12hr 34m 32.113s + 15 34' 54.934" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Carlson states "Not found on Mt. Wilson plate. Found at 
Harvard."  This has influenced both the NGC 2000 (?) and MOL (May not exist).  
Only other references to this galaxy are in the Notes to NGC 4540 in the UGC 
"Companion at PA 317, Dist.4'.3" and this is Frost's object and the APL which 
correctly identifies it stating "Offset from Dressel and Condon's position for NGC 
4540."  Both NED and PGC #41845 identify this galaxy only as VCC 1577.
Steinicke and SIMBAD have the correct identity.

IC 3524.
POSS. O-1563.
Schwassmann #290.  12hr 32m 11.738s +14 31' 17.485" (1950).
12hr 34m 43.001s + 14 14' 45.752" (2000).
This is a star :  Schwassmann himself described it as perhaps only a 12.5 mag. 
star.  Only listings are Carlson  (** Mt. Wilson and Harvard).  NGC 2000 (Double 
star), MOL (two stars). Steinicke who correctly types it as (=*). NED has "No Object 
with this name in NED."  SIMBAD incorrectly makes it a galaxy, equating it with LEDA 
41859. APL (=*).

IC 3526.
POSS. O-1435
Wolf List IV, No.197.  12hr 32m 11.645s + 25 57' 36.727" (1950).
12hr 34m 40.702s + 25 41' 04.964" (2000).
This is a faint double star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke (=*2), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). APL (= double star).

IC 3527. 
POSS. O-64
Wolf List IV, No.198.  12hr 32m 13.502s + 26 26' 01.755" (1950).
12hr 34m 42.454s + 26 09' 30.010" (2000). 
This is a double star:  NGC 2000, Steinicke, APL and MOL list it as two stars.  
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3529.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List IV, No.199.  12hr 32m 20.909s + 25 58' 26.861" (1950).
12hr 34m 49.941s + 25 41' 55.196" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO). APL (=*).

IC 3530.
POSS. O-1576.
Frost #971.  12hr 32m 24.661s + 18 04' 27.015" (1950).
12hr 34m 55.253s + 17 47' 55.431" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the CGCG only as ZWG 99. 094.  Correctly 
identified in the NGC 2000 (GX), Steinicke, APL, NED, SIMBAD, MCG, PGC and DSFG 
(Notes to NGC 4539).

IC 3532.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List IV, No.201.  12hr 32m 28.429s + 26 09' 21.971" (1950).
12hr 34m 57.405s + 25 52' 50.386" (2000).
Equal to a faint star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO). APL (=*).

IC 3535.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List IV, No.203.  12hr 32m 41.725s + 26 00' 26.166" (1950).
12hr 35m 10.702s + 25 43' 54.723" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke who has the correct 
identity.  NGC 2000 (No Type), NED "There is no object with this name in NED," 
SIMBAD "Not present in the database," and MOL (NSO). APL (=*).

IC 3537. 
POSS. O-1560. 
Schwassmann #69.  12hr 32m 50.640s + 07 55' 40.765" (1950).
12hr 35m 23.036s + 07 39' 09.440" (2000). 
This is a double star with a brighter star close north preceding :  CGCG, UGC and 
MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000, Steinicke, MOL and Carlson all list it as a double 
star.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database." APL (=*).

IC 3538.
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.205.  12hr 32m 46.659s + 26 30' 40.239" (1950).
12hr 35m 15.516s + 26 14' 08.848" (2000). 
Equal to a star :  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 and MOL list it as 
a double star. The APL and Steinicke give = *.  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3539. 
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List IV, No.206.  12hr 32m 50.499s + 24 15' 30.291" (1950).
12hr 35m 19.824s + 23 58' 58.923" (2000).
Equal to a single star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke (=*), NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO). APL (=*).

IC 3541.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List IV, No.207.  12hr 32m 52.794s + 24 15' 00.325" (1950).
12hr 35m 22.115s + 23 58' 28.981" (2000).
Equal to a very faint star with a 14th magnitude star close north preceding as 
described by Wolf:  Only modern listings are Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO). APL (=*).

IC 3542. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Frost #973.  12hr 33m 13.652s + 11 56' 27.500" (1950).
12hr 35m 45.313s + 11 39' 56.436" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Identified in CGCG only as ZWG 70.181.  It is equal to PGC 
#41970, however, the PGC identifies this galaxy only as CGCG 70.181 = VCC 1633.  
Not listed in UGC or MCG.  NGC 2000 gives (No Type).  MOL lists a (Nonstellar 
Object).  Correctly identified in the APL (=Gx, Deen) and by Steinicke (Gx).  NED 
has "There is no object with this name in NED." yet they list VCC 1633. SIMBAD has 
"Not present in the database," but lists the galaxy as FIRST J123541.2+114001.

IC 3544. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #291.  12hr 33m 16.237s + 14 34' 31.429 (1950).
12hr 35m 47.411s + 14 18' 00.390" (2000). 
This is a double star :   Not listed in CGCG, UGC or MCG.  NGC 2000, Steinicke, 
APL, MOL and Carlson all list it as being a double star.  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3545. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.211.  12hr 33m 12.778s + 26 47' 54.627" (1950).
12hr 35m 41.509s + 26 31m 23.519" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   A rather unusual problem as there is  absolutely no doubt 
that Wolf's coordinates for IC 3545 are those for NGC 4555, however, it is my 
belief that the error in this particular case is not one of equivalency, but 
rather that Wolf's List IV, at the time it was published, incorrectly confused his 
objects No.210 (which he identifies as being NGC 4555) and No.211 (identified as 
IC 3545).  
Examination of his descriptions would more than imply this as he describes No.210 
as "Very small, very faint" while for No.211 he states "Small, ! pretty bright." 
which convinces me that he would have been well aware that the bright one would 
have to be NGC 4555, therefore I am confident that the data error results from a 
typographical error in reversing the two identities in List IV. 
This then requires that what Wolf's List IV identifies as being NGC 4555 is 
actually his Nova and it would lie ~ 2'26" of declination south of NGC 4555 and at 
this position there is the image of a faint stellar object that is listed by Reiz, 
(Annals Obs. Lund. 9. 1941) as a Mp 15.2 galaxy #2574 at 12hr 33m 11s + 26 45'.0 
which has to be the same object as Wolf #210 (the correct nova), at 12hr 33m 12s + 
26 45' 27". 
The CGCG, UGC, MCG, RC3, PGC and DSFG only give the identity NGC 4555.  Listed in 
NGC 2000 (No Type = NGC 4555) and MOL (Equal to NGC 4555).  The APL gives = NGC 
4555.  Steinicke (= NGC 4555).  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED," however, they do list it as 2MASX J12354133+2628567.  SIMBAD has "Not present 
in the database," but identifies the correct galaxy as LEDA 1777936.
NOTE:  The correct nominal positions for IC 3545 are 12hr 33m 12.690s + 26 45' 
28.626" (1950) 12hr 35m 41.431s + 26 28' 57.516" (2000).

IC 3547. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.214.  12hr 33m 20.507s + 26 36' 18.743" (1950).
12hr 35m 49.263s + 26 19' 47.719" (2000).
This is a star :   Not listed in CGCG, UGC or MCG.  NGC 2000 and MOL list it as 
being a double star.  APL as (=*).  Steinicke (=*).  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3549. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.216.  12hr 33m 22.281s + 26 40' 16.769" (1950).
12hr 35m 51.018s + 26 23' 45.765" (2000). 
This is a single star :   Not listed in the CGCG, UGC or MCG.  NGC 2000, 
Steinicke, APL and MOL list it as being a single star.  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3550, IC 3551, IC 3552, IC 3554, IC 3555, IC 3563 & IC 
3564. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, Nos. 218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 229 and 230.  
12hr 33m 24.103s + 28 12' 30.800" (1950). (IC 3550)
12hr 35m 52.494s + 27 55' 59.813" (2000).
12hr 33m 25.588s + 28 14' 25.823" (1950). (IC 3551).
12hr 35m 53.967s + 27 57' 54.852" (2000).
12hr 33m 25.678s + 28 16' 15.824" (1950). (IC 3552).
12hr 35m 54.050s + 27 59' 44.854" (2000).
12hr 33m 27.292s + 28 12' 12.848" (1950). (IC 3554).
12hr 35m 55.676s + 27 55' 41.896" (2000).
12hr 33m 28.169s + 28 15' 57.862" (1950). (IC 3555).
12hr 35m 56.537s + 27 59' 25.919" (2000).
12hr 33m 39.147s + 28 12' 06.027" (1950). (IC 3563).
12hr 36m 07.500s + 27 55' 35.205" (2000).
12hr 33m 40.242s + 28 12' 05.044" (1950). (IC 3564).
12hr 36m 08.593s + 27 55' 34.234" (2000).
All but IC 3554 and IC 3564 are "knots" in the spiral structure of NGC 4559 (H 92-
1).  IC 3554 and IC 3564 are faint stars superposed on the spiral arms of NGC 4559 
: 
Although these are not separate galaxies they are legitimate identities and as 
such deserve separate recognition.  Wolf makes it quite clear in his descriptions 
that he was well aware that they all constituted individual objects within the 
spiral form of NGC 4559.  
CGCG in a  (Footnote) to its Field #159 states that each of these identities are 
condensations on the spiral arms of NGC 4559.  UGC "Notes,"  MCG and NGC 2000 
lists each as "knots."   MOL lists each as (Nonstellar Object).  The APL 
correctly makes IC 3554 and IC 3564 equal to stars and also correctly makes the 
others H II regions associated with NGC 4559. Steinicke has correct identities.

IC 3553.
POSS. O-64.
Wolf List IV, No.221.  12hr 33m 27.224s + 26 28' 08.843" (1950).
12hr 35m 55.994s + 26 11' 37.894" (2000).
This is a single star :  Carlson lists as "Double star, Mt. Wilson."  Only other 
modern listings found are  APL and Steinicke (=*),  NGC 2000 (Type ?).  NED "There 
is no object with this name in NED" SIMBAD "Not present in the databae." and MOL 
"May not exist."

IC 3556. 
POSS. O- 64. 
Wolf List IV, No.225.  12hr 33m 30.278s + 27 14' 28.891" (1950).
12hr 35m 58.869s + 26 57' 57.973" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   This is an entirely separate galaxy lying almost between NGC 
4558 and NGC 4563.  Wolf also observed and measured excellent coordinates for both 
of the NGC galaxies.
I would like to thank Dr. Harold G. Corwin who in response to my request to 
examine my findings regarding this identity confirmed that he had arrived at 
exactly the same conclusion. 
The NGC 2000, MCG and PGC incorrectly equate IC 3556 with NGC 4558.  CGCG and UGC 
"Notes" list IC 3556 = NGC 4563 which is also incorrect.  MOL, SIMBAD and NED list 
IC 3556 as a separate object.  Mentioned in NOTES to NGC 4558 in the DSFG.  APL 
correct identity.  Steinicke has correct identity.

IC 3559. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.226.  12hr 33m 35.153s + 27 15' 46.965" (1950).
12hr 36m 03.728s + 26 59' 16.100" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   Listed in the MCG and PGC only as +5-30-31.  Not listed in 
the CGCG or UGC.  NGC 2000, NED, SIMBAD, APL and Steinicke correctly lists as a 
galaxy as does the MOL.

IC 3566. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Frost #980.  12hr 33m 49.701s + 11 26' 27.869" (1950).
12hr 36m 21.418s + 11 09' 57.204" (2000). 
Not found :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists Type as [?].  MOL 
lists as "May not exist."   Carlson and NED state "Not Found."  APL (Nothing here). 
Steinicke (Not found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NED "There is no object 
with this name in NED."
NOTE:  Frost describes it as "Com, head R, tail 1 arcmin long at 110 PA," and 
perhaps it really was a comet ?

IC 3569.
POSS. O-1576.
Frost #978.  12hr 33m 48.251s + 19 34' 27.861" (1950).
12hr 36m 18.417s + 19 17' 57.192" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 4561 (H 407-2) :  Frost description "Sp; 1 branch B and 1, F, 
* at centre, and another * inv; d 0'7" definitely shows that he was referring to 
NGC 4561, also I measured his separation values from his #983 = IC 3580 and they 
confirm the equivalency.
The CGCG gives the single identity NGC 4561.  The UGC, NGC 2000, MOL, PCG, APL, 
Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and Carlson each correctly give the equivalency.  The MCG 
states "Equal to NGC 4561 ?"

IC 3570.
POSS. O-1435.Wolf List IV, No.233.  12hr 33m 48.879s + 24 21' 12.166" (1950).
12hr 36m 18.058s + 24 04' 41.438" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO). APL (=*).

IC 3572. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #205.  12hr 33m 55.997s + 11 53' 39.834" (1950).
12hr 36m 27.624s + 11 37' 09.238" (2000). 
This is a double star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing for IC 3572.  NGC 
2000, MOL, Steinicke and Carlson all make it a single star.  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (= double 
star).

IC 3577. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #207.  12hr 34m 04.689s + 12 10' 19.525" (1950).
12hr 36m 26.256s + 11 53' 49.025" (2000). 
This is a faint star with a brighter one close south preceding:  Originally I 
thought that these two stars were what Schwassmann was referring to as Object 
#207, however, further investigation now  indicates that Object #207 is the 
fainter, north following of the pair.
Schwassmann in his list also includes a separate and accurate position for the 
brighter star, identifying it as "* 207a,  A star 12.5 Mp."  His position for this 
star is 12hr 34m 06.11s +12 10' 29".2, or very close NORTH FOLLOWING the position 
he gives for his Object #207, the separations being 1.38 tsec RA and 11.7 arcsec 
dec.
When Schwassmann's coordinates for the 12.5 magnitude star are entered into the 
DSS they come up just on the south following edge of the brighter of the two 
stars, however, those he gives for his Object #207 land on a blank space just 
south preceding the 12.5 mag. star.  By reversing the separation values so that 
they make Schwassmann's Object #207 follow to the north of Star 207a they now give 
a position on the DSS just on the south following edge of the fainter of the two 
stars at 12hr 34m 07.49s + 12 10' 40".9 and it is this fainter star that is 
Schwassmann's nebula # 207.
Thus it would appear that Schwassmann somehow reversed the actual Position Angle 
as it applies to Object 207 in reference to star 207a. .
Not listed in the CGCG, UGC or MCG.   NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson all list it as 
being a double star which is incorrect as Schwassmann was well aware that the 
brighter component was only a star.  Steinicke has correctly identified IC 3577 as 
the fainter north following star.  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database. APL "Nothing here."

IC 3579. 
POSS. O-64.
Wolf List IV, No.236.  12hr 34m 04.417s + 26 22' 41.408" (1950).
12hr 36m 33.119s + 26 06' 10.871" (2000). 
This is a very faint single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  Both the 
NGC 2000 and MOL list it as being a single star.  The APL lists as = **.  
Steinicke has (=*).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."
NOTE:  I have examined the image of this star on every DSS format (9 choices) and 
have not been able to see anything that would suggest that it is a double star.

IC 3584. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #208.  12hr 34m 14.001s + 12 30' 26.322" (1950).
12hr 36m 45.495s + 12 13' 55.929" (2000). 
This is a single star :   Not listed in the CGCG, UGC or MCG.  NGC 2000, MOL, 
Steinicke and Carlson both list it as being a single star.  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3588. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #293.  12hr 34m 24.985s + 14 29' 35.239" (1950).
12hr 36m 56.090s + 14 13' 04.964" (2000). 
Equal to NGC 4571 (H 602-3) :    This is a rather interesting problem in that it 
would appear that Schwassmann has listed a star as being NGC 4571 and 
then made the true NGC 4571 equal to his #293. Schwassmann in his KONIGSTUHL-
NEBELLISTE No.2 identifies his object #292 = NGC 4571. 12hr 34m 20.960s + 14 29' 
34.397" (1950), describing it as "Considerably faint, considerably small, like a 
star of the 13mag."   He then lists object #293 (IC 3588). 12hr 34m 24.985s + 14 
29' 35.239" (1950), describing it as "Considerably faint or faint, pretty large or 
considerably large, pretty faint nucleus."
In a SPECIAL NOTES section he states  "Object #292. Nebulous knot or star in 
object #293," therefore according to his own identities object #292 = NGC 4571 is 
either a knot or star in object #293 = IC 3588.
Examination of the Palomar print shows a circular galaxy image with a superimposed 
star at what I measured to be 4.25 seconds of RA preceding the nucleus of the 
galaxy.
Both John Herschel in his observation of H 602-3 (Slough 1833) and Reinmuth (Die 
Herschel-Nebel. 1926) refer to this star as "attached" to NGC 4571, but there is 
no doubt that the nebulosity they describe is for H 602-3 = NGC 4571.
NGC 2000, RC2, NED, SIMBAD and PGC all correctly equate IC 3588 with NGC 4571.  MOL 
states "May not exist."  Carlson gives "= to a star on Mt. Wilson plate, = NGC 4571 
according to Harvard Annals 88."  The CGCG and UGC give only the identity NGC 
4571.  APL and Steinicke = NGC 4571).

IC 3589 and IC 3591. 
POSS. O-1560. 
Schwassmann #29 and #30.  12hr 34m 28.626s  + 07 12' 41.471" (1950).
12hr 37m 01.090s + 06 56' 11.227 " (2000). (IC 3589).  
12hr 34m 30.506s + 07 12' 03.941" (1950).
12hr 37m 02.972s + 06 55' 33.718" (2000). (IC 3591) 
IC 3589 is the 14th magnitude star which lies north preceding the galaxy IC 3591 
mentioned in Schwassmann's description for IC 3591, while IC 3591 is a galaxy :     
The image on the Palomar print shows what appears to be a ring-like structure with 
an elongated bar extended south preceding north following, with a bright knot or 
superposed star located on the south preceding end. 
Schwassmann's descriptions are as follows. #29 "Very faint, small, round, like a 
star" while for #30 there are two separate descriptions "Faint, pretty small" and 
"Faint, considerably small, near star 14 Mv."  
Now the controversy seems to concern the character of the stellar-like image on 
the south preceding edge.  The UGC and MCG equate the identities IC 3589 and IC 
3591, the MCG gives for its +1-32-115 the identity IC 3589-IC 3591, the 
description being "Nucleus with bar on each side ?. Halo plus star."  The PGC 
lists the MCG to be in error, stating "MCG +1-32-115 not IC 3589 which is a star."  
The CGCG lists as "IC 3589/IC 3591. A double nebula, peculiar."  This suggests 
that the CGCG takes the brightening in the south preceding end to be a separate 
galaxy equal to IC 3589 otherwise they would have listed the identities as IC 3589 
= IC 3591.  Oddly enough the PGC makes no mention of this in its Table 2 
corrections to the CGCG.  
The NGC 2000 lists both identities but has no Type for either.  The MOL lists both 
as separate identities making them (Nonstellar Objects).   Holmberg (Lunds Annals 
6. 1937) lists as 428B 12hr 34m 30s + 07 13'.0, Mp14.5, and 428A 12hr 34m 32s + 07 
12'.0, Mp14.3, describing both as "Part of a multiple galaxy," which may, or may 
not, be referring to both IC 3589 and IC 3591.  
Meanwhile, Reiz (Annals Obs. Lund. 9. 1941) lists as #2611 12hr 34m 26s + 07 
12'.0, Mp15.2, and #2617 12hr 34m 32s + 07 13'.0, Mp15.0, describing both as 
galaxies. Again these may, or may not be for the two identities IC 3589 and IC 
3591.  Steinicke lists IC 3589 (=*) and IC 3591 (=Gx).
I also consulted Zwicky's CATALOGUE OF SELECTED COMPACT GALAXIES AND POST-ERUPTIVE 
GALAXIES 1971. to see if perhaps it listed anything for the involved bright 
"knot," however, nothing was found. NED has IC 3589 "There is no object with this 
name in NED" and IC 3591 "Galaxy."  SIMBAD has correct identities. 
NOTE :   Subsequent to my examination of this problem I consulted Dr. Corwin who 
very kindly sent me a copy of a paper, (Astron. J. No.1569. 1986.) in which he 
addressed this questionable identity.  Corwin makes IC 3591 to be the galaxy and 
the identity IC 3589 to be the provisional reference star (#14) north preceding IC 
3591 and which Schwassmann had identified in his list as #29.  
Certainly Schwassmann's coordinates would appear to support this, thus the 
stellar-like object located on the south preceding edge of the main image would 
therefore not have any significance relative to either of the given identities.  
Corwin's conclusion regarding the identity of IC 3589 is the correct one.

IC 3594. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.244.  12hr 34m 28.427s + 26 23' 21.779" (1950).
12hr 36m 57.069s + 26 06' 51.512" (2000). 
This is a single star :  The image on the DSS (First Generation) shows this star 
with what appears to be a fainter stellar image suggesting a possible double star 
with components in contact lying south following this star, however, this is a 
false image as it is completely missing on both the Second Generation Blue and Red 
plates.
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000, MOL, Steinicke, APL and Carlson all 
list it as being a star.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 3596. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.246.  12hr 34m 50.419s + 26 47' 45.123" (1950).
12hr 37m 18.916s + 26 31' 15.105" (2000). 
Not found :  The double star mentioned by Wolf exists, however, no nonstellar 
image near.  Probably a photographic defect on original plate.   
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing. NGC 2000 and MOL list it as a double star, 
however, Wolf in his description states "near a double star" which means that he 
was aware of the double star.  APL (Defect).  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED (Not found).

IC 3601.
POSS. O-1576.
Frost #985.  12hr 35m 18.876s + 15 28' 28.815" (1950).
12hr 37m 49.721s + 15 11' 59.156" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Carlson states "nf; a defect on the plate where it was 
originally found by Frost, Harvard Annals 88," and this has obviously misled more 
recent authorities as both the NGC 2000 and MOL type it as being a plate defect.
My examination of the Palomar print clearly shows the image of a faint galaxy at 
Frost's position as measured from my reference star, GC 17256 and also by 
measuring Frost's separation values from his #987 = IC 3603.  Steinicke and APL 
have the correct identity.  Listed in NED only as VPC 1124 and in SIMBAD as [DCY96] 
345.

IC 3606.
POSS O-1563.
Frost #990.  12hr 35m 55.314s + 12 52' 29.209" (1950).
12hr 38m 26.629s + 12 35' 59.983" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  There is no doubt that the image is that of a galaxy.  The APL 
Lists it as (=*).  The NGC 2000 (No Type),  MOL (NSO).  Steinicke correctly 
lists it as a galaxy.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED" however, 
they do list it as 2MASX J12382508+1236380. SIMBAD has "Not present in the 
database," but does list a galaxy LEDA 42266 at a position that lands on a blank 
space about 12 tsec following the actual galaxy. 

IC 3607.
POSS. O-1563.
Frost #991.  12hr 36m 01.718s + 10 38' 29.277" (1950).
12hr 38m 33.465s + 10 22' 00.124" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy ;  It is the southernmost of 2 closely associated and very faint 
galaxies aligned almost directly north and south.  Carlson states "Equal to a star 
on Mt. Wilson plates and Found at Harvard."  Typed by the NGC 2000 as [?] and 
listed in the MOL as " May not exist."  APL (Gx, Deen).  Steinicke correct.  PGC 
identify it only as VCC 1762.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." 
but then identify it as VCC 1762. SIMBAD "Not present in the database," but list the 
galaxy as GRDG 10 55.

IC 3609.
POSS. O-1563.
Frost #992.  12hr 36m 06.972s + 14 37' 29.339" (1950).12hr 38m 37.926s + 14 21' 
00.244" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG has incorrectly identified its ZWG 99.100 as being IC 
3609.  The correct CGCG identity for IC 3609 is ZWG 99.101. (This noted in the PGC 
Corrections).  Not listed in UGC, MCG, RC3 or DSFG.  Both the NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and MOL (NSO) have the correct identity, as does Steinicke, PGC, NED and the APL.
SIMBAD identifies it as being at 12hr 37.8m +14 17'.0 (2000), which is nowhere near 
the correct coordinates.

IC 3612.
POSS. O-1576.
Frost #995.  12hr 36m 36.864s + 14 59' 29.672" (1950).
12hr 39m 07.706s + 14 43' 00.935" (2000).
This is equal to IC 3616 (Frost #997) :    The CGCG incorrectly identifies its ZWG 
99.102 as being IC 3621, however, IC 3621 lies at 12hr 37.0m + 15 45'.5 and ZWG 
99.102 is equal to IC 3612.  The PGC (Corrections) notes this error.  The UGC 
makes this same error identifying its U07814, which is equal to ZWG 99.102, as 
being IC 3621.  The APL gives (= IC 3616) and this appears to be correct as both 
IC 3612 and IC 3616 were both credited as discoveries to Frost, however, he found 
them on different plates and this strongly supports the possibility of 
equivalency.  Steinicke and NED have correct identity for IC 3612 but NED gives no 
equivalency, making IC 3616 (Not found) as does SIMBAD.  Only other modern listings 
are NGC 2000 (No Type. IC 3612 and ? for IC 3616) and MOL (NSO for IC 3612 and May 
not exist for IC 3616). 

IC 3616.
POSS.O-1576.
Frost #997.  12hr 36.7m + 15 00'.5
Not found.  Probably equal to IC 3612 :  Certainly at Frost's coordinates no 
nebular image exists.  Carlson states  Not found on Mt. Wilson plate; Equal to IC 
3612 Harvard; and this is a reasonable assumption as their positions as given by 
Frost are only 0.1m RA and 1 arcmin dec. different and what is of importance is 
that Frost employed two different plates (6719 for IC 3616 and 6720 for IC 3612) 
from which to discover these two novae.  Only other modern listings are APL (= IC 
3612).  NGC 2000 (Typed as ?), Steinicke has (= IC 3612). SIMBAD and NED (Not 
found).  MOL (May not exist).
(See IC 3612).      

IC 3619.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List IV, No.255.  12hr 36m 50.261s + 24 24' 51.056" (1950).
12hr 39m 19.035s + 24 08' 22.427" (2000).
Equal to a double star :  Wolf's description "?Af, FN ?" indicates that he was 
referring to what appeared to be an extended object on his plate and this fits the 
double star.  Only modern listings are Steinicke (=*2).  NED "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and MOL (NSO). APL (=**).

IC 3621.
POSS. O-1576.
Frost #998.  12hr 37m 00.683s  + 15 45' 29.941" (1950).
12hr 39m 31.336s + 15 29' 01.487" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The CGCG confuses this identity with IC 3612 as does the UGC, 
(See IC 3612).  The APL, Steinicke, NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) have the 
correct identity.  NED and SIMBAD have correct identity.

IC 3624. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Frost #1000.  12hr 37m 07.351s + 12 15' 30.013" (1950).
12hr 39m 38.714s + 11 59' 01.646" (2000). 
Disputed position angle :   This is a very faint but unusual looking object which 
Frost described as "Faint, Elongated 0'.4 at PA 180." 
My examination of the image on the Palomar print found it to consist of what looks 
like two nuclei or a nucleus and bar following which is a little extended north 
preceding south following, both involved in an extended common envelope whose 
major axis is west to east.  It might possibly be two galaxies in visual contact, 
however, I am unable to verify Frost's PA of 180 either in the direction of the 
following  'nucleus' or the surrounding envelope.

IC 3628.
POSS. O-64.
Wolf List IV, No.260.  12hr 37m 10.797s +26 30' 57.405" (1950).
12hr 39m 39.025s + 26 14' 29.042" (2000).
This is a single star :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and in the MOL as 
(NSO).  Steinicke has correct identity.
NED referencing MAPS-NGP (Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner), types the star as 
being a galaxy which is of course incorrect.  Dr. Corwin has confirmed to me by e-
mail that he also types this to be a star and not a galaxy. SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database."

IC 3630.
POSS O-1435.
Wolf List IV, No.261.  12hr 37m 18.541s + 25 42' 23.534" (1950).
12hr 39m 46.947s + 25 25' 55.263" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke and APL (=*), SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database." NED "There is no object with this name in NED."  NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3636.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.1.  12hr 37m 46.248s + 22 20' 55.995" (1950).
12hr 40m 15.385s + 22 04' 28.022" (2000).
Equal to a double star :  Only modern listings are APL (=**).  Steinicke (=*2).  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3640 & IC 3641.
POSS. O-64.
Wolf List IV, No.263.  12hr 37m 57.430s + 26 47' 58.199" (1950).
12hr 40m 25.477s + 26 31' 30.407" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy (IC 3640) and possible candidate (IC 3641):    
Wolf in his published list gives a single identity and coordinates for only a 
single object, however, in his single description he states "Very faint nebula, 
round, small, without nucleus, north preceding 30 arcsec." and Dreyer, when 
compiling the IC II, gave the identities as combined, IC 3640 and IC 3641. with 
the single coordinates as provided by Wolf.
When these coordinates are examined on the Palomar print they clearly show two 
separate galaxies at about the correct separation and therefore I have concluded 
that as there are two galaxies there is no equivalency involved.  It must be added 
that the brighter and larger of the two is the north preceding galaxy, whereas, 
Wolf's description would make the north preceding one the fainter, however, all 
observers have at some time got the relative directions reversed and the 
separations are correct.
Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type for either), MOL (Both as NSO) and the 
APL (IC 3640 and IC 3641 both galaxies).  Steinicke and NED identify the 2 
galaxies as IC 3640 and IC 3641, as does SIMBAD.
NOTE:  There is always the possibility that IC 3641 is not the fainter companion 
to IC 3640.  
If Wolf is correct in stating that the companion lies north preceding then he 
could have been referring to a photographic defect and not the faint system close 
south following IC 3640.  

IC 3645. 
POSS. O-64. 
Wolf List IV, No.266.  12hr 38m 09.878s + 26 48' 57.414" (1950).
12hr 40m 37.891s + 26 32' 29.776" (2000). 
Equal to a single star :   The CGCG and MCG have both confused IC 3646 for IC 
3645.  UGC has no listing.  NGC 2000 lists it as a galaxy while MOL lists as
(Nonstellar Object).  APL and Steinicke have (=*).  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."  SIMBAD equates it with IC 3644 
which is a galaxy.

IC 3647.
POSS. O-1563.
Frost #1010.  12hr 38m 19.572s + 10 44' 30.846" (1950).
12hr 40m 51.176s + 10 28' 03.370" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This is an extended image, PA ~ 140 (Frost gave 135) and it is 
of low surface brightness.  Carlson lists it in her Table 1b (Objects to be 
stricken from the Index Catalogues) as a star on the Mt. Wilson plates and as 
Found at Harvard (Harvard Annals, 88, No1, 1930).  The MOL lists it as "May not 
exist" while the NGC 2000 gives the Type as [?].  Correctly identified in the 
CGCG, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, UGC, PGC, MCG and RC3.

IC 3648.
POSS. O-1563.
Schwassmann #266.  12hr 38m 21.505s + 13 15' 36.171" (1950).
12hr 40m 52.582s + 12 59' 08.720" (2000).
This is a faint star :    Not listed in CGCG, UGC, MCG, RC3 or DSFG.  Carlson 
states "Not found. Harvard."  The NGC 2000 Types as [?] and the MOL lists as "May 
not exist."  Steinicke has (=*) and NED and SIMBAD have (Not found). APL (=*).

IC 3650. 
POSS. O- 64. 
Wolf List IV, No.268.  12hr 38m 20.363s + 26 44' 57.595" (1950).
12hr 40m 48.368s + 26 28' 30.089" (2000). 
Equal to two stars : "   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists as a 
galaxy.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  The APL states (=**). Steinicke (=*2).  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 3657.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.6.  12hr 38m 49.789s + 21 56' 58.095" (1950).
12hr 41m 18.897s + 21 40' 30.909" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are  APL (=*+defect, verified), 
Steinicke (= *), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
NOTE:  As Corwin has examined the original plate and states that there is a 
defective image there, this might explain Wolf's statement "?neb*"

IC 3660.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.8.  12hr 39m 07.520s + 21 22' 00.406" (1950).
12hr 41m 36.740s + 21 05' 33.437" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (= *), NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3664.
POSS. O-1576.
Wolf List VI, No.11.  12hr 39m 12.091s + 20 13' 02.484" (1950).
12hr 41m 41.562s + 19 56' 35.559" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (= *), NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
NOTE :  Dreyer's IC II incorrectly makes it Wolf's List V.

IC 3666. 
POSS. O-1560. 
Schwassmann #72.  12hr 39m 21.566s + 08 07' 06.981" (1950).
12hr 41m 53.667s + 07 50' 40.281" (2000). 
Equal to a single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing for IC 3666.  NGC 
2000 lists without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  Steinicke and APL 
have (=*) and SIMBAD NED have (Not found).

IC 3667.
POSS O-115. 
Wolf List V, No.1.  12hr 39m 08.990s + 41 25' 23".503" (1950).
12hr 41m 32.458s + 41 08' 56.637" (2000).   
This is equal to NGC 4618 (H 178-1 and H 179-1) :   Examination of Wolf's 
description "Pretty Large,!! Considerably Bright, Similar to Andromeda Nebula." 
would appear to indicate that he was not referring to any associated feature of 
NGC 4618, but rather to the galaxy itself.  
CGCG, UGC, PGC, MCG and RC3 each only give the identity NGC 4618..  Listed in NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  APL and Steinicke have (= NGC 4618). NED has the 
correct equivalency. SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3668 and IC 3669.
POSS. O-115. 
Wolf List V, Nos.2 & 3.  12hr 39m 09.400s + 41 23' 59.511" (1950). (IC 3668).
12hr 41m 32.874s + 41 07' 32.649" (2000).
12hr 39m 12.374s + 41 24' 44".564" (1950) (IC 3669)
12hr 41m 35.831s + 41 08' 17.740" (2000).. 
These two identities are for different parts of the galaxy NGC 4618 (H 178-1 and H 
179-1):  Only listed and identified as IC objects in NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).  NED list both IC identities as "There is no object with this name in NED."  
SIMBAD Lists both identities as "Not present in the database." Both APL and 
Steinicke list as either knots or Galaxy parts in NGC 4618.

IC 3672. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #213.  12hr 39m 37.161s + 12 01' 39.574" (1950).
12hr 42m 08.419s + 11 45' 13.083" (2000). 
This is equal to IC 809 (Swift List # VII,No.23) :   The CGCG, UGC and MCG all 
give only the single identity IC 3672.  MOL lists as separate identities.  NGC 
2000 lists IC 3672 and states equal to IC 809 north.  Carlson and PGC both 
correctly equate the two identities as does Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED.  
A rather interesting note concerns Frost's Harvard list in which following his 
No.1016 entry he has four listings which he credits to previous discoverers.  
Two of these are as follows ( epoch 1900 ).  12hr 37.1m + 12 22' vF, R, d. 0'.1 
(IC 809, Swift VII) and 12hr 37.1m + 12 18' bM, mag. 13 (Schwassmann #213).  
Now to begin with there is absolutely no doubt that the southern of these two is 
IC 809 and that it is also Schwassmann's #213 or IC 3672, thus these two 
identities are for one galaxy, which by date of discovery makes IC 809 the correct 
identity, but what about the northern of Frost's two objects ?  
Well it definitely exists at the 4 arcminute difference Frost gives, its image is 
extremely faint but it does exist.  
It would therefore seem that because Frost incorrectly assumed that he was seeing 
Swift and Schwassmann's objects, (even though he reversed the identities), his 
northern object was never considered for inclusion in the IC II and can now only 
be considered as being an anonymous galaxy.

IC 3673.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.13.  12hr 39m 35.335s + 21 24' 45.902" (1950).
12hr 42m 04.483s + 21 08' 19.290" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (= *), NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3674.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.14.  12hr 39m 35.973s + 22 47' 06.918" (1950).
12hr 42m 04.790s + 22 30' 40.339" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL (= **), Steinicke (=*2), NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3675.
POSS O-115. 
Wolf List V, No.4.  12hr 39m 29.395s + 41 32' 53.869" (1950).
12hr 41m 52.731s + 41 16' 27.264" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4625 (H 660-2) :   As with IC 3667, Wolf's description 
"Pretty Large, ! Pretty Bright, Pretty Round." confirms the equivalency rather 
than reference to a specific associated part of the galaxy.  This equivalency is 
noted by the CGCG, UGC, MCG, APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, MOL and PGC.  NGC 2000 
lists IC 3675 without Type and RC3 gives only the identity NGC 4625.

IC 3676. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #294.  12hr 39m 41.386s + 13 49' 55.328" (1950).
12hr 42m 12.248s + 13 33' 28.888" (2000). 
This is a single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000, MOL, 
Steinicke and Carlson all correctly describe it as being a single star.  NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."
APL (=*).

IC 3679.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.18.  12hr 39m 43.047s + 23 05' 29.046" (1950).
12hr 42m 11.775s + 22 49'02.564" (2000).
Equal to a double star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (= **), NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3680.
POSS. O-115.
Wolf List V, No.5.  12hr 39m 36.537s +39 22' 37.987" (1950).
12hr 42m 00.616s + 39 06' 11.454" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (= *), 
however, in the case of Steinicke he selects the north following of a pair that 
lies directly south of my star.  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There 
is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3681.
POSS. O-115.
Wolf List V, No.6.  12hr 39m 37.143s + 39 21' 27.998" (1950).
12hr 42m 01.226s + 39 05' 01.473" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (= *), NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO). NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."

IC 3682.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.19.  12hr 39m 50.483s + 21 08' 21.174" (1950).
12hr 42m 19.668s + 20 51' 54.754" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (= *), NGC 2000(No 
Type) and MOL (NSO). NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."

IC 3685. 
POSS. O-1560. 
Schwassmann #32.  12hr 39m 59.794s + 07 08' 40.344" (1950).
12hr 42m 32.077s + 06 52' 14.135" (2000). 
This is a single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists 
without any Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  Steinicke has (=*) and NED 
has (Not found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3688. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #295.  12hr 40m 06.667s + 14 38' 02.938" (1950).
12hr 42m 37.323s + 14 21' 36.828" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4633 (Swift List VI, No.46.):   The following authorities are 
all in agreement that IC 3688 = NGC 4633.  CGCG, UGC, MCG, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, 
APL, NGC 2000, MOL, RC2 Notes, Carlson and PGC.

IC 3693. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Frost #1020.  12hr 40m 31.409s + 10 56' 32.439" (1950).
12hr 43m 02.852s + 10 40' 06.662" (2000). 
Confirmed galaxy :   The CGCG and PGC list it only as ZWG 71.005.  UGC and MCG 
have no listing for it.  NGC 2000 lists but without any Type.  MOL lists as 
(Nonstellar Object).  APL (GX, Deen).  Steinicke (= ZWG 71.005).  NED has "There 
is no object with this name in NED." then lists it as VCC 1948.  SIMBAD "Not present 
in the database," but identifies the same galaxy as GRDG 10 62.

IC 3695.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.25.  12hr 40m 38.601s + 23 00' 59.058" (1950).
12hr 43m 07.236s + 22 44' 33.302" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke (=*) SIMBAD 
and NED (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3699.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.27.  12hr 40m 47.4.850s + 19 16' 32.217" (1950).
12hr 43m 17.379s + 19 00' 06.530" (2000).
Equal to 2 stars ::  Listed in the APL as (2 stars confirmed).  At Wolf's position 
there are two stellar images in close proximity which are compact and very faint.   
Wolf describes it as "S, F, irreg. fig. with nucleus.  2 * 13 mag. np, * 15 mag. 
north 1 arcmin." and the 2 stars north preceding are as described, however, the 15 
mag. star 1 arcmin north is actually a compact galaxy.   Steinicke has (=*2).  
Only other listings found are NGC 2000 (No Type), NED "There is no object with 
this name in NED" and MOL (NSO). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3700.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.28.  12hr 40m 50.655s + 19 32' 20.270" (1950).
12hr 43m 20.116s + 19 15' 54.623" (2000).
Not found :  Only modern listings are Steinicke (Not found).  NED "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).
Oddly enough, the APL gives Wolf's position as 12hr 40m 50.7s + 19 32' 20" = 2 
galaxies (verified), which is essentially in accordance with my coordinates, yet at 
both positions on DSS Generation I and II I am unable to find any sort of acceptable 
image, only an exceedingly faint, < 20th Mp image, while the closest star would in 
my opinion be beyond the normal error offset associated with Wolf's measured 
positions. As Corwin examined the original plate is it possible that the image there 
is a spurious one ?
NOTE: (See Corwin's explanation. Nov. 19th 2004).

IC 3703.
POSS. O-105.
Wolf List V, No.9.  12hr 40m 57.413s + 38 14' 57.464" (1950).
12hr 43m 21.571s + 37 58' 31.980" (2000).
This is a faint star:  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3706
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #118.  12hr 41m 16.210s + 09 29' 58.700" (1950).
12hr 43m 47.931s + 09 13' 33.511" (2000). 
This is a faint star with a companion close north following:   CGCG, UGC and MCG 
have no listing.  NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson all list it as being a star.  
Steinicke has (=*2).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database." APL (= double star).

IC 3707.
POSS. O-105.
Wolf List V, No.10.  12hr 41m 04.369s + 38 15' 22.594" (1950).
12hr 43m 28.500s + 37 58' 57.203" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3708. 
POSS. O-1563. 
Schwassmann #270.  12hr 41m 21.977s + 13 24' 38.978" (1950).
12hr 43m 52.818s + 13 08' 13.871" (2000). 
Equal to a couple of bright spots or knots almost in contact on the north 
preceding part of NGC 4654 :  
The CGCG, UGC and MCG give only the identity NGC 4654.  Steinicke has (GxyP. Knot 
in N 4654).   RC2 Notes, NGC 2000, MOL, Carlson, SIMBAD and the PGC all equate IC 
3708 with NGC 4654, however it should be pointed out that Schwassmann's data places 
IC 3708 at 4.15 tsecs preceding and 42.6 arcseconds north of the position he 
measured for NGC 4654, 12hr 41m 26.134s +13 23' 56.381" (1950), thus making it 
possibly a couple of the knots (some of which may or may not be superposed or 
background galaxies) associated with NGC 4654 or part of the bright spiral arm.  One 
would think that as Schwassmann obviously was aware of the identity of NGC 4654 and 
measured such a precise position for its nucleus that what he was referring to as 
his #270 was not due to any misconception on his part as to equivalency.  
Furthermore, Schwassmann on page 101 of his list has a NOTE in which he states that 
#270 consists of 2 nuclei or bright spots on # 271 (NGC 4654), or that they might be 
independent nebulae.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED. "APL "NW 
arm of NGC 4654."

IC 3710.
POSS. O-41.
Frost #1025.  12hr 41m 43.036s + 12 22' 33.345" (1950).
12hr 44m 14.089s + 12 06' 08.525" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  There is absolutely no doubt that Frost's #1025 is the same as 
identified in the PGC and UGC only as U07906.  Dwarf irregular. Mp 16.5  Only 
other modern listings are APL (Gx, JA), Steinicke (= UGC 07906).  NED "There is no 
object with this name in NED" but then they list it as UGC 07906.  NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO) and both of these have the correct identities. SIMBAD Identifies 
IC 3710 as " Object of unkown nature," and places it at 12hr 44.1m +12 08'.0 (2000), 
which lands on a blank space north preceding UGC 07906, while Simbad also lists the 
correct object as UGC 7906, but does not equate it with the identity IC 3710. 

IC 3711.
POSS. O-41.
Frost #1026.  12hr 41m 43.236s + 11 26' 33.346" (1950).
12hr 44m 14.500s + 11 10' 08.530" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The UGC in its Notes to U07914 = NGC 4660 refers to, but does 
not identify a companion galaxy distant 5'.5, PA 262, Very late spiral, and it is 
this companion that is IC 3711.  The PGC only gives it the identity VCC 1991.  NED 
has "There is no object with this name in NED" however, they list the correct IC 
3711 as VCC 1991. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but list the correst 
object as LEDA 42878.
Only other modern listings are APL, Steinicke, NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3712.
POSS. O-41.
Schwassmann #148.  12hr 41m 45.163s + 10 38' 52.970" (1950).
12hr 44m 16.604s + 10 22' 28.179" (2000).
Not found.  Nothing at the nominal position :  Carlson in her 1940 paper states 
"IC 3712 = IC 3690 W; Not found Harvard." however, I am in disagreement with this 
as IC 3690 according to the APL coordinates lies at 12hr 40m 18s, a difference in 
RA of 1m 27s and Schwassmann's mean error in measurements are only about 2 to 3 
arcsecs (APL Sources).  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED have (Not found).  Both the NGC 
2000 (?) and MOL (May not exist) are the only other modern sources which list this 
identity. APL "Nothing here."

IC 3715.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.30.  12hr 41m 52.334s + 20 17' 54.430" (1950).
12hr 44m 21.505s + 20 01'29.622" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Due to a misprint in the IC II in which the NPD is shown as 69 
22'.5  when it should be 69 12'.5 both the NGC 2000 and MOL incorrectly give the 
declination as being + 20 07'.4 (NGC 2000) and 20 07' 53" (MOL).  NED has "There 
is no object with this name in NED," but lists the correct galaxy as MAPS-NGP 0 437 
0019608. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," and no other equivalent identity.  
The APL and Steinicke have the correct declination.

IC 3716.
POSS. O-104.
Schwassmann #74.  12hr 42m 13.172s + 08 22' 32.628" (1950).
12hr 44m 45.101s + 08 06' 08.211" (2000).
Not found, or possibly the star just off the preceeding edge of IC 3719 :   The 
CGCG, NED, SIMBAD and PGC are incorrect in making this equal to IC 3719.  
Schwassmann gives a separation between IC 3716 and IC 3719 of 3.44 tsec and 21.2 
arcsec which is very close to the star immediately preceding IC 3719.  Additionally 
Schwassmann makes a point in his description to say that his #74 (IC 3716) and his 
#75 (IC 3719) are distinct from each other, while as usual he gives excellent 
coordinates for IC 3719 (12hr 42m 15.75s + 08 22' 50".1)  Whatever it was that 
Schwassmann thought was a nebula at the position he gave for his #74 I feel that it 
was not IC 3719.
The APL states (Not found, probably a defect, * and IC 3719 near).  Steinicke has 
(=*).  Listed in NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3719.
POSS. O-104.
Schwassmann #75.  12hr 42m 16.609s + 08 22' 53.873" (1950).
12hr 44m 48.534s + 08 06' 29.503" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy : It is not equal to IC 3716 as stated in the CGCG, NED, SIMBAD and 
PGC.  Correctly identified as an individual object in the APL, Steinicke, NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3721.
POSS. O-1572.
Frost #1028.  12hr 42m 17.504s + 19 01' 33.799" (1950).
12hr 44m 46.946s + 18 45' 09.454" (2000).
This is equal to IC 3725 (Wolf List VI, No.31) :  Dr. H. Corwin in his unpublished 
NGC/IC Bug List gives an excellent explanation of this equivalency pointing out 
that both Frost and Wolf are referring to the only possible candidate in the 
field.  Wolf dated his List VI July 1905 and Frost's paper "Nebulae discovered at 
the Harvard Observatory is dated 1908 therefore by historical precedent it would 
appear that the correct identity should be IC 3725.  The RC 3 gives only the 
identity IC 3721 while both the CGCG, MCG and UGC give the single identity IC 
3725.   NGC 2000, MOL, Carlson, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD and the APL correctly equate 
both identities.  The PGC (Corrections. Table 2, Page 388) states "ZWG 100.005 = IC 
3721 , not IC 3725," which implies that the correct identity is IC 3721, however, 
Wolf's publication date precedes that of Frost's and therefore the correct single 
identity would be IC 3725. 

IC 3722.
POSS. O-41.
Schwassmann #219.  12hr 42m 19.568s + 12 03' 05.716" (1950).
12hr 44m 50.658s + 11 46' 41.394" (2000).
Equal to a double star :  This is a double star whose components are of similar 
magnitude, their alignment being almost directly north and south.  Carlson  types 
it as "= * H" and both the NGC 2000 and MOL also make it equal to a star.  
Steinicke has (=*2).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database." APL "2 blended stars."

IC 3725. 
(See IC 3721). 

IC 3730.
POSS. O-1435..699
Wolf List VI, No.33.  12h 42m 38.699s + 21 26' 57.324" (1950).
12hr45m 07.498s + 21 10' 33.167s (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the CGCG only as ZWG 129.021.  Correctly 
identified in the APL, Steinicke, NED, SIMBAD, PGC, MCG, RC3, NGC 2000 (GX) and MOL 
(NSO).  Not listed in the UGC or DSFG.

IC 3733.
POSS. O-104.
Schwassmann #33.  12hr 42m 44.565s + 07 13' 51.836" (1950).
12hr 45m 16.731s + 06 57' 27.848" (2000).
This is the most southern star in a group of three :  Only modern listings are 
Steinicke (=*), NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present 
in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). APL (=*).

IC 3734.
(See IC 813).

IC 3737.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.36.  12hr 42m 51.778s + 22 13' 55.581" (1950).
12hr 45m 20.350s + 21 57' 31.620" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL (= double star," and Steinicke (=*).  
NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3738.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.37.  12hr 42m 56.144s + 19 30' 06.657" (1950).
12hr 45m 25.404s + 19 13' 42.720" (2000).
Unable to confirm. Equal to a star ? :  At the nominal position there 
is the image of a very faint star with an exceedingly faint galaxy almost attached 
to its north following edge best seen on Generation II DSS.  
It is difficult to know whether Wolf's plate would have shown this galaxy and 
therefore what he is listing is only the star.  His description reads "Irregular 
figure with nucleus. Extremely small, very faint. A nebulous star."   
Only modern listings are APL (2 stars + Gx," and Steinicke (=*).  NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and MOL (NSO).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present 
in the database."   

IC 3739.
POSS. O-41.
Schwassmann #272.  12hr 43m 01.503s + 13 16' 13.767" (1950).
12hr 45m 32.266s + 12 59' 50.029" (2000).
Not found :  Carlson states "Not found, Harvard."  NGC 2000 types as (?) and MOL 
as (May not exist).  Steinicke, APL, SIMBAD and NED have (Not found).  No additional 
modern listings.

IC 3741.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.39.  12hr 43m 03.933" +19 28' 39.809" (1950).
12hr 45m 33.186s + 19 12' 15.981" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3743.
POSS. O-41..035
Schwassmann #165.  12hr 43m 10.035s + 11 22' 29.578" (1950).
12hr 45m 41.233s + 11 06' 05.960" (2000).
The following  of 4 closely associated stars which form a triangle :  Carlson, NGC 
2000 and MOL all correctly lists it as being a star.  Steinicke has (=*4). APL(=2*).  
NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database." No additional listings.

IC 3744.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.40.  12hr 43m 12.107s + 19 46' 20.970" (1950).
12hr 45m 41.272s + 19 29' 57.260" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The NGC 2000 incorrectly gives IC 3744 a RA value O.1m 
following that which it gives IC 3745 whereas IC 3745 lies ~ 4 tsecs of RA 
following IC 3744.  I am certain the reason for this is that the NGC 2000 obtained 
its RA value for IC 3744 from Dreyer and its IC 3745 RA from the not very accurate 
coordinates as given in the MCG.  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED" but they do list the same object as 2MASX J12454151+1930019.  Steinicke has 
correct order of RA as does the APL. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but 
lists the object as LEDA 3090098.

IC 3747.
POSS. O-105.
Wolf List V, No.18.  12hr 43m 11.152s + 38 14' 31.027" (1950).
12hr 45m 34.814s + 37 58' 07.370" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3748.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.42.  12hr 43m 22.007s + 19 42' 06.165" (1950).
12hr 45m 51.173s + 19 25' 42.593" (2000).
Equal to a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3749.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.43.  12hr 43m 22.267s + 19 48' 34.170" (1950).
12hr 45m 51.406s + 19 32' 10.603" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke (=*). NED and SIMBAD 
(Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3750.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.44.  12hr 43m 28.605s + 19 22' 36.294" (1950).
12hr 45m 57.843s + 19 06' 12.811" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3752.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.45.  12hr 43m 34.823s + 19 17' 01.416" (1950).
12hr 46m 04.074s 19 00' 38.021" (2000).
This is a faint star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3753.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.46.  12hr 43m 36.479s + 19 23' 41.450" (1950).
12hr 46m 05.699s + 19 07' 18.079" (2000).
Equal to a faint star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3755.
POSS O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No. 47.  12hr 43m 39.259s + 19 25' 49.505" (1950).
12hr 46m 08.465s + 19 09' 26.174" (2000).
Equal to 3 very faint stars in line, the southernmost being extremely faint. (POSS 
Second Generation Blue):  The APL has (Wolf 047a, verified), however, Wolf 47a is 
for IC 3759, which is a verified galaxy at 12hr 43m 48.9s + 21 03' 25".  The NGC 
2000 gives IC 3755 (No Type) and the MOL (NSO).  Steinicke has (=*2).  NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3756 and IC 3760.
POSS. O-41.
Frost # 1034.  12hr 43m 42.954s + 12 10' 34.918" (1950).
12hr 46m 13.930s + 11 54' 11.763" (2000). (IC 3756) 
#1035. 12hr 43m 54.949s + 12 08' 35.080"  (1950).
12hr 46m 25.921s + 11 52' 12.095" (2000). (IC 3760).
Both are confirmed galaxies and neither are equal to IC 815 (Javelle #223) :
The field was first examined by Javelle who discovered only one object, IC 815 to 
which he gave excellent coordinates 12hr 43m 51.7s + 12 09 28'.8
When Frost examined the field he not only measured and correctly identified IC 
815, (12hr 44.0m + 12 09'.6), he also listed two novae, his #1034 and # 1035, 
placing the former at 12hr 43'.7 + 12 10'.6 and the latter at 12hr 43.9m + 12 
08'.6 therefore he was placing his #1034 at a declination about 1 arcmin north of 
IC 815 and his #1035 at a declination about 1 arcmin south of IC 815 ( remember 
that in both RA and dec. positions Frost only gave them to 10ths of a minute and 
which I believe he only employed here to indicate that one object was either north 
or south of another field identity).
At or close to the relative separations derived from Frost's data as they pertain 
to IC 815 there are two galaxies, the first at 12hr 43m 38.9s + 12 11' 13" (1950) 
and the second at 12hr 43m 47.30s + 12 08' 47".6 (1950) and both Dr. Corwin and I 
agree that these are Frost's # 1034 = IC 3756 and # 1035 = IC 3760.
What the NGC 2000 identifies as being IC 3756 is actually IC 3760 and it 
incorrectly equates the identity IC 3760 with IC 815.   The MCG  does not list the 
correct IC 3756, and its + 02-33-14, identified as IC 815a is also Frost's IC 
3760, meanwhile what the MCG identifies as + 02-33-15 (IC 815b) is Javelle's IC 
815, NED and the PGC also make these same errors.
The MOL, because it follows Dreyer's coordinates which are based upon Frost's 
data, has the correct identities.
The CGCG lists only the identity IC 815, while the UGC does not list any of the 
identities. Carlson equates the identity IC 3760 with IC 815 Steinicke correctly 
shows the 3 galaxies as being separate objects.  NED identifies both IC 3756 and 
IC 3760 as "There is no object with this name in NED.", however, what it 
identifies as 2MASX J12461012+1154519 is IC 3756 and what it identifies as IC 0815A 
is IC 3760. SIMBAD also has "Not present in the database," for the two identities IC 
2756 and IC 3760, however, in the former case they have no listings or alternative 
names and for the latter object they give MCG +02-33-014. 
NOTE :  There is another field galaxy (MCG + 02-33-17 = ZWG 71.037) which lies 
north following IC 815.  It is relatively bright and it can be argued why was it 
that Frost did not record this object ?  I can only suggest that he did not 
recognize it as being nonstellar and add that it also was not detected by Javelle 
during his observation.

IC 3757.
POSS. O-115.
Wolf List V, No.20.  12hr 43m 36.721s + 38 47' 11.536" (1950).
12hr 46m 00.087s + 38 30' 48.243" (2000).
This is for 3 closely grouped stars :  Only modern listings 
are APL (=***), Steinicke (=*3). NED "No object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).
NOTE:  Wolf's nominal position lands just off the south following edge of the 
brightest of the 3 stars and when the group is examined on the Second Generation 
Blue print of the DSS this star has an extremely faint galaxy attached to its 
following edge.  It would suggest being too faint to have registered on the 
original photograph and thus would not have been listed by Wolf, however, it does 
exist and Wolf states "* 13 invested. Shows as an arm."

IC 3764.
POSS. O-41.
Schwassmann #149.  12hr 44m 25.304s + 10 07' 49.589" (1950).
12hr 46m 56.727s + 09 51' 27.036" (2000).
Equal to IC 817 :  The CGCG and PGC have equated this with IC 817 and this is 
correct. 
Examination of the image of IC 817 clearly shows that it is a double system with a 
companion galaxy located right on its south following edge. Schwassmann makes 
absolutely no reference to IC 817 and this therefore would suggest that he is not 
referring to the companion.
One definite error concerning this identity is that Carlson states "= IC 816. H." 
and this has been copied by both the NGC 2000 and MOL.  If IC 3764 is equivalent 
to any other identity it would be IC 817 not IC 816.  Steinicke, SIMBAD and NED 
equate with IC 817. The APL lists both identities as separate galaxies.

IC 3765.
POSS. O-115.
Wolf List V, No.22.  12hr 44m 12.183s + 38 50' 50.247" (1950.
12hr 46m 35.391s + 38 34' 27.459" (2000).
Equal to a single star :  Only modern listings are APL (=* + defect), Steinicke 
(=*).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3768.
POSS O-115. 
Wolf List V, No.23.  12hr 44m 19.124s + 40 52' 10.398" (1950).
12hr 46m 41.518s + 40 35' 47.728" (2000). 
This is a star :  Only listings I could find were APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3769.
POSS O-115. 
Wolf List V, No.24.  12hr 44m 25.954s + 40 44' 34.536" (1950).
12hr 46m 48.370s + 40 28' 11.962" (2000). 
Equal to a faint star:   There is very close to the given position the image of an 
extremely faint, barely visible galaxy which I feel does not qualify as being IC 
3769.  Only listed in APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 3770.
POSS. O-41
Schwassmann #120.  12hr 44m 43.867s + 09 28' 33.342" (1950).
12hr 47m 15.430s + 09 12' 11.057" (2000).
At the nominal position there is only an extremely faint star :  Only modern 
listings are Steinicke and NED (Not found), SIMBAD "Object of unknown nature." NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). APL (=*?).

IC 3772.
POSS. O-105.
Wolf List V, No.26.  12hr 44m 32.734s + 36 48' 21.652" (1950).
12hr 46m 56.618s + 36 31' 59.143" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The NGC 2000 and PGC incorrectly lists IC 3772 as following IC 
3774 by 0.2m of RA.  IC 3772 is the preceding galaxy and is correctly shown to be 
by the GGCG, NED, UGC "Notes," MCG, Steinicke, APL, SIMBAD and MOL.  The correct 
separation in RA is ~ 4.4 tsec.

IC 3774.
POSS. O-105.
Wolf List V, No.27.  12hr 44m 37.233s + 36 33' 49.743" (1950).
12hr 47m 01.188s + 36 17' 27.298" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  [See IC 3772].

IC 3775.
POSS. O-41.
Frost #1037.  12hr 44m 48.923s + 12 00' 35.815" (1950).
12hr 47m 19.873s + 11 44' 13.608" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Identified in the  PGC and UGC only as U07953.  Only other 
modern listings are APL and Steinicke (GX).  NED "There is no object with this 
name in NED" but they list it as UGC07953. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," 
however, they list the same galaxy as UGC 7953.  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3777.
POSS. O-41.
Schwassmann #121.  12hr 44m 53.762s + 09 24' 58.278" (1950).
12hr 47m 25.343s + 09 08' 36.502" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  
Steinicke identifies it as (=*).  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3780.
POSS O-115. 
Wolf List V, No.29.  12hr 44m 46.063s + 40 30' 26.944" (1950).
12hr 47m 08.492s + 40 14' 04.659" (2000). 
This is a single star :   Only listings found were APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3781.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List, No.54.  12hr 44m 56.872s + 22 50' 32.082" (1950).
12hr 47m 25.036s + 22 34' 09.916" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL (=**), Steinicke (=*2).  NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). NED has "There is no Object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3782.
POSS. O-115.
Wolf List V, No. 30.  12hr 44m 53.833s +40 39' 02.104" (1950).
12hr 47m 16.173s + 40 22' 39.933" (2000).
Unable to confirm :  At Wolf's nominal position there is no nonstellar image, only 
blank sky with some very faint, compact galaxies very close north.  At a slightly 
closer distance but south of the nominal position there is a faint star which I 
believe is the star that Corwin identifies as being Wolf's object and as Corwin 
has examined a copy of the original plate upon which Wolf marked his identified 
objects then this would appear to establish that Wolf mistook this star to be a 
nebula.
Listed in the NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  Steinicke (= *).  APL has equal 
to a star.  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present 
in the database."
NOTE:  I should add that Wolf's nominal position lies north following Corwin's 
star, also at a distance that is not in agreement with Wolf's usual offset error 
(normally to the south following edge of the actual image, such as with IC 3783 at 
12hr 45m 05.651s + 40 50' 16.348" (1950)).

IC 3787.
POSS. O-115.
Wolf List V, No.33.  12hr 45m 20.823s + 40 53' 40.662" (1950).
12hr 47m 43.954s + 40 37' 18.887" (2000).
This is a single star :  Correctly listed in the APL and by Steinicke.  Listed in 
the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and MOL as (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3790.
POSS. O-41.
Schwassmann #166.  12hr 45m 43.355s + 11 22' 51.672" (1950).
12hr 48m 14.415s + 11 06' 30.653" (2000). 
This is a star :  Schwassmann considered that it was suspect as to being a 
nonstellar object.  Correctly listed as a star in Carlson , NGC 2000 and MOL.  
Steinicke and APL also identifies it as being a star.  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 

IC 3791.
POSS. O-729. 
Swift List XI.#141.  12hr 45m 17.461s + 54 43' 24.318" (1950).
12hr 47m 32.299s + 54 27' 02.603" (2000).
Equal to NGC 4695:  Swift's nominal position lands 0.281 tsec following and 5.1 
arcmin north of NGC 4695 and there is north preceding this galaxy another one 
which Swift incorrectly identifies as NGC 4732, it is instead NGC 4686.
Due to Swift's description, "eeF, Sm, CE, 4732 in field," I was at first not 
certain which of the two field galaxies Swift was claiming as being his #141, 
however, after having requested Dr. Corwin to examine the problem he concluded 
that IC 3791 was the same object as NGC 4695 and I am in agreement with his 
assessment. 
The only catalogues listing IC 3791 are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), NED "There 
is no object with this name in NED" SIMBAD "Not present in the database." and 
Steinicke (Correct identity and equivalency).

IC 3792.
POSS. O-41.
Schwassmann #167.  12hr 45m 43.581s + 11 21' 12.175" (1950).
12hr 48m 14.648s + 11 04' 51.159" (2000).
Not found at nominal position :  At the nominal position there is only blank sky.  
The closest image is that of an extremely faint star, however, the offset distance 
is larger than one would expect from Schwassmann's measurements, especially as he 
had just measured an excellent position for IC 3790, a star just 1 arcmin 39 
arcsec directly north.  
Carlson states "Not found, W. H."  NGC 2000 types as (?) and MOL as "May not 
exist."  Steinicke has (=*).   NED has "There is no object with this name in NED."
SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*2).

IC 3794.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.60.  12hr 45m 52.613s + 19 26' 32.222" (1950).
12hr 48m 21.594s + 19 10' 11.828" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3796.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.61.  12hr 45m 59.067s + 20 18' 37.360" (1950).
12hr 48m 27.804s + 20 02' 16.072" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3797.
POSS. O-41.
Schwassmann #220.  12hr 46m 04.009s + 11 52' 12.764" (1950).
12hr 48m 34.919s + 11 35' 51.664" (2000).
Not found :  Carlson states "Not found, H."  NGC 2000 (?) and MOL "May not exist."  
Steinicke has (Not found), NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database." APL (= Defect).

IC 3798.
POSS. O-41.
Schwassmann #123.  12hr 46m 11.807s + 09 30' 45.271" (1950).
12hr 48m 43.293s + 09 14' 24.284" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke and APL (=*).  NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3801.
POSS. O-41.
Schwassmann #169.  12hr 46m 29.606s + 11 13' 41.827" (1950).
12hr 49m 00.652s + 10 57' 21.115" (2000).
Not found :  Close to Schwassmann's position there is visible on the Palomar print 
the image of a very small and very faint galaxy, however, due to its faintness I 
am somewhat dubious of this being IC 3801 as Schwassmann in his description states 
that it is considerably bright. and that it is like a 9.5 mag. star.
Carlson states "Not found, W, H." and the NGC 2000 gives (?) while the MOL states 
"May not exist."  Steinicke has (Not found).  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (= Defect).

IC 3802. 
POSS. O-115.
Wolf List V, No.36.  12hr 46m 20.122s + 38 31' 06.890" (1950).
12hr 48m 42.971s + 38 14' 45.974" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), NGC 2000 (No Type) and 
MOL (NSO).  Steinicke has (=*), at 12hr 46m 19.7s +38 31' 29"  NED has "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3803.
POSS. O-41.
Schwassmann #170.  12hr 46m 33.670s +10 54' 11.985" (1950).
12hr 49m 04.793s + 10 37' 51.335" (2000).
This is a star :  Steinicke has the correct star. 
Other listings are NGC 2000 (No Type).  MOL (NSO).  NED "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." APL (=*).

IC 3804.
POSS. O-105.
Wolf List V, No.37.  12hr 46m 22.369s + 35 36' 16.921" (1950).
12hr 48m 46.309s + 35 19' 56.024" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 4711 (H412-2) :  The CGCG  and UGC give the single identity 
IC 3804 while the RC3 gives only the identity IC 4711.  MOL, APL, PGC, Steinicke, 
NED, SIMBAD, MCG and Carlson each make it equal to NGC 4711.

IC 3805.
POSS. O-115.
Wolf List V, No.38.  12hr 46m 22.211s + 38 31' 33.913" (1950).
12hr 48m 44.054s + 38 15' 13.013" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=**).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  

IC 3807.
POSS. O-1600.
Swift List XI, #142.  12hr 46m 54.562s - 04 07' 46.439" (1950).
12hr 49m 29.354s - 04 24' 06.863" (2000).
Not found :  At the coordinates as given by Swift there are no nebular images.  
The only modern listings are SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NED "There is no 
object with this name in NED." NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), NED and Steinicke 
(Not found). The APL suggests that it might be equivalent with NGC 4705.

IC 3808.
POSS O-115. 
Wolf List V, No.39.  12hr 46m 37.063s + 40 52' 00.264" (1950).
12hr 48m 58.894s + 40 35' 39.622" (2000). 
This is a confirmed galaxy :   The PCG, SIMBAD and NED incorrectly equate it with IC 
3810 which is a star.  The MCG confuses its +7-26-55 making it IC 3810, but it is IC 
3808.  CGCG, APL, Steinicke, NGC 2000 (GX.) and MOL (NSO) correctly identify IC 
3808. Not listed in UGC, DSFG or RC3.

IC 3810.
POSS O-115. 
Wolf List V, No.41.  12hr 46m 41.902s + 40 55' 03.368" (1950).
12hr 49m 03.692s + 40 38' 42.799" (2000). 
This is a single star :   In addition to employing a GC star as my measuring 
reference I also measured the separation values (4.9s RA and 3' 3" Dec.) between 
Wolf's coordinates for IC 3808 and IC 3810 and in each case the result produced 
the same star at the position for IC 3810.  
The PCG, SIMBAD and NED's equivalency with IC 3808 and the MCG's confusion 
concerning its +7-26- 55 (See IC 3808) are in error.  Not listed in other catalogues 
other than APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3811.
POSS. O-1435. 
Wolf List VI, No.62.  12hr 46m 57.449s + 21 44' 04.602" (1950).
12hr 49m 25.688s + 21 27' 44.211" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED "Name does 
not exist or no object found." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3817.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.65.  12hr 47m 15.942s + 23 06' 11.006" (1950).
12hr 49m 43.755s + 22 49' 50.920" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy:  Only modern listings are APL (= two (??) galaxies, NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).  Steinicke lists it as a 17.0 galaxy at the correct position.  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED," however, they do list it under 
the name 2MASX J12494348+2249525. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but list 
it as IRAS F12472+2306.

IC 3821.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.67.  12hr 47m 29.256s + 21 14' 24.285" (1950).
12hr 49m 57.575s + 20 58' 04.372" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3823.
POSS O-115. 
Wolf List V, No.44.  12hr 47m 22.700s + 41 09' 24.248" (1950).
12hr 49m 44.220s + 40 53' 04.301" (2000). 
This is a star:
Carlson (Table 1b) states that on Mount Wilson plates it is seen only as being two 
stars.  
Only listed in APL (=*), Steinicke (=*),, NED "Name does not exist or no object 
found," SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3827 (See IC 3838).

IC 3828.
POSS. O-105.
Wolf List V, No.45.  12hr 47m 58.428s + 38 13' 16.008" (1950).
12hr 50m 21.028s + 37 56' 56.587" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as "Double star" and in the MOL as "Two 
stars."   Listed in APL (Verified). Steinicke has (Gx).  NED "There is no object 
with this name in NED." but list it as KUG 1247+382. SIMBAD has "Not present in the 
database," but list the same galaxy as LEDA 3088213.  Not listed in the 
other modern catalogues.

IC 3829.
Swift List XI, #144.  12hr 48m 40.752s - 27 33' 56.926" (1950).
12hr 51m 22.104s - 27 50' 15.766" (2000). (ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN).
Swift S List 7, #19.  12hr 48m 41.424s - 29 43' 55.921" (1950).
12hr 54m 05.980s - 30 16' 30.542" (2000). (MNRAS LVIII, 5).
Confirmed galaxy.  Two possible candidates :  There are some conflicting and 
unusual data concerning the identity of IC 3829 which make this a puzzling case.
Swift's description as given in his List XI (A.N. #3517. page 214. Dated June 
1898), is "B, S, lE." and he makes no mention of any associated star. or any 
reference to a possible correction for the declination.
His published data in the MNRAS (dated March 1898), gives the above coordinates 
and the description reads "B, S, lE, 9 mag * nr sf."  As we can see there is a 
difference of more than 2 degrees in the published declinations.
Dreyer gives coordinates based upon Swift's  A.N.data and his description is "B, 
S, lE, * 9 sf," but then adds "[?119 degrees 14'.5 NPD]," this suggested 
correction in declination results in a 1950 declination of - 29 44'.0 and 
is clearly based upon the Swift MNRAS data. 
If we examine the field employing the MNRAS data, which would be at 12hr 48m 40s - 
29 44'.0, no nonstellar image is found. 
When the coordinates as given by Swift (A.N.) are entered into the DSS they show 
the field and at about 10 tsec following and 3.1 arcmin north of the nominal 
position there is an extended galaxy which is identified in NED as IC 3829, Mp 
13.87 = ESO 442 - G024 at 12hr 48m 51s - 27 30' 42".  This galaxy does have a 
star, GSC 6705-255, Mp 10.13 at 12hr 48m 59.88s - 27 28' 52.2 however, it lies 
close north following, not south following as suggested by Swift (MNRAS), however, 
Swift, especially with his southern objects, has quite a few incorrect directional 
signs, often confusing north for south and vice versa, therefore I think it can 
fairly be claimed that this candidate is a viable one.
In addition to NED this candidate is identified as being IC 3829 in the MCG (-5-
30-10), SIMBAD and PGC #43558..  It certainly is well within the capabilities of 
Swift's telescope, being brighter than most of the IC galaxies, and it is extended 
as stated by Swift.
There is however another candidate for the identity IC 3829 put forward by both 
the APL and Steinicke and it is the galaxy ESO 442- G026 at 12hr 49m 31s - 29 
34'.2, although it should be stated that the ESO itself does not identify 
this as being IC 3829, in fact the ESO identifies ESO 442 -G024, the NED object, 
as being IC 3829 at 12hr 48m 51s - 27 30'.7 
The APL/Steinicke candidate lies about 50 tsec of RA following and 9.4 arcmin 
north of Swift's nominal position (MNRAS.)  It is also extended and is brighter 
than the NED candidate, being about 12.5 Mp, additionally there is a 
brightish star south following, GSC 6709-728, Mp 11.88 at 12hr 50m 00.20s - 29 35' 
10.2 (1950).  The only other star that lies south following and is somewhat 
consistent with the one described by Swift would be GSC 7248-299, Mp 8.76 at 12hr 
50m 34.54s -29 44' 39.5, however, in Swift's field of view, 32 arcmin, and with 
the APL/Steinicke candidate centered, this star would be very near the edge of the 
field, hardly "near" as described by Swift.  
The major factor supporting the APL/Steinicke candidate is its brightness, 
however, brightness when graded visually is often subjective and dependent upon a 
number of things such as sky conditions on the night of the observation and even 
the fact that one may have spent a few observing sessions seeing only faint 
objects so that when one sees a relatively brighter object his description of 
brightness may be a comparison one.
Without more definitive evidence I would lean in favour of accepting the NED 
candidate as being Swift's IC 3829.
The NGC 2000 also identifies the APL/Steinicke object as being IC 3829.  The MOL 
gives (NSO) at the historical coordinates and the MCG identifies the NED candidate 
as being IC 3829.

IC 3830.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.68.  12hr 48m 23.362s + 20 06' 35.463" (1950).
12hr 50m 51.904s + 19 50' 16.378" (2000).
This is a faint star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*), NED (Not 
found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3833.
POSS. O-1591.
Bigourdan #302.  12hr 48m 55.028s - 13 03' 31.492" (1950).
12hr 51m 32.184s - 13 19' 50.139" (2000).
This is equal to NGC 4722 (Tempel).  Tempel gave very poor coordinates for his NGC 
4722 (12hr 48m 11s - 13 03'.5) and this obviously misled Bigourdan into thinking 
that he had discovered an entirely different object.
The MCG, NGC 2000, Steinicke and PGC correctly equate IC 3833 with NGC 4722.  
Meanwhile the MOL (NSO) has completely mis-stated the declination giving it as -12 
33'.0  NED and SIMBAD give the correct equivalency. APL (= NGC 4722?)  

IC 3834.
POSS. O-1591.
Bigourdan #303.  12hr 48m 56.499s - 13 57' 26.852 (1950).
12hr 51m 33.888s - 14 13' 45.683" (2000). (COMPTES RENDUS).
12hr 48m 54.736s -13 56' 55.447"
12hr 51m 32.16s - 14 13' 13.46" (2000) (OBSERVATIONS).
Equal to NGC 4740. (Swift List VI, #49)  :  This is an identity that has involved 
considerable confusion both historical and modern.
Swift gives his discovery coordinates of 12hr 49m 09s - 14 03' 10", which as usual 
are not too accurate as the correct position for NGC 4740 is 12hr 48m 54s - 13 56' 
58" and its identity can be established by the fact that Swift saw only 
a single object in the field and any others that are relatively close are 
considerably fainter.
Now comparison of Bigourdan's COMPTES RENDUS coordinates with those giving the 
correct position for NGC 4740 establish that his #303 is this same galaxy, 
therefore IC 3834 is equivalent to NGC 4740. 
Bigourdan in his OBSERVATIONS 1919, creates more confusion because he incorrectly 
gives the position for his reference star which he called Anon (1) and when his 
separation values (-0 tmin 20.23 tsec and 2' 15.46" south ) are applied to this 
incorrect position the coordinates arrived at for IC 3834 are 12hr 46m 55.8s - 13 
57' 39" or about 2 tmin less than those he gives in his COMPTES RENDUS data.  
It can be shown that his RA for his reference star is in error as he states that 
it lies at + 56 tsec and 7.8 arcmin north of NGC 4727, which he had accurately 
measured to have coordinates of 12hr 48m 19.6s - 14 03' 25", thus his reference 
star would have a position of 12hr 49m 15.6s - 13 55' 37".    
His reference star is equal to GSC5541-880 at 12hr 49m 14.966s - 13 54' 39.987 and 
when his separation values are now applied to this it would give coordinates of 
12hr 48m 54.736s - 13 56' 55.447" (1950) for his #303 = IC 3834.
The MCG makes IC 3834 = NGC 4726 at 12hr 48'.9 -13 57'.0 but they are confusing 
NGC 4726 for what is actually NGC 4640 and the NGC 2000, PGC and MOL have each 
made this exact same error, (The PGC and SIMBAD give NGC 4726 = NGC 4740 = IC 
3834). NED has "There is no Object with this name in NED."NGC 4726 is a lenticular 
galaxy whose coordinates are 12hr 48m 00s - 13 59' 48", lying about 4 arcmin to 
the north of the double system NGC 4724 (H 280-3) and NGC 4727 (H 298-2), just 
where the discoverer of NGC 4726 (Tempel) stated it to be located.
I have only found one source to equate IC 3834 with NGC 4740 and it is Steinicke.

IC 3838.
POSS. O-1591.
Bigourdan # 304.  12hr 49m 14.842s - 14 13' 14.395" (1950).
12hr 50m 52.262s - 14 29' 33.678" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy:  Equal to IC 3827 (Howe. List II, page 135).
According to Bigourdan's data as given in his OBSERVATIONS his reference star 
(Anon.3) would have a 1950 position of 12hr 49m 19s - 14 20' 20.2" and his offsets 
(- 0 tmin 04.28 tsec RA. - 7 arcmin 20.7 arcsec Dec) would place his # 304 at 12hr 
49m 14.72s - 14 12' 59.5" (1950), however, at these coordinates there is no 
suitable reference star or nonstellar object.
Bigourdan in his description states his 10th mag. Reference star has a companion 
star of 10.5 mag. at a PA of 50 degrees, distant 1.5 arcmin and by searching in 
the area I found such a combination which would identify his reference star as 
being GSC 5541-908 at 12hr 50m 56.437s - 14 36' 54.297" (2000) and thus placing 
his # 304 at 12hr 50m 52.262s - 14 29' 33.678" (2000) and this results in landing 
on the galaxy IC 3827 previously discovered by Howe.
There can be no doubt that this is the galaxy observed by Bigourdan as he further 
describes it as having a 13.2 to 13.3 mag. star situated at a PA of 180 degrees 
distant 48 arcsec and this is exactly what one finds with IC 3827.
The NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO) give the original Bigourdan position while 
Steinicke and SIMBAD and NED have (Not found). APL = IC 3827.

IC 3839.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.70.  12hr 49m 18.078s + 20 41' 29.685" (1950).
12hr 51m 46.358s + 20 25' 11.469" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), NED and 
SIMBAD (Not found), Steinicke and APL (=*).
IC 3841.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.72.  12hr 49m 23.258s + 22 36' 57.811" (1950).
12hr 51m 50.961s + 22 20' 39.707" (2000).
This is a double star :  Wolf himself was doubtful as to its type as he described 
it as "?".  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=**), NED "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No 
Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3845.
POSS. O-133.
Wolf List V, No.53.  12hr 49m 47.308s + 38 53' 25.448" (1950).
12hr 52m 09.224s + 38 37' 07.750" (2000).
Equal to a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED (Not 
found), SIMBAD "Not present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3846.
POSS. O-41.
Schwassmann #300.  12hr 50m 09.048s + 13 55' 06.596" (1950).
12hr 52m 39.160s + 13 38' 49.305" (2000).
Not found :  At the nominal position no image exists.  Only modern listings are 
Steinicke (Not found). APL (not found)  NED "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3849.
POSS. O-133.
Wolf List V, No.54.  12hr 50m 16.280s + 41 02' 42.128" (1950).
12hr 52m 37.136s + 40 46' 24.913" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3851.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.75.  12hr 50m 37.324s + 22 10' 56.501" (1950).
12hr 53m 05.014s + 21 54' 39.585" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3858.
POSS. O-1435. 
Wolf List VI, No.78.  12hr 51m 28.065s + 21 03' 30.678" (1950).
12hr 53m 56.003s + 20 47' 14.580" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3859.
POSS. O-1600.
Bigourdan #409.  12hr 51m 43.741s - 08 50' 46.641" (1950).
12hr 54m 19.913s - 09 07' 02.492" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Typed in the NGC 2000 and MOL as an open cluster.  NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED." but they lists it as GSC 5535 00638 and 
SIMBAD also omits the IC identity and gives the GSC identity.  
Only other modern listings found were Steinicke and APL who correctly lists it as 
a galaxy 

IC 3866.
POSS. O-1435.
Wolf List VI, No.82.  12hr 51m 48.416s + 22 37' 50.167" (1950).
12hr 54m 15.830s + 22 21' 34.434" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy with companion:  Only modern listings are Steinicke (2 galaxies).  
NED "There is no object with this name in NED" but NED lists it as MAPS-NGP 0 379 
0669802. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but lists it as IRAS F12517+2238.  
APL (= two galaxies), NGC 2000 and MOL and both of these give the type as "Open 
cluster."

IC 3877.
(See IC 3881). 

IC 3878..
POSS O-133. 
Wolf List V, No.64.  12hr 52m 09.243s + 40 20' 30.775" (1950).
12hr 54m 29.965s + 40 04' 15.417" (2000). 
Equal to a single star :   Only listings found are APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 
2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO). NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database."

IC 3881.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.95.  12hr 52m 26.134s + 19 23' 16.048" (1950).
12hr 54m 54.479s + 19 07' 00.907" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  This is a very complex problem and additionally includes the 
possible identity of IC 3877.  
To begin with this immediate field contains a considerable number of faint galaxy 
images and one very dominant galaxy image which is both considerably brighter and 
larger than all the others (ZWG 100.017 = U08036).  This dominant object is a Mp 
14.1 SBc galaxy which almost all the modern authorities identify as being IC 3881.  
Its image is easily visible on the Palomar print, being the 4th or 5th brightest 
nonstellar image on the entire print and its precise 1950 coordinates according to 
the APL are 12hr 52m 25.6s + 19 23' 18."
I began my investigation by measuring the separation values between the GC star 
17442 and the coordinates as given by Wolf and they indicated a galaxy image (with 
a fainter companion close south preceding and at least another fainter galaxy 
south preceding this one, all in close proximity), the nominal position being at 
approximately 5.5 tsecs following and 3.4 arcmins south of the dominant 
spiral.  Well this fitted Wolf's description, however, I also employed as 
references the Mv 7.1 star SAO 100323, which has a 1950 position of 12hr 51m 
19.64s + 19 19' 41" and the closely associated  galaxy IC 3886 and the 
separation values in both cases pointed exactly to the same faint galaxy south 
following the dominant SBc galaxy. 
I am now convinced that it is this faint galaxy and not the much larger and much 
brighter one which is what Wolf measured and is IC 3881 and that the CGCG, UGC, 
MCG, RC3, PGC, DSFG, and UGC 2000 by selecting the SBc galaxy as being IC 3881 
have all identified the wrong object.  
Meanwhile the APL gives 2 separate sets of coordinates for IC 3881, one being 
Wolf's and the other being Dressel and Condon's which is for the large SBc galaxy.One additional error concerns the declination value for IC 3881 as derived from 
Dreyer's data.
Dreyer obtained his IC II coordinates entirely from those given by the discoverer, 
in this case Wolf, whose 1875 epoch NPD coordinate for his Object #95 is 70 12' 
17".  Both Dreyer and Wolf agree that the annual rate of NPD precession is 19".6 
therefore by applying this for the 15 years difference in epochs (4'.9) the Dreyer 
1860 NPD should be 70 07'.4 not as Dreyer gives 70 05'.4 and due to this the 
declination value given for the identity IC 3881 by the MOL (19 25' 15" epoch 
1950) is in error.
When one examines the immediate field it is most obvious that the galaxy ZWG 
100.017  by far dominates the area, no other field galaxy remotely approaching the 
scale of ZWG 100.017, yet Wolf, who is the only observer to have any of the other 
field  associated IC identities, indicates by his coordinate data that he missed 
this galaxy as the closest coordinate values he gives to this galaxy are those 
given to his Object No.95, therefore the question is How could he have overlooked 
ZWG 100.017 ?
I believe that he did not overlook ZWG 100.017 and that he did record it as his 
Object No.93 = IC 3877. Wolf's coordinates for this identity are 12hr 52m 20s + 19 
33' 50.906" (1950), which would place it at exactly the same RA as ZWG 100.017 but 
6' 53" north and there is absolutely no nonstellar image anywhere close to this 
position on the Palomar print.
Wolf describes his Object No.93 as [Considerably large, pretty faint, having a 
shape similar to the Andromeda Nebula and extended in a PA of 20] and only one 
object in this field fits this description and it is ZWG 100.017.  It is also of 
interest that the UGC gives its IC 3881 (= ZWG 100.017) a PA of 30 which is 10 
degrees greater than Wolf's for his Object No.93, however, on the same Heidelberg 
plate Wolf measured the PA for NGC 4826 to be 105 while the UGC gives 115, exactly 
the same 10 degrees difference. Incidentally, Reiz, (A study of External Galaxies, 
1941), using the same Heidelberg plates employed by Wolf gives the PA for ZWG 
100.017 as 21.
Admittedly I have found no explanation for the almost 7 arcmin difference in 
declination that is required to accept this hypothesis, other than a possible typo 
error in Wolf's list, however, what is the alternative ?  It could only be that IC 
3877 is nonexistent and that Wolf did not recognize the nonstellar image of ZWG 
100.017 on the Heidelberg plate.
I can certainly accept that IC 3877 could be nonexistent but the possibility that 
Wolf must have overlooked the image of ZWG 100.017 is something with which I would 
have great difficulty, especially as his description matches so well and if he 
could recognize the nonstellar appearance of his Object No.95 then there is no way 
he could have overlooked the nonstellar image of ZWG 100.017, therefore I am 
proposing that what the modern authorities have identified as being IC 3881 is 
actually IC 3877.
Steinicke has the correct identity for both IC 3877 and IC 3881 while NED lists IC 
3877 as (Not found), and identifies what is actually IC 3877 as being IC 3881, as 
does SIMBAD.  NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO), all at the declination based upon 
Dreyer which is taken from Wolf's data.  The APL has the correct identity for IC 
3877 and IC 3881.

IC 3887.
POSS. O-133.
Wolf List V, No.67.  12hr 52m 23.003s + 40 34' 36.106" (1950).
12hr 54m 43.560s + 40 18' 20.981" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3889.
POSS. O-105.
Wolf List V, No.69.  12hr 52m 28.876s +36 17' 15.215" (1950).
12hr 54m 51.299s + 36 01' 00.162" (2000).
This is a star :  It lies directly south of a triangle made up of a faint galaxy 
and two stars.   Steinicke has (=*).  The APL has (probably a star).  Listed in NGC 
2000 as (No Type) and MOL as (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in 
NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3893.
POSS. O-105.
Wolf List V, No.73.  12hr 52m 46.007s +38 50' 09.647" (1950).
12hr 55m 07.270s + 38 33' 54.898" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  At the published coordinates as given by Wolf no nonstellar 
image exists, but this is due to an almost 3.5 arcmin error in declination 
discovered by Dr. Corwin on Wolf's original plate on which Wolf clearly marked its 
image, many authorities have been misled as to its coordinates as given by Dreyer 
based upon Wolf's mistaken declination.
Both the NGC 2000 and MOL have declinations based upon this error.  The APL and 
Steinicke have the correct data and identity.  Although NED states "There is no 
object with this name in NED," the correct IC 3893 is found in NED identified as 
2MASX J12550744+3837263. SIMBAD has "Not present in the database," but lists the 
same galaxy as IRAS F12527+3853.
Correct coordinates for IC 3893 are 12hr 52m 45.7m +38 53' 39" (1950).

IC 3894.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.99.  12hr 52m 59.370s + 19 20' 29.849" (1950).
12hr 55m 27.674s + 19 04' 15.271" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=**).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3901.
POSS. O-1581.
Wolf List VI, No.101.  12hr 53m 23.524s + 22 12' 30.452" (1950).
12hr 55m 50.888s + 21 56' 16.323" (2000).
This is a single star :  At the position as given by Wolf I could only find the 
image of a star and nothing that resembled Wolf's description "Vs, eF, elongated 
in PA = 95."  Carlson states "* Mt. Wilson photographs." and both of the modern 
catalogues, NGC 2000 and MOL type it as being a star as does the APL.  Steinicke 
has (=*).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present 
in the database."

IC 3902. 
POSS. O- 110.  
Wolf List V, No.77.  12hr 53m 16.240s + 36 15' 54.363" (1950).
12hr 55m 38.509s + 35 59' 40.115" (2000). 
This is a single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists 
without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED and 
SIMBAD (Not found).

IC 3903.
POSS O-133. 
Wolf List V, No.78.  12hr 53m 18.398s + 40 40' 12.450" (1950).
12hr 55m 38.689s + 40 23' 58.267" (2000). 
Equal to a single star :   Listed in APL and Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 (No Type) 
and MOL (NSO). NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."  No other listings found.

IC 3906.
POSS O-133.
Wolf List V, No.80.  12hr 53m 30.776s + 40 44' 09.754" (1950).
12hr 55m 50.986s + 40 27' 55.784" (2000). 
This is a single star :   Only listings found were APL and Steinicke (=*), 
however, Steinicke's star is different to mine which lies north following his 
selection.  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3910.
POSS. O-133.
Wolf List V, No.82.  12hr 53m 44.300s + 39 59' 39.080" (1950).
12hr 56m 04.807s + 39 43' 25.338" (2000).
This is a double star :  Wolf in his description states "? neb double star."  
Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=**), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED. SIMBAD "Not present in 
the database."

IC 3912.
POSS O-133.
Wolf List V, No.84.  12hr 53m 47.256s + 40 10' 47.155" (1950).
12hr 56m 07.664s + 39 54' 33.465" (2000).
This is a single star :   Only listed in APL and Steinicke (=*).   NED and SIMBAD 
(Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3914.
POSS. O-110.
Wolf List V, No. 85.  12hr 54m 00.877s + 36 38' 07.463" (1950).
12hr 56m 22.833s + 36 21' 53.986" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Only modern listings are APL (= galaxy + star (or comp?) 
(+defect?) (verified). Steinicke (= elliptical galaxy).  NED "There is no object 
with this name in NED" however, they do list it as 2MASX J1256227+362139. SIMBAD 
"Not present in the database," however, they identify the same galaxy as NGP9 F269-
0571497.  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3915.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.104.  12hr 54m 11.616s + 20 23' 29.625" (1950).
12hr 56m 39.471s + 20 07' 16.305" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL (=* 10 arcmin error in Dec.), 
Steinicke(=*).  NED and SIMBAD (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).
Correct coordinates for IC 3915 are 12hr 54m 11.1s + 20 33' 42" (1950).
NOTE:  See Dr.Corwin's explanation in his PUZZLE SOLUTION FILES.

IC 3917 & IC 3918.
POSS. O-1581.
Wolf List VI, No.106. 12hr 54m 24.614s + 22 16' 29.958" (1950). (IC 3917)
12hr 56m 51.840s + 22 00' 16.891" (2000).
Wolf List VI, No.107. 12hr 54m 26.636s + 22 38' 35.001" (1950). (IC 3918).
12hr 56m 53.737s + 22 22' 21.986" (2000).
This is a rather interesting problem due to the fact that for some reason, which I 
have been unable to find, a number of the modern sources equate these two 
identities, giving them the same coordinates yet according to Wolf and Dreyer they 
are separated by some 22' 5" of declination.
At the coordinates Wolf gives for IC 3918 there is the image of a verifiable 
galaxy and it is at this position that the PGC, NED, NGC 2000 and MOL place both 
identities, while at the position Wolf gives for IC 3917 there is only the image 
of a star.
As I am unable to find at this time any corrections that would have supported the 
equivalency as published by the PGC, NED, NGC 2000 and MOL I can only conclude 
that IC 3917 is a star and IC 3918 a confirmed galaxy.  The APL gives the correct 
coordinates and correct identities as does Steinicke.  SIMBAD lists both identities 
as separate yet their coordinates for both IC 3917 and IC 3918 are practically the 
same.
 
IC 3919.
POSS. O-133.
Wolf List V, No.86.  12hr 54m 27.942s + 38 47' 58.154" (1950).
12hr 56m 48.837s + 38 31' 45.161" (2000).
Not found at nominal position :
Corwin has determined from the original plate that Wolf's declination is about 3.5 
arcmin too far south and when the correction is applied it lands just off the 
south following end of a galaxy.  This then would validate IC 3919 as being a 
galaxy at 12hr 54m 27.84s + 38 51' 32.8" (1950).  
Only modern listings are APL (Marked on Wolf's plate. = West of 2), Steinicke and 
NED and SIMBAD (Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).
NOTE :  See Dr Corwin's explanation in his "Corrections to IC Puzzles."

IC 3923. 
POSS. O- 110. 
Wolf List V, No.91.  12hr 54m 40.250s + 38 13' 33.457" (1950).
12hr 57m 01.360s + 37 57' 20.676" (2000). 
This is a double star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists 
without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  APL and Steinicke (=**).  NED 
has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 3925. 
POSS. O- 110. 
Wolf List V, No.92.  12hr 54m 53.361s + 36 41' 37.775" (1950).
12hr 57m 15.108s + 36 25' 25.215" (2000). 
This is a double star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists 
without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object). APL and Steinicke (=**).  NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3926.
POSS. O-1581.
Wolf List VI, No.109.  12hr 55m 04.015s + 23 04' 54.950" (1950).
12hr 57m 30.897s + 22 48' 42.591" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke (=*).  NED and SIMBAD 
(Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3932.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.112.  12hr 55m 37.735s + 19 51' 14.785" (1950).
12hr 58m 05.615s + 19 35' 02.982" (2000).
Equal to a very faint star :   
Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke has (=*).  NGC 2000 gives (No Type) 
and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database."

IC 3933. 
POSS. O-110. 
Wolf List V, No.96.  12hr 55m 35.694s + 36 54' 53.849" 91950).
12hr 57m 57.195s + 36 38' 42.040" (2000). 
This is a single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists 
without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  APL (=*).  Steinicke (=*).  NED 
(Not found). SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3934.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.113.  12hr 55m 49.454s + 19 05' 44.079" (1950).
12hr 58m 17.558s + 18 49' 32.478" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  Dr. Corwin in his APL types this same object as being "= *, 
(verified)." however, its appearance to me on the DSS seems to definitely be a 
galaxy, (Confirmed on the DSS Second Generation).  The NGC 2000 has (No Type) and 
the MOL (NSO).  Steinicke lists it as (spiral GX).  NED has "There is no object 
with this name in NED" however, they list it as 2MASX J12581756+1849316. SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database," and has no listing for the correct object.

IC 3935. 
POSS. O-1393. 
Javelle #1230.  12hr 55m 47.308s + 26 39' 57.973" (1950).
12hr 58m 12.855s + 26 23' 46.490" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4849 (D'Arrest) :   The CGCG has mistaken what is actually 
NGC 4849 and listed it as being IC 838.  The UGC correctly equates IC 3935 with 
NGC 4849 and makes it a companion to IC 838.  MCG, NGC 2000, MOL, RC Notes, 
Steinicke, NED and PGC all correctly equate IC 3935 and NGC 4849. SIMBAD has 
completely confused the identity making it equal to LEDA 44438 at coordinates of 
12hr 58m 18.21s +29 07' 43.2" (2000).

IC 3936.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.114.  12hr 55m 51.347s + 19 19' 09.129" (1950).
12hr 58m 19.376s + 19 02' 57.564" (2000).
This is a double star :  At Wolf's nominal position there is an extremely faint 
star (possibly 18th mag.), however, very close north are 3 brighter stars, the 
following 2 being closest together and it this pair that I believe is what Wolf 
listed as being his #114.  Wolf describes his object as "neb *13, *12.5 follows 1 
arcmin." and such a star does follow the double.
Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke (=*2).  NED "There is no object with 
this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database. NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL 
(NSO).

IC 3938.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.116.  12hr 55m 57.668s + 19 01' 18.289" (1950).
12hr 58m 25.782s + 18 45' 06.835" (2000).
This is a single star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3939.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.117.  12hr 56m 00.162s + 19 01' 18.353" (1950).
12hr 58m 28.272s + 18 45' 06.943" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), Steinicke (=*).  NED and SIMBAD 
(Not found), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3941.
POSS. O-133.
Wolf List V, No. 98.  12hr 55m 54.186s + 40 02' 31.349" (1950).
12hr 58m 14.159s + 39 46' 19.892" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  The APL has as one of its three given entries for this 
identity describing it as "Defect, verified," however, to me the image based upon 
the DSS is that of a small, faint elliptical galaxy.  It should also be stated 
that the APL under the sources HCds and KHJ 1 does indicate that IC 3941 is an 
existing galaxy.  Steinicke lists it as "galaxy = NPMIG +40.0304."  The NGC 2000 
has (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED has "There is no object with this name in NED", 
however, they do list it as 2MASX J12581387+3946225. SIMBAD has "Not present in the 
database," but list it as LEDA 3088023.

IC 3942. 
POSS. O-110. 
Wolf List V, No.99.  12hr 55m 58.117s + 36 22' 42.419" (1950).
12hr 58m 19.780s + 36 06' 31.012" (2000). 
This is a single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists 
without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED  and 
PGC have identified as IC 3942 a 17.8 Mp galaxy = IZW. 048 at 12hr 58m 36.23s +36 
07' 55.0" (2000) " which does not comply with the historical coordinates.  NED does 
add a NOTE stating "Found to be a Galactic star by Sargent (ApJ 160, 405, 1970). 
SIMBAD also identifies it as LEDA 44492 and this is the same incorrect object as 
selected by NED and PGC.

IC 3948.
POSS. O-1581.
Wolf List VI, No.119.  12hr 56m 32.027s + 24 19' 53.206" (1950).
12hr 58m 58.301s + 24 03' 42.436" (2000).
Confirmed galaxy :  It is the preceding of two compact galaxies aligned south 
preceding north following: I must admit that I originally identified it as the 
middle of three faint stars in line, however, I have re-examined the field on the 
DSS Second Generation and there is no doubt that the two images are galaxies 
preceded in line by a faint star.  Only modern listings are APL (Middle of 3 
galaxies).  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  Steinicke (E type galaxy).  NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED" but they do list it as NGP9 F379-
0279883 as does SIMBAD.

IC 3961. 
POSS. O-110. 
Wolf List V, No.103.  12hr 56m 40.285s + 35 08' 06.498" (1950).
12hr 59m 02.351s + 34 51' 55.853" (2000). 
This is equal to NGC 4861 (H 30-4) :   Wolf's description for IC 3961 is  
"Somewhat like the Andromeda Nebula, lying between 2 stars of the 12th magnitude, 
Pretty large, ! pretty faint, major axis aligned 30 degrees."  
Now this is obviously a description of the elongated galaxy visible as such on the 
Palomar print and is confirmed by the CGCG which states "IC 3961 is a spiral 
galaxy of magnitude 14.1 seen edgewise.  NGC 4861 is a bright emission patch of 
magnitude 13.2 at the SW end of the galaxy." and the UGC which reports in its 
Notes for U08098 = NGC 4861 + IC 3961, "IC 3961 is a large diffuse system of mag. 
14.1; NGC 4861 is a bright knot 0.35 x 0.30, mag. 13.2, superimposed on the south 
part of IC 3961."  Both the CGCG and UGC are incorrect in stating that NGC 4861 is a 
bright knot.  The two identities are equivalent and only apply to the large galaxy. 
There can be no doubt that what William Herschel discovered in 1785 and which 
became NGC 4861 is this same object described by Wolf.  Herschel's description 
states "Two stars distant 3 minutes of arc connected with a faint, narrow 
nebulosity," (Scientific Papers 1912).   
Later John Herschel recorded it as "A very faint nebula, elongated north following 
south preceding, between two stars the southern of which is ill defined, both seem 
to belong to the nebula," (Slough Observations 1833).   
A further historical source can be found in three separate observations carried 
out at Birr Castle with the Rosse 72 inch reflector, the object being seen as "A 
very faint streak of nebulosity elongated south preceding north following having a 
plain star in the northern extremity and either a star or what looks more like a 
bright little knot invested in the southern end," (Rosse 1880).  
Thus it would seem that what Wolf was referring to is exactly the same object as H 
30-4, therefore IC 3961 has to be a duplicate observation of NGC 4861 and not a 
separate , associated object as suggested by both the CGCG, SIMBAD and UGC.  
From a correct historical position I would also argue that one cannot claim the 
associated "knot" as being IC 3961 as it is quite evident that Wolf was not in any 
way referring to this feature in his description. 
The MCG lists the object as NGC 4861 = IC 3961 ?.  The APL and NED correctly make 
IC 3961 = NGC 4861.  Both the NGC 2000 and M.O.L. show both identities as being 
separate objects.  The DSFG lists only the identity NGC 4861 (which is 
historically correct), as does the RC3, while the PGC (Corrections) points out 
that the UGC is incorrect in assigning the identity IC 3961 to UO8098 and also 
correctly equates it with NGC 4861.  Steinicke equates IC 3961 with both NGC 4861 
and UGC 08098.  Anyone interested in further details of this problem see my paper 
"NGC 4861/IC 3961 A Problem of Identity. W.S.Q.J. No. 45. July 1981."
There is another error in the NGC in which Dreyer identifies IC 3961 as being 
Wolf's Object # 105 when it should be # 103.
NOTE :  The 1996 version of the PGC lists IC 3961 as equal to ZWG 189.005 (CGCG) 
and does not equate it with NGC 4861.

IC 3962.
POSS. O-1581.
Wolf List VI, No.125.  12hr 56m 48.870s + 23 56' 13.641" (1950).
12hr 59m 15.247s + 23 40' 03.174" (2000).
This is a star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED "There is 
no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO). 

IC 3964. 
POSS. O-1393. 
Kobold.  12hr 56m 49.182s + 28 07' 22.888" (1950).
12hr 59m 14.047s + 27 51' 12.529" (2000). 
This is a faint star :   Only listings found were NGC 2000 (= Star), APL = *.  NED 
There is no object with this name in NED" SIMBAD "Not present in the database" and 
MOL (single star).  Steinicke also correctly lists it as being a star.

IC 3970.
POSS. O-133.
Wolf List V, No.107.  12hr 56m 52.279s + 40 40' 25.859" (1950).
12hr 59m 11.707s + 40 24' 15.457" (2000).
Equal to the south following of 2 stars :  Only modern listings are APL (=*), 
Steinicke (=*).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present 
in the database."  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3972.
POSS. O-110.
Wolf List V, No. 108.  12hr 56m 56.339s + 37 32' 58.937" (1950).
12hr 59m 17.265s + 37 16' 48.588" (2000).
This is a single star : Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  APL 
(=*).  Steinicke (=*). NED and SIMBAD (Not found).

IC 3974.
Swift List XI, #146.  12hr 57m 38.992s - 35 05' 06.168" (1950).
13hr 00m 24.762s - 35 21' 15.748" (2000).
Not found  :  At Swift's coordinates no nonstellar object exists.  The NGC 2000, 
APL, PGC, NED, SIMBAD, Steinicke and ESO each equate it with the identity NGC 4947 
(h 3461) a 12.6 Mp galaxy at 13hr 02m 34s - 35 04'.2 which means that if this is 
what Swift was observing then his RA has an error of almost 5 tmin.
I examined Swift's observational data in order to see if on the same night (March 
28th 1898), that he listed his #146 he had discovered any other objects and thus I 
would perhaps be able to see if there was evidence of any similar type positional 
error and found that the only other discovery was his #154 = IC 4222 and although 
this nova turns out to be two stars there does not appear to be any confirmable 
coordinate error concerning this identity.
Swift data often has large positional errors, however, although perhaps not a 
singular case, an error of 5 tmin would not be expected.  There is one other 
possible candidate and it is an extended galaxy identified as NGC 4947A or MCG -
06-29-005A = PGC 045180. Mp 15.01  It lies at 13hr 01m 34.3s -34 57' 37".2, which 
is about 1 tmin RA closer to Swift's given RA, however, its declination differs 
from Swift by about 7.5 arcmin. otherwise it fits Swift's description "eeF, pS, 
lE."
The MOL (NSO) has the historical coordinates.  The RC3 gives only the identity NGC 
4947.

IC 3977.
POSS. O-110.
Wolf List V, No.111.  12hr 56m 58.548s + 37 03' 59.991" (1950).
12hr 59m 19.689s + 36 47' 49.678" (2000).
This is a star :  Listed in the NGC 2000 as (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  APL and 
Steinicke (=*)  NED and SIMBAD (Not found).

IC 3979.
POSS. O-110.
Wolf List V, No.112.  12hr 56m 59.751s + 36 35' 44.018" (1950).
12hr 59m 21.103s + 36 19' 33.728" (2000).
Appears completely stellar :  Listed in NGC 2000 (No Type), MOL (NSO) and APL 
(=*).  Steinicke identifies it as (=*).  NED has "There is no object with this 
name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 3981. 
POSS. O-110. 
Wolf List V, No.115.  12hr 57m 00.749s + 37 29' 54.052" (1950).
12hr 59m 21.683s + 37 13' 43.783" (2000). 
This is a single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists 
without any Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  APL and Steinicke  (=*).  
NED and SIMBAD have (Not found).

IC 3982.
POSS O-133. 
Wolf List V, No.116.  12hr 56m 59.073s + 40 21' 02.034" (19450).
12hr 59m 18.637s + 40 04' 51.754" (2000). 
This is the middle star of a group of three :   Wolf describes it as "Very Small, 
Very Faint, Between two 13 mag. stars.", however, I was unable to detect any 
evidence of nebulosity associated with this star.  Only listings found were APL 
and Steinicke (=*).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not 
present in the database." NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3983. 
POSS. O-133.
Wolf List V, No.118.  12hr 57m 00.363s + 39 31' 01.060" (1950).
12hr 59m 20.336s + 39 14' 50.707" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are Steinicke (=*2).  APL (=**), NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED," SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3984.
POSS. O-1572.
Wolf List VI, No.130.  12hr 57m 14.465s + 19 53' 44.284" (1950).
12hr 59m 42.168s + 19 37' 34.235" (2000).
This is a star :  Listed in the APL as (=*, verified).  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  Only other 
listings are Steinicke (=*), NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3988. 
POSS. O-110. 
Wolf List V, No.120.  12hr 57m 06.605s + 37 31' 02.205" (1950).
12hr 59m 27.508s + 37 14' 52.044" (2000). 
This is a single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists 
without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object). APL (=*).  Steinicke (=*).  NED 
and SIMBAD (Not found).

IC 3989. 
POSS. O-110. 
Wolf List V, No.121.  12hr 57m 08.302s + 37 03' 24.246" (1950).
12hr 59m 29.413s + 36 47' 14.112" (2000). 
This is a single star :   This is one of the few times that it appears that Wolf 
had a significant error in his measured coordinates as Corwin has examined the 
original photograph on which Wolf clearly marks the object on the plate and its 
position would have 1950 coordinates of 12hr 57m 07.6s + 37 01' 34", or almost 2 
arcmin south of his given declination. 
CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists without Type.  MOL lists as 
(Nonstellar Object).  APL (=*).  Steinicke (=*). NED and SIMBAD (Not found).

IC 3992. 
POSS. O-110. 
Wolf List V, No.122.  12hr 57m 12.191s + 37 02' 33.348" (1950).
12hr 59m 33.294s + 36 46' 23.285" (2000). 
This is a single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists 
without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  APL (=*).  Steinicke (=*).  NED 
and SIMBAD (Not found).
Also measured from IC 4002.

IC 3995.
POSS. O-133.
Wolf List V, No.124.  12hr 57m 13.540s + 39 09' 23.402" (1950).
12hr 59m 33.639s + 38 53' 13.379" (2000).
This is a complex problem :  At the standard error found in Wolf's coordinates 
(fractions of a tsec RA and a couple of arcsec Dec.) there is the image of a 
small, very faint galaxy with a companion immediately north preceding (DSS. Second 
Generation Red), however, Corwin states that on the marked plate copy he examined 
Wolf indicates the image to be that of a star at 12hr 57m 13.9 + 39 18' 34" 
(1950), or about 9 arcmin north of the nominal position.
If the marked position is not a historical error then Corwin's finding must be the 
correct solution.  Listed in the APL as being equal to a star.  
Only other listings are Steinicke (=*).  NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database." 

IC 3996.
POSS O-133. 
Wolf List V, No.125.  12hr 57m 12.409s + 40 44' 11.387" (1950).
12hr 59m 31.725s + 40 28' 01.354" (2000). 
Equal to a single star :   Only listings are Steinicke and APL (=*).  NED "There 
is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  NGC 2000 
(No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 3999.
POSS. O-1591.
Bigourdan #305.  12hr 56m 48.481s - 13 52' 04.548" (1950).
12hr 59m 26.412s - 14 08' 15.111" (2000).
Equal to NGC 4862 (Leavenworth) :
Bigourdan in the COMPTES RENDUS. January 11th 1897, describes his #305 as "A trace 
of nebulosity, excessively faint. Suspected only."  He gives it coordinates of 
12hr 57.9m - 13 58'.2 which are the coordinates as given by Dreyer in the IC II.  
Later in his 1919 work he states "IC 3999. One suspects a trace of nebulosity in 
the vicinity of a 13.4 star (A), situated from the star BD -13 3633 at 0m 30s 
following and 3.7arcmin north."
The 1950 position for the 8th magnitude star BD -13 3633 is 12hr 57m 18.6s - 13 
55' 20", therefore by applying Bigourdan's separation values the coordinates for 
the star (A) would be 12hr 57m 48.6s - 13 51' 38 and at these coordinates there is 
only blank space.
If Bigourdan got his directions wrong in his RA offset, or there is a 
typographical error in the direction of his RA offset so that it was - 30 tsec 
instead of + 30 tsec then the resultant position would be 12hr 56m 48.6s - 13 51' 
38", very close to the galaxy NGC 4862 at 12hr 56m 52.9s - 13 51' 48" (NED).
To support this equivalency it can be argued that Bigourdan also looked for 
Leavenworth's NGC 4862 at the coordinates as given in the NGC, however, these were 
based upon the atrocious coordinates provided by Leavenworth which were 12hr 57m 
08s - 12 52'.9 and Bigourdan, as expected could not find NGC 4862, therefore, he 
would not have even considered that what he listed as his #305 could be 
Leavenworth's NGC 4862.
The NGC 2000 (Gx), MOL (Galaxy), APL and Steinicke have the correct equivalency.  
NED has "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."
NOTE :  After completing my findings and conclusion I sent off a version to Dr. 
Corwin for his comments and am happy to say that he is in full agreement with 
them.  He further noted that Bigourdan stated when searching for NGC 4862 that he 
changed his RA offset from + (1st observation) to - (2nd observation) and this 
adds support to my findings.

IC 4005.
POSS. O-1581.
Wolf List VI, No.134.  12hr 57m 36.437s + 22 54' 26.881" (1950).
13hr 00m 03.077s + 22 38' 17.278" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=**).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 4006.
POSS. O-110. 
Wolf List V, No.132.  12hr 57m 28.445s + 37 16' 42.778" (1950).
12hr 59m 49.382s + 37 00' 33.015" (2000). 
This is a single star :   CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists 
without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  APL (=* + defect).  Steinicke 
(=*).  NED "There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the 
database."

IC 4008.
POSS. O-1581.
Wolf List VI, No.136.  12hr 57m 39.172s + 22 37' 10.951" (1950).
13hr 00m 05.907s + 22 21' 01.394" (2000).
This is a double star :  Only modern listings are APL and Steinicke (=**).  NED 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."  
NGC 2000 (No Type) and MOL (NSO).

IC 4009. 
POSS. O-110. 
Wolf List V, No.133.  12hr 57m 31.163s + 36 55' 51.846" (1950).
12hr 59m 52.251s + 36 39' 42.132" (2000). 
This is a star :   At the exact position derived from Wolf's measurements there is 
the image of a faint star.  CGCG, UGC and MCG have no listing.  NGC 2000 lists 
without Type.  MOL lists as (Nonstellar Object).  APL and Steinicke (=*).  NED has 
"There is no object with this name in NED." SIMBAD "Not present in the database."

IC 4013. 
POSS. O-110. 
Wolf List V, No135.  12hr 57m 37.069s + 37 28' 15.007" (1950).
12hr 59m 57.885s + 37 12' 05.405" (2000). 
This is a single star :   CGCG and UGC have no listing.  MCG lists the fainter of 
the double system NGC 4893 as = IC 4013, however this is incorrect as IC 4013 
is a star located 2 tsec preceding and 21 arcsecs north of the northernmost of the 
system NGC 4893.  NGC 2000 lists without Type and the MOL lists as (Nonstellar 
Object).  The APL and Steinicke correctly list it as (= *).  NED has "There is no 
object with this name in NED," however, when a search is made for NGC 4893 NED  
equates its identity with IC 4013.  SIMBAD incorrectly equates IC 4013 with the MCG 
galaxy +06-29-009, or the fainter of the two galaxies.

IC 4015 & IC 4016. 
POSS. O-110. 
Wolf List V, Nos.136 & 137.  12hr 57m 39.062s + 37 27' 54.060" (1950).
12hr 59m 59.874s + 37 11' 44.495" (2000) (IC 4015).
12hr 57m 39.263s + 37 27m 42.065" (1950).
13hr 00m 00.076s + 37 11' 32.504" (2000). (IC 4016). 
Both of these identities are equal to the single identity NGC 4893 (D'Arrest) :   
There is considerable confusion regarding all three identities.  
To begin with Wolf incorrectly identified his No142a as being NGC 4893, but his 
No.142a is actually an anon. galaxy located ~ 9.5s of RA following and 7 '.0 north 
of the true NGC 4893.  He also mistakes the correct NGC 4893 for the 
two associated objects Nos. 136 = IC 4015 and 137 = IC 4016.  
The CGCG, NGC 2000, MOL and Carlson all correctly equate IC 4015 and IC 
4016 with NGC 4893.  MCG, NED and PGC give only the identity NGC 4893.  UGC gives 
NGC 4893 (double system ), however, in its Notes it incorrectly identifies as a 
star IC 4073, which is a galaxy located about 2' 43 " north of NGC 4893 .  This is 
probably a misprint for IC 4013.  DSFG states "IC 4016 = NGC 4893A."  APL makes IC 
4015 and IC 4016 = NGC 4893 . Steinicke make IC 4015 = NGC 4893 and IC 4016 = NGC 
4893A. SIMBAD lists NGC 4893 and IC 4013 as two separate identities making up the 
double system and has no references to the identities IC 4015 and IC 4016 other than 
"Not present in the database."

IC 4018.
POSS. 0-133. 
Wolf List V, No.138.  12hr 57m 38.834s +40 45' 12.085" (1950).
12hr 59m 58.035s +40 29' 02.537" (2000).
This is a galaxy: There appears to be considerable confusion as to the type of 
object this is, whether it is a star or nonstellar object.
Corwin in th